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The Albany patriot. (Albany, Ga.) 1845-1866, May 14, 1845, Image 1

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THE PATRIOT, H rr PUSHED EVEBY WEDNESDAY MOnlHRO, BY NELSON TIFT & SETH N. BOUGHtON, Edilon and Proprietor!. TERMS. ( ‘ TWO Dollar* per annum, if paid in advance, or Three Dollars at the end of the- rear. Advertisement* not. exceeding' twelve lines, will !«• inserted at One Dollar for tlie first insertion, and 1'itty cents for each conUnuanre. Advertisements not having the atatnber of insertions specified, will be published until forbid. Sales if Land and Negroes by Executors, Adininis- tmtorsand Guardians, arc required by law to he Jadvertisod in a public gazette, sixty days previous to the day of sale. Tlie sales of Personal Property must be advertised in like manner forty days. Notin' to Debtors and Creditors of an estate mast be published forty days. Notice tint application will be made to tlie Court of Odinary for leave to sell Land and Negroes, must ' e published weekly for four months. Monthly Advertisements, One Du:lar per square for each insertion. ffj'AII Letters on business most bo post paid. the edge of the sun becomes nearly perpen dicular to tlie line of vision, and, conse quently, appears of its full bicndih. In short, ail tho vorinticns'of appearance ESTIMATE. 30 steamers of3600toes,built in the west at $400,000 each i 813,000/100 SO steamers of 2500 tons, built in the which the’ ,pol, t.iulcrg,. ,s across flic suns disk, changing their dtstan- built, Mil SCELLANY. l)r. Lardner's Lecturer!. Spots cn the Sun. One of the earliest fruits of the invention cf tlie telescope was the discovery of the pots upon tin* sun, and tlie examination of ticsc has gradually led to a knowledge of the physical constitution of the centre of our system. _ ■ When vve submit a solar spot to telesco pic examination, we discover its appearance to he that of an intensely black irregularly- shaped patch, edged with u pcnumbral fringe, the brightness of the general sur face of the sun gradually fading away into the blackness of the spot. When a spot is watched for a considerable time, it is found to undergo a gradual change in its form and magnitude ; at first increasing gradu ally in size until it attains some definite limit of magnitude, when it ceases to in crease, and soon begins on the contrary', to diminish ; and its diminution goes on grad ually, until at length tlie briglii sides clo sing in upon the dark patch, it dwindles first to a mere point, ana finally disappears altogether. The period which elapses be tween tlie formation of the spot, its gradu al enlargement,subsequent diminution, and lina! disappearance, is very various. Some spots appear and disappear very rapidly, while oilicrs have lasted for weeks mid oven months. The magnitudes of tlie spots are in proportion to the magnitude of tlie sun itscif. At the distance of the sun, a spot, the magnitude of which would he barely risible, must have a diameter of four hundrednntl sixty miles, and nn area of one hundred and sixty-six thousand v<iuare miles, which is therefore the small est space on the surface of tlie sun which ould la- distinctly seen. Among llicma- spots which have been recorded, one a observed by Mayer, the area of which ivas fifteen hundred millions of square mi les, or about thirty times tlie surface of tlie Icarih. Spots have liccn occasionally 6ccn on nil Iparts of the sun, but that region on which they arc found generally to prevail, is one which corresponds with*the tropical parts of the earth, thnt is, a space extending a- Ihont thirty degrees on cither side of the so- |iar collator. Physical constitution of the Sun. What arc tiie spots! Two, and only It wo suppositions have been proposed to cx- j plain them. One supposes them to be i scoria-, or dark scales of incombustible mat- Iter floating on the general surface of the I Min. The other supposes lhem to be exen- I vaiions in the luminous matter which coats ■ the sun, the dark part of the spot being a [part of the solid nan-luminous nucleus of Itiic sun. In this latter supposition it is ns- ! stinted that the physical constitution of the Isttn is a solid non-tuminous globe, covered ■with a coat of a certain thickness of luinin- [ous matter- This latter supposition lias 1 been in a great measure demonstrated by continued and accurate observations on the spots. That the spots are excavations and not mere black patches on the surface, is proved by the following observations: If we select ! a spot which is at tlie centre of the sun’s disk, having some definite form, such as | that of a circle, and watch the appearance I of the same spot when by the motion of the I run upon its axis it is earned toward the edge, we find, first, that the circle becomes an oval. This, however, is what wonld be expected even if the spot ven t circular patch, inasmuch as a circle sent obliquely is foreshortened into an oval. But wc find that as the spots move towards the side of the sun’s limb, the black patch gradually ccsand positions with regard to the sun’s centre, arc cxactlv those changes of apeur- once which would be produced bv an exca vation, and not at all those which a’ dork patch cn the surface would undergo. It may be considered then as proved, that the spots on the sun ate excavations ; and that the apparent blackness is produ ced hy the fact thnt the part constituting the dark portion of the spot is either a sur face totally destitute of light, or by com parison so much less luminous than the general surface of the sun ns to appear Black. This fact combined with tlie ap pearance of the pcnumbral edges of the spots have led to the supposition, which appears scarcely to admit of doubt, tliat tiie solid opaque nucleus, or globe of the sun, is 12,000,300 6,600,000 1.500.000 3.900.000 invested with two atmospheres, that which is next the sun being like our own, non-lit- ruinous, and the superior one lieing that in which alone light and heat arc evolved ; at ail events, whether these stralla be in the gaseous state or not, the existence of two such, one placed above tlie other, the su perior one being luminous, seems to be ex enrol from d^ubt. By observing the magnitude of the spots, and the rale ai which they increase and diminish, the velocity of their edges has been ascertained, and'this velocity has been found ta be such ns can scarcely he attrib uted to matter except in the gnsertts form. M'c me not warranted in assuming thnt the Mack portion of the spots are really surfaces deprived of light, for the most in tense artificol light which can be produced, such, for example as thnt of a piece of cttick-liinc exposed to theaction of the com pound blow-pipe, when seen projected on tne sun’s disk, appeors as dark as the spots themselves ; an effect which must lw as cribed to the infinitely superior splendor of the sun’s light. ■ All "that can be legitim ately inferred respecting the spots, then, is, not that they are destitute of light, hut they arc incomparably less brilliant than the general surface of the sun [Concluded from our last.] MEMOIR On the defence of the Gulf of Mex ico AND STRACETIC PRINCIPLES GOVERN ING tiie National Defences, by 40 frigates of 60 gens, 32 poun ders, at 8300,000 each, . 14 slips of tlie line, at $ 100,000 each Repairing and refitting 11 skips al-. Sundry corvettes, light steamers, &c. Giand total of movingforce, 843,000,000 Annual cost at War tutor. 25 ships of die line at $200,000 each, $5/100,000 40 frigate's at $150,000 <ach, (j,COO,000 20 steamers cn die Atlantic, suppo sing they used steam 200 days in. the year, at $150,000, 3,000,000 30 steamers in the Golf of Mexico, supposing, tie. at $(60,000, 4,500,000 sundry light vessels,corvettes, brigs, steamers, &c., 1,500,000 Wear and tear, repairs, casualties, say 120 vessels at $15,000, 1,500,000 Ordinance, powder, recruiting, dock yards, marine corps, die., 6,000,000 8,000,000 Gnu.d total of annual cost, $26,tw,(4;o AH military' men agree that in a war with England, Canada would easy conquest to our arms. England would not attempt to keep it. Our army would be required to occupy tlie fortifications and the luuiarrfronlier. The local volunteer force would assist in the former service, affording to it two-thirds the required force; hulas it is seen our coast would be secure from attack, this local force need not he in activ. ity more than half theyrar; located near i lie batteries, a single'canon would bring them within the hour to their posts. So that supposing 60,000 men necessary for the Indian frontier and fortification defence, they being under pay one half thy year; We estimate for its cost $15,000,0000 And a'co for repairs for works, new ordnance, &.C., 5,000,000 Mnjor Win. H. Chase, 17. S. E. Suppose 25 ships of the line were assem bled at Norfolk, the Atlantic salient, and their declared destination the coast of England, then must 25 ships of tlie line Is- kept at Poiirtsmoiith, or some port in the English channel, and at least 2') ships of the* line held in readiness to sail round and watch tlie English roast. I. verpool, London, Hull, Bristol, Dublin, Cork, &c. &c. arc open harbors. Suppose also 40 double hank frigates, of Co guns, 32 pounders, to sail in squadron as it was done in tlie w ar of 1812, in minia ture, with so much effect against the ene my’s commerce, aud to attack his colonics ail over the world—in this crusade our light cruisers and private armed ships would bear no small or profitless part. Let those squad rons be commanded by inen possessing the naval skill, the indomitable energy of a Porter and a Decatur, and wc should sec England obliged losend forth ibrcc]ships for every one of ours thus sent forth; but so large a force could not easily be despatched by England—in the meantime she would suffer devastation to her commerce and the almost annihilation to her colonial trade, which is the marrow to herbones, and with out which she would wither and die. Thus then would England be compelled to hold her naval forces, for the protection of her own home shores; for her vast com merce and her colonies wide spread over the world, not leaving a single vessel to flut ter her boasted cross in sight of the shores that once owned her sway. It is not supposed that this state of things would at once be arrived at, but its ap proach in n just and popular war. would be rapid and inevitable, and England viewing it as destructive to her power, would seek an honorable peace, which would be grant ed—for our policy is not conquest or domin ation by brute force, but to disseminate our Messed institutions by peaceful means. The fortification or tlie naval depots, of the large cities, of important roadsteads and strong saltern points, in comhinuiion Grand total of annual cost of defence. 845,000,000 Now it is supposed that $10,000,001) would, be given to the navy at least in a war with England, admitting the stratgetic operations suggested-in this memoir, not adopted. In this case our coast would be left more liable to attack, and increased vi gilance at our forts would be required ; in short, a* least 60,000 men would be kept on pay the wholo year, thereby increasing the cost estimated above in the sum of £15,000,000, which is the exact difference between §25,000,000 that would tpQve our naval force to attack, and §10,000,000 that would afford it only limited action. In the one case tlie war is carried from ourshorcs, and perfect security is fch, and our coasting and home trade remain uninterrupted. In the other case, without diminution of ex pense, the land force being increased in pay, our cities would be subject to block ade, our coasting trade harrnssed, and the inhabitants kept in constant alarm. In the two cases, admitting the expense to lie ctitutl, the extended* naval armament would be the cheapest, for the coasting trade and'that of neutrals to our pons, free of blockade, would pour large revenues in to the Treasury. The lack of men to man our fleet would seem the greatest difficulty, the force re quired being sixty thousand, of which 12,- 500 being marines and marine artillerymen, 47,6! Kt would remain of sailors, ordinary sailors, landsmen and boys ; of this number say 12,<MH) prime sailors, 12,000 ordinary do., 12,000 landsmen and 11,000 boys.— Our commercial marine employs one hun dred and fifteen Ihottsand sailors, there are engaged on the lakes and rivers forty thou sand men accustomed to the navigation of steamers, canal boats, keel and flat boats. From this number, as our ocean commerce would be curtailed, we could certainly draw 24,000 sailors and ordinary sailors, and the remaining landsmen and boys could readily be obtained amongst the river boat men and the general population. Bounties of land could be offered, which added to the prize money, would undoubtedly sup ply our fleet with the men required, from amongst our own people. But a naval war would be attractive to the sailors of all na tions, who would probably prefer our ser vice to that of England. At all events it would be quite os easy for the United States to maq her fleet as it wbtdd be for England toman hers. The /fatal forte of the United Slates. 25 ships of the line. 40 6!' gun frigntes. 60 steamers. 30 vessels of other classes. disappears, the penumbra! fringe on the in- side of the spot becomes invisible, while the I with the moving force of the navy by steam I pcnumbral fringe on the outside of the spot ! and sails, constitute emphatically tne right increases in apparent breadth, so that when; arm of our defence. A defence that must the spot approaches tlie edge of the sun, be eminently successful, for it exhibits the '.l _ Vs : ei ham and m jplinr* linns Craw nfianoitr* AMPS. the only pari that is visible is the external pcnumbral fringe; Now this is bxsctly what would accqr if the spat were an exca vation. The pcnumbral fringe is produced by tho shelving of the sides of the excava tion gikipingdowh to itt dark basis. Asthe r is carried toward the edge of the sun, height of the inner side is interposed between the eye and the bottom of the ex cavation, sons to conceal the biter from base and rni lions. But it may be objected that so lar| a moving force could not be created, lac ing men; that its. cost would be too' great’; that Congress would not adopt it. We must show that men may be had; that the cost less than anv other defence, and r ,<j t 145 with C'\000 men,.manned. The /fatal force of England. 45 ships of the line. 8') frlgatts of 6<> guns. 7<> steamers. 90 vemets of other classes. 285 with 110,000-men manned. The suMect of tho defence of the Gulf of Mexico is intimately connected with that of the whole coast of the United States.— And in discussing the principles govern- ingthe stratgetic operations of the latter, In relation to the system of works propo sed; their reciprocal action, and individual capacity^ thcic remains but Buie discussion for the Engineer. At Torlugas nature has performed more than half ihc work by 'es tablishing firm coral foundational almost in lite exact position that the art of the,Engi neer would have selected. Suitable works erected at these positions will render that portion of the Tortugas harbors nearly im pregnable to assault and nearly impractica r blc of blockade. Those positions are so. clearly indicated, as to leave no doubt in' the examiner’s mind as to their being the true ones. Briefly stating the nnines of positions and the object and capacity of the intended works is sufficient to the*under standing of the whole subject. * * It ife in place here to refer to the able let ter of Commodore Rogers to the Secretary of the Navy, July, 1829, (Senate, docu ments, 1st session, 21st-Congress, vol. I page 236,) and to a letter from the Sccretn- S ir of the Navy, March 25, 183c, Senate ocumcnts, 1st session 21st Congress, vol. 3, No. Ill, page 1, relative to the harbor of Tortugas. Other distinguished naval pfliccrs; at sundry times, have given opin ions in favor of the importance of Key West and Tortugas, as the great stratgetic points of the Gulf of Mexico. These points re ceived the attention of the War Depart ment as early as 1822. Lieut. Tuttle, of the Engineers, surveyed Key West in that year, and-madca very interesting report on the geological and topographical features of the island and the neighboring reefs and keys and their capacity for defence. Co). Totten, I he chief Engineer of the United States, lias repeatedly announced to the Government, the necessity of occupying positions on the Florida Reef at the proper time. In one of his reports he says: “The influence of these advanced military posi tions, combined with naval means, upon the general commerce of the Gulf, ant* up on great naval and military combinations in that quarter, whether offituite or defensive, is no new idea with those whose duties have connected them with such questions.” In another he says, “and it would afford a point of refuge to our navy and commerce, at the very spot where it would be most ne cessary and useful.’.’ Captain Snntlcis of tlie Engineers, says, “ Art should he ex hausted in fortifying cither Torlugus or Key West.” A not her writer on t he subject says, “the efficient defence of the Gulf of Mexico must depend upon steam vessels of war. They can be quickly built,.- armed and filled jntlic western country and at Pensacola. Thirty could be ready in six months, equal in nil respects to the*Missou ri and Mississippiand again,’ “wc ought net only to clear the Gulf of nny hostile fleet, but carry on. efiensive opera tions against the depots of Ngssau, Jatnai cn,” 4-c. Gen. Jessup, Quarter Master General of the United States, says, “ Key West, the Dry Tortugas and Key Bis- coyne arc the great stratgetic points on our southern fonticr. They should be strong ly fortified.” ’Capt. Bernard, U. S. E. rti nn excellent report to the government, speaks of “ the unrivalled q antics of tlie Tortugas as n harbor almost impracticable of blockade.” Gen. Gaines has given much of his valuable lime to the subject of the defence of the Guif of Mexico and its effect upon the interests of the country. In short the subject has received constant at tention since Mr. Calhoun, at the head of the War Department, took the initiative in its devclopcincnt. His attention was directed to the.Tortugas and Key’ West as early or 1822, and happily we have arrived at tne time when these imjiortanipoinls are occupied, ns well also when the Pensacola, Navy Yard shall be placed on the .footing its importance deserves, and the Gulf de fence made perfect. A defence, as it has been before observed, iq which every sec tion of our country is‘deeply interested- It has been attempted in the course of this wief mdmoir to show: 1st. That the chances for peace among the civilized nations are many; every year of tig continuance giving assurance of its permanence. , . 2d. That notwithstanding these Messed assurances, foilowipg the.example of oilier nations, we must not intermit exertions for the preparations for the contingency of war. • 3d. That much has already been. done for the defence of the country, whilst much remains to be done. 4th. That the right arm of that defence are the-Nnvy and Fortifications. 5th. That a proper combination , of both will enable, tunto force (he enemy/ howev er apparently strong in naval means to look to hit own shbres and to his colonics, leaving him no lima nor means to repeal theKtsn, (so unworthy of a great nation,) of I tampion and Havre dc Grace, 6th. And .what in due to tho ot of Tortugas, Key West and the Florida ,h ' Chssafisld, near Francois, March 10th, IMS. wtfo us* mured credit in 1825 by a^xm in the drag ice for tho amount of five dollars. In l«3p that very firm lent thst very rmp $6000 uponhiscadorsca jjete. * . * I know an ratraiqvedeifiiBr hi this city, now worth * hundred thousand <jolhn< and Who eari-command more money on a short notice, for sixty, ninety.or hne hundred and twenty days, than'almost any man in Cinoinnti, to whom t, as a clerk for a grocery hour*) in 1880, sold a hogshead of sugar, with grcatmisgfv- mgu, nnfrr eomo apprehension of not. getting the mo ney when it became doe. , . I know a man whose Credit Jar 1830 was such, hat when 1 trusted him for a'Kec of Mltpctre. inv kttykjjcr told mefftxffcht a* well hpve' rofled tt into ti e Ohio. Write that period ho was worth 850,000; then a bankrupt; worth in 1837,8100,000; again n bankrupt m 1841; and now worth $20,000. : I know a man good for 40,000, who, ten yenre ago, exhibited a monkey thro’ the streets of Cincinnati for aliving. * I know a heavy business man, a hank director, who sold apples, in a basket, when, a boy, through the streets. <• I knew one of tho first merchants in oar city'in 1826, who could at that period have bought entire blocks of the city on. credit, within ten years of that period, died insolvent and intemperate. Another influential man of that day, whose credit was unlimited, being president of one of our insur ance companies, ami also a hunk director, died with in fives years, insolvent and intemperate, m. 1 : i < Another individual, who was considered, m 1837, worth halt' a million of dollars, has since died, leaving the estatq insolvent. Another individual, of credit equal to his wants and worth, at one time, $13,000, aid a judge ortho court, died in our city hospital, and was harried at the public expense. 1 have seen him once apd again -~c*idin£ «t public meetings. The tonraforof theJVnifontlary system in Pcnsyl- vania, and wen known In that Kafr sad elsewhere as a public man, died a panpet in the . commercial hos pital in tliat city. 1 have aeen him. addressing the Legislature of that Stale, at Harrisburg, and listened . to with that attention ana deferende that wonld have been paid to John Quincy Adams, or any other pub- _ lie man of his age. I know a lady, the descendant of a distinguished Governor of Massachusetts, who support* bcUMlf by. her needle: and tho niece of the governor of Now Jeraoy, still Kving, who washes for a snWstence. 1 known lady, who,thirty years ago, in thocily in which l the* lived, was the cynosure of all eves, one of the roost graceful and beautiful of her qcx, and moving in the first circle of wealth and tashlim, now engaged in drudgery and dependence, at one dollar midfitly cents per' week; All these roeido in this citr. - „ . • • - What are the fictions of romance wntere, compar ed with some of the realities of human life?—Ciucur nuti Adcprtiser. ■ ; ... Discovery of Ancient Treasure. We learn from a source which we think entitled to full credit, that a large deposit of silver ran Was dis covered admit two weeks since on tho Boat bank cf the Altamaha River, about five ndlea below thsjuao tion of the Ocmulp* and Oconee, in Tatnall ooun- * >. The place ia called Milligan’s Bluff near Ball s erry. The circumstance aa related, are that a man by the name of John Mazo, discovered three dollars, which lad become exposed bv the blowing up oft tree. He commenced examining the earth Mow, aind tlie coin continued to appear, until he had exhum ed the handsome amount of Forttjdite thousand Span- th Dollars. They appeared ttfhave been depoiitod in canvass hugs, and at some rem^ period, at th? latest date on tho coin waa over 160 years since.' The place whpre they were found had the appear ance of an ancient fortification, such as arc common in manv parts of Georgia, several of which maybe see in this vicinity; When, or by whom this deposit • was trade, does not admit of a reasonable conjecture. It la undoubtedly, *om the date of the coins, more re cent than the expedition* of De Soto and others, of which we have aomo authentic account. The money, we understand, was found on the land of Mrs Grey, a widow, , in needy cireunudances, and relative of the fortunate discoverer, who lira • shared it with her. ,, Macon Mess. TV Biter Bit.—The ftcotioM Wstt Moreison. as he was commonly called, a clergyman of the church of Scotland, waa entreating the. commanding efp regiment, at Fort Gcpqje, fo pradofi aprorTellow sentenced to the halberts. The-officer granted h.s petition on condition tbat Mr. Mormon should accord him the first fireor he asked; this favor was to perform tho ceremony of baptism for a young puppy. A toci- dog. “As Jam a minister on£e>ufc of ScQtttnd,” Mr. Morrison. »1 mast pfocrad aeranfmjft.” xr said he asked no more. “Well, theq. Major, I begin with the usual quratioo: D°joo ao- knowks^e yourself the father efttas pnppyfv The MajoranderrioodItfccjoke.andthrewaw«y theane- oral. Thus Mr. Morrison turned the lau; the ensnarcr, who intended to deride a n nance, ; . , NAVAL-The Norfolk Jfamra3tth nlL says: -The U. 8. Rquadrim, under ramrand of Com. Stockton, condoling of the strain frigate Prmeerwi, sloops of war S'. .Vary’s pire, sailed from Hr—*“ with sealed orders. ifltaaaw.r aaffisr is stated that a ladj) in the uT [Tps and Downs in Lift. It 1* useful, as well as intermtlw, to nodes the changes, for the better or worse, which f that our security. wiU be greater. Let our we ha vc heni aMe to place in bolder, re- , people understand that it is quite as cheap Hef the importance of the former, to which | pcyllic UUUCISIUHU aeiMU ■« IO t|uisw w« I1CI II1C lllllJUl IUIICC Ul Ml® •UIIIICI, IU WUIVU j ••***'** * „ t . _ *■ _ ywmth and quite as easy to cany the war into Af- we again turn in order to consider it wilh j *0 vdio wu refused credit m 1830 lar a move worm