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Savannah daily herald. (Savannah, Ga.) 1865-1866, May 12, 1865, Image 1

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SAVANNAH DAILY HERALD. VOL. I—NO. 100. The Savannah Daily Herald (JIORNING AND EVENING} U FCIitSHED BV a W. MASON A CO.. at 1U Bat SiuiET, Savannah, Geoeou. TEBUS: Per Copy Five Cents. Per Hundred $3 60. Per Year $lO 00. v abvebtisikq: Two Dollars per Square of Ten Lines for first In sertion ; One Dollar for each subsequent oue. Ad vertisements inserted in the morning, will, if desired, appear in the evening without extra charge. JOB PRINTING, In every style, neatly and promptly done. QUARANTINE. Although the deliberations of the conven tion that assembled in New York in 1869 were largely employed on the subject of yel low lever, they extended to epidemics gene rally. Following the natural order of inves tigation indicated, we enter on the considera tion ot the second division ot our subject, to wit: the measures that will prevent the generation and spread of epidemics, particu larly of yellow fever. This opens up a wide field of inquiry. It is no less than ail the iecal or domestic causes that produce a viti ated state of the atmosphere—filth, iu all its forms—crowded dwellings—want of ventila tion-stagnant water—unpaved streets—dis turbance of tire soil—want of proper drain age and sewerage, &c. There was no difference of opinion in the convention as to the paramount importance of the internal over the external defenses of health in cities—by proper domestic arrange ments. Tne best devised system of quarantine falls infinitely short of proper hygienic regula tions. The subornination of the latter to the former is seen at once, when it is recol lected, that an imported epidemic cannot take root if proper attention is paid to hy gienic measures, from the want of material. Tbo virus of contagious disease cannot spread in a healthy atmosphere. If intro duced it dies out, from the absence of con genial properties. This sufficiently explains why the germs of yellow fever when carried into a healthy district will not propagate. It has appeared occasionally in Northern lati tudes when meteorological phenemcna fa vored its diffusion—when the solar heat was as great as it is in the summer at the South ; but this state of things is exceptional. The yellow fever has been inclosed in one of the squares of the city of New York, the ma larious influence not rising higher than a feiv feet, being confined to the lower s rata of the atmosphere. This goes to show that this disease is peculiar to warm latitudes, re quiring. not only the local causes which generate it in the soil, but a certain combi nation of heat aud moisture, or the union of atmospherical and terrene circumstances, to produce its development. The physicians of New Orleans were puz tled to account for the yellow fever in 1853, appealing in the fourth .ward of that city, simultaneous! j with its occurrence on board the ship Northampton from Liverpool, lying at the extremity of that ward, there not hav ing been any communication between the crew ot the Northampton and the residents of that. ward. Does uot the mystery disap pear ou the supposition, that the poison was generated in the hold of the Northampton, she having come from an uninfected port, aud that there were two foci for that fever, one in the fourth ward aud another in the hold Os the Northampton ? If this theory of the double origin of the yellow fever, recon ciles discrepances of opinion, why should it not be adopted ? It appears to us that the question of Quar antine is divisible, aud to apply the same principle of exclusion to ail infectious diseas es, is to generalize on insufficient data. Why yellow fever should have appeared •o frequently in the vicinity of our wharves and docks, if not an imported disease, has never been explained, nor that there cannot be the same elimination of gases injurious to health from the hold of a vessel as from a badly drained soil, from filth, from over crowding, and from imperfect ventilation.— It cannot be shown on rational principles that it may not thus have a double origin, and the perplexity put au end to that has so long troubled coatagionists and anti-conta gioniats. The above 3urveyof facts would appear to lead to tbe following general conclu sions : !• That quarantine is of doubtful benefit, as regards such diseases &3 Asiatic cholera and yellow fever, it being the opinion of ex perienced medical men that their exclusion is impossible, under the most stringent-qua i rantiue regulations. 2. That in regard to unquestionably con tagious diseases, such as small pox and plague, their exclusion is less doubtful, and it may not bo impracticable to prevent their introduction. S. That the Quarantine extended to persona as well as things — to the passengers and crews as well as vessels—from infected ports, is a vexatious interference with trade and oppres flive to individuals, it being demonstrated, at least as regards yellow fever, that the virus or poison of the disease, or what is techni cally called fumitts, is not transmissible from person to person. 4. That yellow fever may have a double source or origin, from both local causes and importation; but' * 6. If yellow fever should be introduced it cannot extend unless there exists that com bination of meteororogical and terrene condi tions, generated from local causes, whether the country into which it is imported i3 or is not within the isothermal lines or yellow fever zone. *** THE MISSISSIPPI. STEAMBOAT DIS ASTER. Statement of a Passenger—Appalling De tails. [From the Memphis Bulletin.] Mr. W. D. Snow, United States Senator from Arkansas, furnishes the following par ticulars : On the morning of April 27, about three o'clock, I was awakened by a sensible tre mor or shudder passing over the [boat, but heard no explosion. Not anticipating such a terrible consequence, I arose and delibe rately dressed. Just before dressing, I be came aware ot a large volume of steam being driven through the cabin by the wind. I opened the door of my stateroom, and in an instant realized the horror of the fact that the boiler had exploded, killing and scalding many; that the pilot house and at least one third of the cabin roof had fallen in; that the boiler deck and that were on fire, with a fresh breeze carrying the flames with light ning like rapidity through the balance of the cabin towards the ladies’ salion. I stepped back to avoid the heat, and denuded myselt of my dress, except my pants and vest, and rushed to the rear of the boat, which was in the channel, and much nearer the Tennessee than the Arkansas side. I looked over to the Tennessee side, with a view’ of leaping, but found it a sea of heads, so close together that it was impossible to jump without killing one or more. I deter mined to try the Arkansas shore, which was about three quarters of a mile distant. I passed over several bodies of dead men, killed and trampled in the mad rush which must have occurred some moments prior to my advent on that part of the boat. 1 found the same sea of heads on this side, but dis covered that the flames had driven them from the vicinity of the wheel house, and by getting as close as possible to an open place to leap in. Prior to leaping I saw several husbands fasten life-preservers to their wives and children, and throw them overboard into the struggling mass below. I struck out for the Arkansas shore, and reached a log lodged in fifteen feet of water, among the overflowed cotton wood land. At ten minutes to four, by my watch, which had not ceased to run, alter four hours' of exposure I was rescued by the steamer Silver Spray. The Sultana contained two thousand one hundred and seventy-five souls. The density with which they Were packed had awakened my curiosity, and I looked over with the clerk his certificates and books before retir ing. This number included eighty-five hands employed on the boat. Tuere were some femaler, besides a few children. The bulk of passengers were returned prisoners from Andersonville. which place they left on the 17th of last February. Among them were the remnant at that point of the prisoners captured at Chickamauga and Gettysburg. They numbered altogether one thousand nine hundred and sixty-six men and thirty-six of ficers. A large number of horses were on the boat, which providentially became unre sisting victims to the flames. Had they broken a loose the fate of the swimmers would have been determined within two hundred yards of the boat. As near as can be esti mated without other data than observation, between two and three hundred reachecUthe bank, while about an equal number floated down the stream on doors und furniture. A dense mass, estimated at about five hun dred, took refuge on the bow of the boat, while the flames were driven aft by the wind. A few moments afterwards the wheel booses, loosened by the concussion and flames, fell off outward, and the boat turned stern up stream, reversing the flames. The largest part of this number must then have perished, as they had no 'material at hand to throw over to sustain themselves, except a few bales of .hay, which were immediately seized on the burning of the boat. The g;,ng planks were throw’© overboard, bfit sank at once under their living freight, and rose too far out of reach for most. The yawl boat was launched, bottom up, from the hurricane deck, upon the heads of those below, and afforded a support for a few in that condition. The whole time before the boat was an en tire sheet of flame could not have exceeded twenty minutes. I was not more than one third of the distance to shore when I ob served the fact. The prisoners represented almost every State in the Union, even Texas, and the calamity will be as widely felt as a battle of no inconsiderable proportions, Mosby, the Guerrilla Chief.—Washing ton, May i, 1865. —Mosby was at Salem, near Warrenton, last Friday, and is still harbored in that neighborhood by tbe rebel inbabi tants. His command has deserted him en «r? our l ,un< 3red having been paroled at Winchester all of these were picked men from the various cava!ryjegiments serving in the valley, borne of them offer to bring in Mosby alive lor five thousand dollars. Two thousand dollars Is now offered, but as the capture would require several men in its per formance tbe sum each might receive is re garded as beingtoo small to justify the at tempt.—N. Y. Herald. It is untrue that precautions are not taken to ensure President Johnson’s safety. He has tbe mounted body-guard of one hundred picked men which attended Mr. Lincoln, and sentinels are constantly on duty in and around his quarters. ,» SAVANNAH, GA., FRIDAY, MAY 12, 1865. . A DITTI.E GOOSE. BV ELIZA S. tCBNER. The chill November day was done. The working-world home-faring; The wind came roaring through tea streets. And set the gas lights flaring. And hopelessly, and aimlessly. The scared old leaves were flying; When, min sled with the sighing wind, I heard a small voice crying. And shivering on the corner stood A child of tour, or over . No cloak or hat her small, soft arras And wind-blown curls to cover. Her dimpled free was stained with tears; Her round blue eyes ran over: She cherished in her wee, cold hand A bunch of faded clover. And, one band round her treasure, while She slipped in miue the other. Halt-scared, half-confidential; said, “Oh, please, I * ant my morher." “Tell me your street and number, pet; Don't cry; I’ll take you to it.” Sobbing she answered, “1 forget; The organ made me do it.” “It came and played at M Uer's step; The monkey took the money; I followed down the street, because That monkey was so funny, I've walked about a hundred boors From one street to another; The monkey’s gone, I’ve spoiled my flowers ; t —Oh, please, I want my mother.’’ “But what’s your mother's mm 2, and what The street?? now think a minute." “My motnei's name is Mother Dear; The street—l can’t begin it." “But what is strange a.out the house, , Or new, uot like the others r" “I guess you mean my trundle bed, Mine and my little brother's." “Ob, dear. I ought to be at home To help him say his prayers; He’s -nen a baby he forgets; And we a.e both such players, And there's a bar between to keep From pitching on each other, , For Harfy rolls when he's asiesp; - —Oh, dear, I want my mother 1" The sky grew stormy; people passed All muffled, homeward faring, ••You’ll have to spend the rngnt with me," I said at last, despairing. I tied a ’nerebief round her neck. —“What ribbon’s this, my blossom ?” - “Why, don't you know ?’’ she smiling said. And drew it from her bosom. A card, with number, street and name 1 My eyes astonished met it; “For," said the little one, “you see I might some time forget it; And so I wear a little thing That tells you all about it; For mother says she’s very sure I would get lost without it." FKUAI MOBILE. (Correspondence of the New Oileans Times.} The good feeling manifested’ be twee* citi zens and soldiers, -.nd which I alluded to in my last letter, is still apparent and growing. A firm Union feeling is more and more de veloped, and I hazard nothing in predicting that, ere another month passes, Mobile will be as true to the old flag as many Northern cities, whose boast 9 have been great of their patriotism and loyalty. The fine residence of Col. J. G. Aiken, near Stockton, used by Gen. Steele as head quarters on his late march from Pensacola, has been burned. Speaking of Gen. Steele reminds me of a rumor that he is to have anew command, comprising a portion of the Sixteenth Army Corps, the Second Division of the.Thirteentb, the cavalry commands of Gens. Grierson and Lucas, and Hawkin’s colored troops. It there be anything left of. the Confederacy by the time he is ready for the field, he vvik fin ish the glorious work in a glorious style. The rivers hereabout, aud the Bay, look quite like old times, with the numbers of steamers passing and repassing.— We all fervently hepe that not many days will elapse until this port will be opened to trade. It will be a great help to New Or leans. The Mobile News—a copy of which I send you—is published by E. O. Haile, your cor respondent, in the old. Register office. Gen. Andrews, Provost Marshal, has, by some sort of magic of his wit, made the change here in so quiet a manner that the citizens hardly know how it was brought about. No outrages have been committed cor attempted. Citizens are called upon to give up all arms iu their possession, and they do it without murmur. The peaceable man ner in w’bich the change has been effected is due to the completeness of the plans of the Commanding General, as well as to the dis position ot good fellowship evinced by both citizen and soldier. > THE MASONIC LODGES Are not only allowed to re-open their doors and resume their work, but it is the request of many of the military and naval officers that they should do so at once, as they would like to visit and affiliate. We shall be happy to publish a notice to this effect at once. THE PUBLIC, SCHOOLS. In answer to many inquiries on this sub ject, we have no definite information as to the time when the schools will be reopened. Major Gen. Canby is a warm friend and ad vocate of religious and educational institutes, aud these matters will undoubtedly receive early attention. We bavfe been informed of a matter in con nection with the schools and school teachers which reflects anything but credit upon the supervisors. We omit further light upon the subject, trusting that it may be corrected and satisfactorily adjusted. THE MARKETS. We paid a visit to tire Southern Market this morning, and found quite a respectable number of vegetable dealers on band with their esculents. Dealers seem to forget that gold is no longer $75 for sl, as they are charging prices outrageously high lor tlieir aiticles. Chickens, sl.each, eggs, $1 per dozen, and everything in proportion. This is wrong, as there is no excuse for it. The stock of such things on band was purchased for currency that was at a discount almost below computation, consequently there i9 no reason in demanding double, aye, treble their value in coin or the equivalent,, , The difficulty of procuring stock deteis many butchers' from opening their stalls. This, however, will be remedied by the ar rival of a lot of beeves now awaiting ship ment in New Orleans. Another attempt will be made soon to start an American “Punch”—an illustrated week ly called “Mrs. Gundy.” THE WAR IN SOUTH AMERICA. Correspondence of the New York Herald. > Termination of the [Var Between Brazil and Uruguay — Gen. Flores' Accession to Power — The New Cabinet—The Treaty of Surrender at Montevideo—Progress iu Buenos Ayers, sc. Buu.nos Ayers. S. A., ) March 11, 1805./ The lower valley of the liver Plate is again at peace, after a war of two years. The news by the last European mail of the settle ment of the Uruaguayan civil war by the tri umph of the rebellion is now confirmed. On February 21 the rebel chief General Flores proclaimed: “Inasmuch as from this day the supremo magistracy of the republic is resumed in my person,the provisional gov ernment is established and hereby declared,” <fce. He proceeds to nominate and appoint a secretary of the interior, captain of the port, collector of the port, postmaster gener al, dec. On February 22 the Brazilians raised the blockade and commerce returned to its wonted channels,and the people who had not fled far returned in large numbers to the city. On February 23, Gen. Flores, with a small escort, entered the city of Montevideo amid universal rejoicings. ' A committee of the principal inhabitants waited ou bim to feli citate him. Banners floated everywhere, and vivas resounded on every 9ide. All this was, to be sure, from a people somewhat used to revolutions, and their assent to this one was certuiuly very graceful. There were signs of dissatisfaction, but thev were not not9y or ostentatious; they were the quiet but hur ried departure of hundreds of “ Blancos,” the defeated party, who were taking wagons, cars, carriages, sailboats, ships, steamers, anything that would carry them anywhere. It was quietly understood that certain parties would not be sate in remaining, and perhaps over one thousand—some of them the best families of the city—removed on the day of Flores’ welcome to the city. Among these were the members of the former Cabinet, the recent Commander-iu-Chiet of the Army, the Commissary General, aqd many others. President Yilalba used his power imme diately on being elected President of the Senate; and hence, being acting President, surrendered the city to the rebels aud Brazil ians, thus saving the people but not the gov ernment. Dn entering the city Flores’ troops found several quite formidable mines prepared for explosion in the last extremity. The position of the mines was well selected, and if they had been resorted to as a means of defence, the destruction would have been awful, per haps, to friends as well as foes. The conditions of surrender may be abbre viated thus : 1. The President must resign his post and the country await anew election. 2. Provisionally General Flores will as sume the chief magistracy, assisted by Juan M. Martinez and Antonio Rodrigues Cabello as colleagues. » , . . 3. The free choice of the people shall select new Representatives and Senators. 4. Private property shall be inviolable, ex cept by due process of law. b. .Political opinions shall tie inviolable, and all words, acts aud publications during the civil war shall only affect the parties con cerned at the bar of public opinion. 0. Employes of government shall continue, and all military grades of both camps shall be held as valid. 7. Public debt shall be assured by the na tional duties. 8. As soon as possible the Brazilian forces shall be sent away, and a treaty made with Brazil on the following basis : 1. Uruguayan independence as declared December 4, 1828. 2. Integrity of the present territory of Uru guay. • 3 Equality in national duties with Brazil. These conditions in the main look very fair on paper; but,, as to some of them, Flores’ enemies do not trust him. It is much to his credit that when he was President, some years ago by a legal election, he was just aud mild in his administration. So long hi s this useless war raged and so lawless have both parties been, either in its inception or its progress, that most people heartily wished to"close by any means. In one of the largest churches in Buenos Ayres a Te Euum was sung, and there is great rejoicing iu all the country. General Bastarrica was one who went to proffer his services to President Flores, say ing he had served four different governments because each was the government- of the time, aud now he came to offer himself to the fifth for the same reason. One of the the most distinguished literary and political writers that this country has produced was the late Dr. Valencio Varela. He bad powerful political enemies enemies, and one day he was murdered in the city of Montevideo, in open day, with the ever rea dy assassin’s knife. The murderer was ar rested and tried and condemned to imprison: ment. After some time he was released, aud at the taking of Montevideo was at large. General Flores is an old friend of Dr. Varela and his family, 1 and he has had this c invicted murderer promptly arrested. The result has not transpired, but caa easily be predicted. But there are more inviting fields than those of war. The industrial resources of this country are beginning .to be developed. One especially is full of promise—it is tbe culture of cotton Whatever may bo the ef fect of the culture of cotton by paid labor in tbo Southern States, there is no reason for discouragement or delay in the development of other coat tries. A planter from Georgia, wno had the skill" to foresee the storm of war and to escape from it, came here more than a year Ago, and after a careful examination of tbe country located himself in the pro vince of Entre Rios, about twenty miles above the city of Parana. He has now un der culture there perhaps one hundred acres, and he has bought and has ready for cotton about two hundred and fifty acres of splen did land. The growth and product of this, the first year, quite satisfies hi 9 practised eye. The same kind of cotton that in the States must be replanted every year, or every sec ond year, will here remain extending its roots and increasing its products until the seventh year. In the States the season is so short that the cotton harvest is much shorter * *■■** * ■* ' v ' ‘• wjgS'Jumv* _am PRICE. 5 CENTS than here. Later sowing or later cutting down will regulate the succession of fields ready for harvest. Good land is so cheap and the cultivation is so easy that men of small means can here be planters. Little cotton forms of twenty acres, all fenced and under culture, with a small house upon them, can be bought in that vicinity for from S3OO to S6OO Spanish. Who can tell but that King Cotton may re sume south of the equator the throne he has lost north of it. The Western Railroad is now open as far as Mercedes, and works are begun for ChiK ilcoy. twenty-one miles further. The South ern Railroad will soon be open for the fiisc forty miles. The Minister of Education and Worship is now on a tour through the provinces. Correspondence of the Commercial Advertiser. Mr. Seward’s Opision op tiie Assassina tion—Mrs. Lincoln and Her Family. —Said, or rather wrote, Governor Seward yesterday; .. “This is only history repeating itself—ail great revolutions have their assassins as well as their heroes.” Let us hope that there are . to be no more victims, aud that the lives of the venerable Secretary of State and of bis son will be spared to adorn the diplomatic records of their country. The condition of Mr. Frederick Seward is very precarious, yet while there is life there is hope. Major Sew- : ard and Mr. Hauseli, who were also barbar ously cut by the assassin of the Secretary are doing well. Mrs. Lincoln has suffered much since the. terrible night of anguish, and has required the atleution of Doctor Stone, and the family physician. * Captain Robert Lincoln haa de ported himself in a manner that has at once commanded the respect and excited the sym pathy of those who have seen him since bis father’s death. But the youngest son, “Tad," as Mr. Linooln always called him, is incon solable. He went to Ford’s Theatre with his parents on file fatal evening, but not relish ing “Our • American Couisin,” he slipped down to Grover’s Theatre to enjoy “Alad-* din.” While gazing on this melodramatic spectacle, the poor lad heard the sad an nouncement : “President Liu Join hasbeen shot.” With an agonized shriek he hastened from the house, and was soon in the next room to his dying parent. Horror stricken he refused to see his wounded father, but moaned the whole night iu agony. Yesterday, as a well known Senator en tered the White House, he was met by the once boistrous lad, who exclaimed : “Oh.J can you tell me what my dear father had ever done to that man to make him shoeft him dead ?” Mrs. Lincoln was at first dis posed to consent to the removal ot her. boa band’s remains to Springfield, Illinois, for final interment. But there is a desire mani fested to day to have thefn deposited in tire cript beneath the rotunefa, in the place In tended for the remains of George Washing ion. This would be a fitting resting place for the raartyr-President, with the majestic dome, towering high above his remains until it is crowned by Freedom t The Greatness or Grant.—E. P. Whipple writes as follows in the Atlantic Monthly for April: A peculiar kind of gift, not falliug. utijer any of the special 'expressions I have noted, yet partaking in some degree of all, is IMs trated in the character of Lieut. Gen. Grant. Without an iftom of preteneioq or rhetoric, "with none of the external signs of energy and intrepidity, making no parade of the immov-. able purpose, iron nerve, and silent, pehelja ting Intelligence God has put into 4.hn, hla tranquil greatness is hidden from the super ficial scrutiny behind a cigar, as President Lincoln’s is behind a. joke. When anybody tries to coax, cajole, overawe, browbeat, or deceive Lincoln, the President nurses his fog, and is rem'nded of a story; when anybody tries the same game with Grant, the General list ens and smiles. If you try to of him his plana for a campaign, ha stolidly smokes; if.yon call him an imbecile and a blunderer, he blandly lights another cigar; if you piaise him a9 the greatest General liv ing, he placidly returns the puff from.his re galia, and if you tell him he should run for the Presidency,it does not disturb the equan imity with which he inhales and exhales the insubstantial vapor which typifies the poli tician’s promises. While you are wondering what kind of a man tb’s creaturf without a tongue is, you are suddenly electrified "with the news of some. splendid victory, proving that behind the cigar, and behind tne face discharged of all tellt ale expression, is the best brain to plan and the strongest heart to dare among the Generals of the Republic. “ ; Ts , The Radicals and the President’s. Re construction Potter. —The Washington cor respondent of the New York Herald thus speaks of the probable course of the radicals and their influence oh the reconstruction policy of the administration. A number of radical republican Senators and members of Congress are here, endeav oring to shape or control the policy of Pres ident Johnson in regard to reconstruction. They are anxious that there shall be a called session of Congress, so that they may have some hand in tbe reorganization of the South ern States. They contend that if the right of suffrage i9 to be extended to all tbe white population there, the pro-slavery influence will prevail, aud the effect of the emancipa tion proclamations may be nullified, and the abolition of slavery indefinitely retarded, unless tbe negroes also shall be allowed to vote. A desperate effort will be made to impress this idea upon the President’s policy; but be has conned oyer this wbflfc subjeet of reconstruction quite as carefully as any of the volunteer advisers, and. with Jackson like firmness for which he is winning a rep utation, be will do what he deems right and best for tbe whole country. “Stuttering Ben,” who was toasting his shins, observed that the oil merchant was cheating a customer in some oiL.-called out to him, “Jim, I can t-tel you how t-to s-sell t-twice as much oil as you d-do now. “Well, bow,” groaned Jim. ‘ F-fUI yonr^measure!’• _r 1 . ”• . - - yy\. * : Where is Jest Davis.— Echo answers, “Da vis is— is— !” H . ‘