Digital Library of Georgia Logo

The Southern Democrat. (Oglethorpe, Ga.) 1851-1853, December 13, 1851, Image 1

Below is the OCR text representation for this newspapers page.

p. X. J. Iff AY, Editoifcand Proprietor, ■ THE SOUTHERN DEMOCRAT, I EVERY THURSDAY MORNING Dollars in advance. Two Dollars and Fifty within six months, or Three Dollars at the end k year. So subscription will be received for a ■ t ime than six months, nor will any paper be dis- until all arrearages are paid, unless at the of the publisher. inserted at One Dollar per square lines or less, for the first insertion, and Fifty ■.. for each subsequent insertion. A liberal dis- K nt made to those who advertise by the year, and Hto Sheriffs and Clerks of the Courts, who ndver ■ rrjuhirly in this paper. Those sent without spe- as to the number of insertions, wiM lie pub ■ ) antil ordered out, and cliArycd accordingly. ■,, Work must be paid for on delivery. on business must be rosr raid to ensure nt ■a-Office in Bartlett's Building onMaenn Street. f ‘ PRESIDENT’.*! message. Citizens of the Senate and of the House of Representatives: H congratulate you and our cotninon const it u- upon the favorable auspices under which K meet for ) - our firstsession. Our country is at ■ with the whole world. The agitation liicli, threatened to disturb the fraternal re- ■ lin s which make us one people, is fast subsid- and a year of general prosperity and health the nation with unusual blessings.— can look back to the dangers which are or forward to the bright prospect before H without feeling a thrill of gratification, at the time that he must be impressed with a sense of our profound obligations to a Providence, whose paternal care is so in the happiness of this highly favored S Invasion of Cm a. Ktlic President gives a history of this invasion H its results, denouncing it in strong terms as a of the laws and deserving of the severest and then proceeds as follows:] these offenders against the laws have the protection of their country, yet the may, so far as is consistent with its to otlier countries, and its fixed ptir- Hc to maintain and enforce the laws, entertain Hwatliy for their unoffending families and ■Bis, as well as a feeling of compassion for ■■selves. Accordingly no proper effort has ■B spared, and none will be spared, to procure release of such citizens of the United States, in this unlawful enterprise, as are now in in Spain; but it is to be hoped that interposition witii the government of that may not be considered as affording any of expectation that the Government of States will, hereafter feel itself under of duty to intercede for the libera- H--r pardon of such persons as are flagrant of- against the law of nations and the laws of States. These laws must, lie executed, ik-siie to maintain our respectability among of the earth, it behoves us to enlbije.; aim su’rmv me neutrality nets passeit m and to follow, as far as may lie, the \io- of those acts w ith condign punishment. ■at what gives a peculiar criminality to this ■fawion of Cuba is, that under the had of Span-1 ( H*itsubjects with the aid of citizens of the United ; Bj§ts it has its origin, with many, in motives ot | ■litv. Money was advanced by individuals, i j in considerable amounts, to purchase f u-: ( as they have been called, issued by j ( I.Lo] 7., sold, doubtless, at a very large discount, j . payment of which the public lands and I f Hlic property of Cuba, of whatever kind, and ( fiscal resources of the people and government,, ■that island, from whatever source to lie derived, | pledged, as well as the good taitli of the go-j expected to be established. All these j ■Sans of payment, it is evident, were only to be j bv a process of bloodshed, war, and rev- j BKilnn. None will deny that those who set on ■ military expeditions against foreign States by like these, are far more culpable than the and necessitous whom they induced to as tlie ostensible parties of the proceeding. originators of the invasion of Cuba seem determined, with coolness and system, Hu an understanding which should disgrace ■-country, violate its laws, and put to hazard ■ lives of ill-informed and deluded men. Ton ■ consider whether further legislation lie noeos- to prevent the perpetration of such offences ■No individuals have a right to hazard the peace ( country or to violate its laws upon vague of altering or reforming governments in . ( States. This principle is not only reasona-j ■ in itself, and in accordance with public law,; ■ U engrafted into the coiles of othei nations as ■las our own. But while such arc the senti- 1 of this Government, it may be added that independent nation must be presumed to able to defend its possessions against unauthor- individuals banded togetlier to attack them. ■ Government of the United States, at all times ■ - its establishment, has abstained and has restrain the citizens of the country, entering into controversies between otlier and to observe all the duties of neutrali ■ At an early period of the government, in the of Washington, several laws were i for this purpose. The main provision of i laws were re-enacted by the act of April, 1 1 by which, amongst other things, it was do-1 that if any person shall, within the territo-1 jurisdiction of the United States, begin, or ■ on foot, or provide, or perpare the means tor j ■y military expedition or enterprise to be carried . ■ from thence against the territory or dominion 1 ■ *ny foreign prince or State, or of any colony, or people with whom the United States ■e at peace, every person so offending shaii bo I guilty of a high misdemeanor, and shall ! ■ ■ fined, not exceeding three thousand dollars, j ■ imprisoned not more than tliree years; and; law has been executed and enforced, to the. ■l extent of the power of the Government, from day to this. i In proclaiming and adliering to the doctrine of and non-intervention, the United States j . ■ not followed the lead of other civilized na-l ; they have taken the lead themselves, and J “ ve been followed by others. This was admit- j ’ ■ by one of the most eminent of modern Bri- J ■]>, statesmen, who said in Parliament, while a of the crown, ‘that, if he wished for a ■'h- in a system of neutrality, he should take .j ■ at laid down by America in the days of W ash- and the Secretaryship of Jefferson;’ and Sl)c we see, in fact, that the act of Congress of 1818 was followed, the succeeding year, by an actof the Parliament of England, substantially the same in its general provisions. Up to that time there had been no similar law in England, except cer tain highly penal statutes passed in the reign of; George 11., prohibiting English subjects from en listing >n foreign service, the avowed object of | which statutes was, that foreign armies, raised for the purpose of restoring the house of Stuart to the j throne, should not be strengthened by recruits, from England herself. All must see that difficulties may arise in carry ing the laws referred to into execution in a coun try now having three or four thousand miles of, seacoast, with an infinite number of ports and liar- j l*ors and small inlets, from some of which unlaw ful expeditions was suddenly set forth, without the knowledge of Government, against the posses sions of foreign States. ! Friendly relations with all, but entangled alli ances with none, lias long been a maxim with us. i Our true mission is not to propagate opinions, or impose upon otlier countries our form of govern ment, by artifice or force; but to teach by exam ple, and show by’ our success, moderation and jus tice, the blessings of self-government, and the ad vantages of free institutions. Let every people choose for itself, and make and alter its political! institutions to suit its own condition and eonveni-1 cnee. Put, while we avow and maintain this neu- j ! tral policy ourselves, we are anxious to see tiie j same forbearance on the part of other nations, j I whose forms of government are different from our i own. Tlie deep interest which wo feed in the spread of liberal principles and the establishment! of free governments, and the sympathy with which j we witness every struggle against oppression, for bid that wo should be indifferent to a case in which tiie strong arm of a foreign power is invok ed to stifle public sentiment and repress tiie spirit of freedom iu any country. Interference of England anu France. Tlie government of Great Britian and France have issued orders to their naval commanders on j tiie West India station to prevent by force, if nec-! essary, tlie landing of adventurers from any na-1 tion on the Island of Cuba with hostile intent.— | Tlie copy of a memorandum of a conversation on j this subject, between tlie Charge d’Affaires of her [ Britannic Majesty and tlie Acting Secretary of State, and of a subsequent note of the former to | tiie I lepartment of State, are herewith submitted, j together with a copy of a note of the Acting Sec- j rotary of State to tlie Minister of tlie French re public, and of tlie reply of tlie latter, on tlie same | subject. These papers will acquaint you with the I grounds of this interposition of the two leading I commercial powers of Europe, and with tlie ap | prehensions, wliieh this Government could not tail to entertain, that such interposition, if carried into i effect, might lead to abuses in derogation of tlie j maritime rights of the. United States. The mari time rights of tlie United States are founded on a j the ground of National Independence and! i public law, and will be maintained in all their lull ! and just extent ! mit •• i. ...i ti. tl.te nov/irnmonf. lins liorc* i ami liust c.\trm. , . r The principle which this Government lias lieic j | t, if, ire solmonlv announced it still adheres to, and s will maintain ‘under ail circumstances and at all , hazzards. That principle is, that in every regu-1 larly documented merchant vessel, the crow wlm | ( navVate it, and those on board of it, will find j ( tliei"protection in the flag which is over them.—: No American ship can Ik’ allowed to be visited or ( searched for tlie purpose of ascertaining the charac- ( ter of individuals on board, nor can there be al-,, lowed any watch by tlie vessels of any foreign na-; tion over'American vessels on the coasts ot the United States or the seas adjacent thereto. It. will lie seen by the last communication trom the j British Charge d’Affaires to tlie Department ot | ! State, that ho is authorized to assure the Secreta ry of State that every care will be taken that, mj executing tlie preventive measures against tlie cx-i PC, r,lions which tlie United States Government it self has denounced as not being entitled to the protection of any government, no interference shah take place with the lawful commerce of any na- U °ln addition to the correspondence on tins sub ject herewith submitted, official information has ‘been received at the Department of State, of as surances by the French government that, in the orders irivon to the French naval forces they were expressly instructed, in any operations they might < ongao-e in, to respect tlie flag of the U nited States i wherever it might appear and to commit no act ! of hostility upon any vessel or armament under its I protection. Spanish Consul at New Orleans. j, [The President speaks of the affair at New Or-,, ; leans and of tlie deep mortification he felt on hear-1 ■ jpg of the outrage committed against the Span- , ish Consulate. Recommends proper indemnity , for the past and such modification of existing law ( as will give entire security and protection to , Foreign Ministers, Consuls, Arc., in tiie discharge of their dutv, as well as to punish our own Con suls for neglect of duty. i Tiie President then recommends tiie following i minor matters to the consideration of Congress. Ist. Tlie question of reciprocal trade between ■ ! the United States and Canada and other British jP ,L w;„n nf the 2d. To an authoritative demarkation ot me boundary line between (>rogon and the British pos sessions and an appropriation therefor. 3d. Conclusion of the Convention for tlie ad justment of claims against Portugal and tlie re ceipt of the first instalment of money.] Turkey and tiie Hungarians. fThe President annouces that the Turkish Go vernment has expressed thanks for the kind recep- j tion given to Amin Bey, tlie Sultans agent, on l his recent visit to the United States—and the S compliance of said government with the request, ] for the Hungarian prisoners to be permitted to re i move to this country and of said prisoners cm j barkation on board the Steam hr,gate Mississippi, 1 and tlie expected arrival of Kossuth in this coun | t 1... w l, o the President recommends to the consid i eration of Congress, as he and ids companions ! have been brought hither by its authority.] rs . T . r . ,-TTO Sadnwtcii Islands. | [The President hopes that tiie difficulties which I lia ve existed between tlie French and these Islands , I will speedily be settled—and expresses a desire . t hat the independence of tlie Islands shall be pie ■ served and so bo accessible and useful to tiie com l merce of all nations.] GA., Affairs with Mexico. It is mucli to be deplored that tranquility of the Mexican republic should*agajn’ be seriously disturbed; for, since the peace be tween that republic and the United States, it had enjoyed such comparative repose that the most favorable anticipations for the future might, with a degree of confidence, have been indulged.— Tiiese, however, have been thwarted by the re cent outbreak in tlie State of Tamaulipas, on the right bank of the Rio Bravo. Having received! information that persons from tiie United States had taken part in tlie insurrection, and apprehend- i ing that their example might be followed by oth ers, I caused orders to be issued for the purpose of preventing any hostile expeditions against Mexi co from being set on foot in violation of tlie laws of the United States, I likewise issued a procla mation upon the subject, a copy of which is here with laid before you. ‘Jliis appeared’ to be ren dered imperative to tlie obligations of treaties and the general duties of good neighborhood. In my last annual message I informed Con gress that citizens of the United Stales lutd un dertaken tlie connexion of tiie two oceans by means of a railroad across the Isthmus of Tehuan tepec, under a grant of the Mexican government to a citizen of that republic; and that this enter- j prise would probably bo prosecuted with energy j whenever Mexico should consent to such stipula-! tions with the Government of the United States as should impart a feeling of security to those who should invest their property in tlie enterprise. A convention between tlie two governments for the accomplishment of that end lias been ratified by this government, and only awaits tlie docision of the Congress and tlie Executive of that repub lic. Some unexpected difficulties and delays have arisen in tlie ratification of that convention by Mexico, but it is to be presumed that, her decision will be governed by just and enlightened views, as well of tlie general importance of the oi ject, as of her own interests and obligations. In negotiating upon this important subject, this government lias had in view one, and only one, object. That object has been, and is, tlie construe- j tion or attainment of a passage from ocean to j ocean, tlie shortest and tlie best for travellers and j inoreh.nndise, and equally open to all tlio world, j It lias sought to obtain no territorial acquisition, nor any advantages peculiar to itself; and would see, with the greatest regret, that Mexico should I oppose any obstacle to the accomplishment of an enterprise which promises so much convenience to the whole commercial world, and such eminent advantages to Mexico herself. Impressed with j these sentiments and these convictions, tlie govern ment will continue to exert all proper efforts to bring about the necessary arrangement with tlie republic of Mexico for the speedy completion of tlie work. For some months past the republic of Nicara gua has been tlie theatre of one of those civil con-1 anti toe general’ prt*sperny ami social progress ot j tlie States of Central America, have so often and \ so severely suffered. Until quiet shall have been restored, and a government apparent ly stable have ! 1,,.,.,, organised, no advance can prudently be made indisposing of the questions pending be tween tlie two counties. i am happy to announce that an inter-oceanic communication trom the mouth ot the St. John to the l’acitie has been so far accomplished as that passengers liave actually traversed it iiiid iiieiLhiin dise has been transported over it; and when tlie’ canal shall have been completed, according to the original plan, the means of communication will be further improved. It is understood that a considerable part of the railroad across the Isthmus ot 1 anauia Ihls been ; completed, and that tlie mail and passengers will ! in future be conveyed thereon. St. Domingo and China. ! Peace has been concluded between the contend j in<r parties in the Island of St. Domingo, and it is ! hoped upon a durable basis. Such is tiie extent of our commercial relations with that Island, that tlie United States cannot fail to feel a strong inter est in its tranquility. The office of Commissioner to China remains unfilled; several persons have been appointed, and tlie place has been offered to others, alt of whom have declined its acceptance, on the ground of tlie inadequacy of tlie compensation. The an imal allowance by law is six thousand dollars, and ! j there is no provision for any outfit. I earnestly recommend the consideration of this subject to ! Congress. Our commerce with China is highly j important, and is becoming more and more so, in | consequence of the increasing intercourse between 1 our ports ou the Pacific coitst und It*astern Asia, i China is understood to be a country in which liv ing is very expensive, and I know of no reason ■ w bv the American Commissioner sent thither ’ should not be placed, in regard to compensation,; ‘ on an equal footing with ministers who represent; > this country at the courts of Europe. OF THK FINANCES. j>y rtifbrcncG to the Itcport ot the Sccrcturj ot the Treasury, it will be seen that tlie receipts for “tlie last fiscal year amounted to $25,- 312 979 $7, which, with, tlie balance iu the Treasury on the Ist July 1850, gave, as tlie avail able means for the year, the sum of $58,917,521,- The for the same period were $48,005,878 68. The total imports for the year ending 30th June, 1851, were • - - $215,750,095, Os which there were in specie 4,967,901, Tlie exports for the same period, were $217,517 130, Os which there were of 1 domestic products $178,546,555 Foreign goods re-exported 9,737,495 Specie - - - 29,231.880 P $217,517,130 Since tlie Ist of December last tlie payments in cash on account of the public debt, exclusive of in- j terest, have amounted to $7,501,456 26; which, however, includes tlie sum $3,242,400 paid under j tlie 12th article of the treaty with Mexico, and the further sum of $1,591,2 13 45, being under | the late treaty with Mexico, for which the issue of stock was authorized, but which was paid in cash from the Treasury. . . . The public debt on the 28th ultimo, exclusive of the stock authorized to be issued to Texas by the act of the 9th September, 1850, was $02,- 500,395 36, . The receipts for the fiscal year are estimated at | ¥51,800,000, which* with the’ preTK^Junappro” 1 printed ‘balance iftltb Treasury, on ti MPsth June next/vvill ’available means for tii,at year, tluffiTy;’ $03,25.8,743 00. proper, in view of the large expenditures coiisequcTj*upoii tlie acquisition of territory from Mexico, that tlie estimates for the year should #lJiaid before Congress in such*manner as to distinguish the exeiulitures so requ’rc-d ,t>. >m the otherwise ordinary demands upon thcYlVcasurv. Tli(ftotal expenditures*for tlie next fiscal year are estimate^!t*s42, 792*299 19, of which there is ret [hired foißthe erd iffary 1 purposes of tlie Go vernment, otlier ( hank! loseteonscquent upon tlie of our tewTerritories, and deduct-! ing the paymont.on account of tlie public debt,. the sum of $33,343,198 08; and for tlie purposes j connected dtrectfy or indirectly ri*L -t'yg*..Lei■ ■- j tories, and in the fdfllment of the obligations of tlie Governxient, contracted in consequence of their 1 acquisiton, (lie sum of $9,540,101 11. If tlie views of the Secretary of tlie Treasury in ; reference to tlio expenditures required for these Territories dial I bs met by corresponding action on tlie part el Congress, and appropriations made in accordance therewith, there will bo an estima ted balance in tlie Treasury ou tlie 30th June, 1853, of $20,360,443 90, wherewith to meet that portion of the public debt due on tlie first July following, amounting to $6,237,031 35, asweilj as any appropriations which may be made be-1 yond tiie estimates. In thus refering to tlie estimated expenditures on account of our newly-acquired Territories, I may express the hope that Congress will concur with me in tiie desire that a liberal course of poli cy may be pursued towords them, and that every obligation, express or implied, entered into in con sequence of their acquisition, shall l*o fulfiled by the most liberal appropriations for that purpose, j The values of our doraectic exports for tlie Inst [ fiscal year, as compared with those of previous! year, exhibited an increase of $43,646,322. At first view this condition of our trade with tlie for eign nations would seem to present the most flatter ing hopes of its future prosperity. An examination of the details of our exports, however, will show that tlie increased value of our exports, for tlie last fiscal year is to lie found in tins high price of cot ton which prevailed during tlie first half of that year, which prico inis sineo declined about one half. The value of our exports of breadstuff’s and pro visions, which it was supposed tlie incentive of a low tariff and largo importations from abroad would have greatly augmented, lias fallen from $68,701,921, to $26,051,373 in 1850, and to $21,948,653 in 1851, with a strong probability, amounting almost to a certainty, of a still further reduction in this current year. Tlio aggregate values of rice exported during the last fiscal rear, as compared with the previous .... ; ( I -7 e il.( ‘">( S’-*!. ‘XiUOO Ul the exports of tobacco for {lie same period, make j an aggregate decrease ill these two articles of $1,’ 15G?7C1. The policy which dictated a low rate of duties on foreign liiorehamliso, it was thought by those who promoted it, would tend to benefit the farming population of this country, by increasing tlie demand and raising the price of agricultural products in foreign markets. The foreign facts, show incon testiiily that- no tlie adop tion of this polivy. *nfeHffy, notxvitii stmiding tlie corn laws in England, the foreign demand for tlie products of tlie American farmer has steadily declined, since the short crops and consequent famine in a por tion of Europe have been happily repi“d by full crops ami comparative abundance of food. It will i*e scen,*y recurring to tlio commercial statistics for tlie past year, that the value of our domestic exports lias been increased in tlie single item of raw cotton by $40,000,000 over tlie val ue of that export for the year proceeding. This is not due to any increased general demand for that article, but to the short crop of tiie preceding year which created an increased demand and an aug mented price for tlie crop of last year. Should tlie cotton crop now going forward to market be only equal in quality to that of theyenr proceed ing and he sold at the present prices, then there would Ik a falling off in the value of our exports ! for tlie present fiscal year of at least $40,000,000 compared witii tlie amount exported for the year ending 30th June 1851. The production of gold in California for the past year seems to promise a large supply of that metal from that quarter for some time to come. This large annual increase of tlie currency of the world must bo attented with the usual results. These have been already partially disclosed in the enhancement of prices and a rising spirit of spec ulation and adventure, tending to overtrading, as well at home as abroad. Unless some salutary ! check shall be given to these tendencies, it is to be feared that importations of foreign goods be- H yond a healthy demand in this country will load to : a sudden drain of the precious metals from us, ■ bringing with it, as it lias done in former times, - tiie most disastrous consequences to the business ■ and capital of tlie American people. The exports of specie to liquidate our foreign debt during the past fiscal year have been $24,- 263,909 over the amount of specie imported. The exports of specie during the first quarter of the presentfisca! yearliavobeen $14,651,827. Should specie continue to be exported at this rate for the remaining three quarters ot this year, it will drain from our metalic currency during the year ending 30th June, 1852, the enormous amount of SSB, | 607,308. PUBLIC DEBT. In the present prosperous condition of the na tional finances, it will become the duty of Congress to consider tlio best mode of paying oti the public debt. If tlie present and anticipated sur plus in tlie Treasury {should Jnot be absorbed by appropriations of an extraordinary character, Riis surplues should be employed in such way, and un ! der sucli restrictions, as Congress may enact, in t extinguishing tlie outstanding debt of tiie na tion. + f By reference to the act of Congress approved 9th September, ls>o, it will be seen that, in con sideration of cert* i concessions ‘ujMf ‘ of Texas, it is prowled sltJfll pay to tlie Statd of Texas the sum of ten iiflllions of •dollars, in a sftcH*earing cent, interest, ,and reccemable at tlie eTTi of years, the interest payable half yearly, at the Treasure ‘the United States.” In tiie same sectioh of tlie law it is further pro vided that no more than five millions of said stock ‘shall be issued until tlie credtiors of tlie State ’ ‘holding bonds and other certificates of stock of Texas, for which duties on imports were specialty ‘pledged, shall first file at the Treasuiy of tlie Un ited States releases of all claims against the Uni ‘ted States, for on account of said bonds or certifi ‘cates, in sucli forms as shall be prescribed bv the ‘Secretary of the Treasury, and approved by the ‘President of the'United States.” The form of release thus provided for lias been ; prescribed by tlio Secretary of the Treasury, and approved. It has been published in all the iead ; ing newspapers in the commercial cities of tlie ; viso were required to file their releases (in the 1 form thus prescribed) in the Treasury of tlie Uni* | ted States, on or before the Ist October; 1851. Although this publication has been continued from tlie 25th day of March 1851, yet up to the Ist of October last comparatively releases had been filed by the creditors of Texas. Whe authorities of the State of Texas, at the re quest. of the Secretary of tlie Treasury-, have fur nished a schedule of the public debt of that State created prior to her admission into the Union, j with a copy of the laws under which each class was contracted. I I have, from the documents furnished by the j State of Texas, determined the classes of claims which in my judgment fall within tlie provisions of the act of Congress of tlie 9th of September, 1851. On being officially informed of tlio acceptance by Texas of the positions contained in the act re ferred to, I caused tlio stock to be prepared, and the five millions which is to be issued uncondi tionally, bearing an interest of five per cent, from the Ist of January, 1851 have been for some time I ready to be delivered to tlie State of Texas. The authorities of Texas, up to tlie present time, have not authorized any one to receive this stock, and it remains in the Treasury Department subject to tlie oixlcra of Texas. Tlie releases, required by tlie law to bo deposited in tlie Treasury, not having lieen filed there, the remaining five millions hare not been issued.— This last amount of stock will bo withheld from Texas until the conditions upon which it is to be delivered shall be complied with by tho creditors of that State, unless Congress direct by a modification of tlie law. the tariff. In my last annual message, to which I respect fully refer, I stated briefly the reasons which in duced to recommend a modification of tlie present, tariff by converting tlie ad valorem into ! specific duty T^^vcy^ii^n ; faysF of the (industrial pursuits of dnrTovrr- tmmtrr, as to on i courage homo production without excluding for- eign competition. The nnmeruos frauds wliieli continue to be practised upon the revenue, by false invoices and undervaluations, constitute an unswcrablo rea son for adopting specific instead of ad valorem du ties in all cases where tlie nature of tlie commo dity does not forbid it. A striking illustration of these frauds will bo exhibited in the Report of Secretary of the Treasury, showing tiie custom house valuation of articles imported under a for mer law subject to tlie specific duties, when there ’ was no inducement to undervaluation, and tlie cus tom-house valuations of tlio same articles, under tlie present system of ad valorem duties so great ly reduced as to leave no doubt of the existence of the most flagrant abuses under the existing laws. The practical evasion of tiie present law, , combined with tlie languishing condition of , some of tlie great interests of the country, caused , bv over importations and consequent depressed , prices, and tlio failure in obtaining a foreign mar- , ketforour increasing surplus of breadstuff's and provisions, has induced me again to recommend a modification of the existing tariff. INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. [Cash sales from tiie public lands exceeds those of the proceeding year —showing gratifying evi dence of the growing wealth and prosjicrity of our country. Suitable measures have been adopted for com mencing tlie survey of the public lauds in Califor nia Further legislation recommen ded as necessary. The operations of the commission to settle pri vate lands in California delayed, on account of the difficulty of getting commissioners to accept. In crease of compensation recommended. First meet ing San Francisco on the Bth inst., If the Mineral and Agricultural lands of Cali fornia, the President thus speaks:] Tlie proper disposal of tlio mineral lands of California is a subject surrounded by great difficul ties. In my last annual message I recommended the survey and sale of them in small parcels, un der such restrictions as would effectually guard a gainst monopoly and speculation. But upon fur ther information, and in defference to the opinion of persons {familiar with the subject, I am inclined to change that recommendation, and to advise that they bo permitted to remain, as at present a common field, open to tlie enterprise and industry ; of our citizens, until further experience shall liave developed the best policy to be ultimately adopted ! in regard to them. It is safer to suffer the incon i venienccs that now exist, for a short period, than ; bv premature legislation, to fasten on tlie country a , system founded in error, which may place the whole subject beyond the future control of Con gress. Tlio aggricultural lands should, however, be surveyed and brought into market with as little delay as possible, that the titles may become set tled, and the inhabitants stimulated to make pur manent improvements, and enter on tlie ordinary pursuits of life. To effect these objects it is desi rable that the necessary provisions be made by law for the establishment of land offices in Cal ifornia and Oregon, and for tlie efficient prosecu tion of the surveys at an earlier day. AGRICULTURAL BURBAU: Agriculture may justly be regarded as the great interest of our people. Four-fifths of our active ‘population are employed in the cultivation of the soil, aud tho rapid expansion of our settlements over new territory is daily adding to the number |j|thoso engaged in that vocation. Justice and VOL. I.—NO. 31. ’ s l )Untl policy, therefore alike require that tha Government should use all the means authorized by the Constitution to promote the interest and welfare of that importantclass of our fellow-citizens. And yet it is a singular fact, that, whilst the man* Ufactyring and commercial interest have engaged the attentention of Congress during a large por tion of every session, and our statutes abound in provisions for their protection and encouragement little has yet been done directly for the advance ment of agriculture. It is time that this reproach to our legislation should be removed; ands sincere ly hope that the present Congress will not close their labors without adopting sufficient means to supply the omissions of those who have preceded them. * An Agricultural Bureau, charged with the du ly - Qf.fplb’CJAP -vUi'orm-icm, rtiki-tn me most effectual means of preserving and re storing the fertility of the soil, and of pro curing and distributing seeds and plants and other vegitable productions, with instructions in regard to the soil, climate, and treatment best adapted to their growth, could not fail to be, in tho language of Washington, in his last annual mes sage to Congress, a “very cheap instrument of im mense national benefit.” BOUNTY LANDS. Regarding the act of Congress approved 28th Sept. 1850, granting bounty lands to persons who had been engaged in the military service of the country, as agreat measure of national justice and munificence, an anxious desire has been felt, by the officers entrusted with its immediate exe cution, to give prompt effect to its provisions. All tho moans within their control were, therefore, brought into requisition to e\|>edito the adjudica tion of claims, and I am gratified to be able to state that near one hundred thousand applications havo been considered, and about seventy thousand is sue,! within the short space of nine months. If ade quate provisions be made by lay to carry into ef fect the recommendations of the Department, it is confidently expected that, before the close of tho next fiscal year, all who are entitled to the bene fits of the act will have received their war rants. The Secretary of the Interior has suggested in his report various amendments of tho, laws relating to pensions and bounty lands, for the purpose of more effectually guarding against abuses and frauds on the Government, to all of which I invite your particular attention. INDIAN RELATIONS. The large accession to our Indian population consequent upon tho acquisition of New Mexico and the extension of our settlements into Utah and Oregon, have given increased interest and impor tance to our relations with the atjorignal race. No material change has taken nlnra- iyitliin the last, N-iWh.rwC'tl ot ITfOTississippi rt, et .’T” J'er at peace with all of them, and it wi<7 ’ are of pleasure to you to they . lv advancing to civilization and the pursliief’of so cial life. Along the Mexican frontier, and in California, and Oregon, there have been occasional manifes tations of unfriendly feeling, and some depreda tions committed. I am satisfied however, that they resulted more from the destitute and starving condition of tho Indians than from any settled hostility toward the whit, s. As the settlements of our citizens progress towards them, the fame upon which they mainly rely for subsistence is driven off cr destroyed, and the only alternative left to them is starvation or plunder. It becomes us to consider, in view of this condition of thing,, whether justice and humanity, as well ns enlight ened economy, do not require that, instead of seeking to punish them for offences which are the result of our own policy towards them, we should not provide for their immediate wants and en courage them to engage in agriculture and to rely 1 on their labor, instead of the chase, for the means of support. Various important treaties have been negotia ted with different tribes during the year, by which their title to large and valuable tracts of country have been extinguished, all of which will, at the proper time, be submitted to the Senate for rati fication. BOUNDARY BETWEEN UNITED STATES AND MEXtCO. The joint commission under the treaty of Gua dalupe Hidalgo lias been actively engaged in run ning and marking the boundary line between the United States and Mexico. It was stated, in the last annual report of tho Interior, that the initial point on the Pacific and the point of junction of the Giia with the Colorado river had been deter mined, and the intervening line, about one hun dred and fifty miles in length, run and marked by temporary nionumetits. Since that time a monu ment of marble has been erected at the initial point, and permanent landmarks of iroti havo been placed at suitable distances along the line. The initial point on the Rio Grande ‘has also been fixed by the commissioners at latitude 32” 22', and at the date of the last communication the survey of the lino had been made thence west ward about one hundred and fifty miles to tho neighborhood of the copper mines. THE SEVENTH CENSUS.* [Returns all received but from California.— The proper department is engaged in classifying and arranging in tabular form. An appropria tion necessary to complete tile Work earnestly re . commended. The President recommends a uniform Fee Bill, , to be nllowcd District Attorneys, Clerks, Marshals, i &c. ( Recommends Congress to improve the harbors of our great Lakes and sea coast and tho naviga tion of our principal rivers. Thinks such matters are within the Constitutional power of Congress. The unobstructed navigation of the Mississippi and the prevention of overflows of that river deem ed of great importance. The survey of the Del ta of the river with hat view is nearly completed. President has done all he could to protect Mexican Frontier from the incursions of Indians within our borders—the case \ o\\<? o,f great ficully. Recommends an addition to the Military Force of the Union in California, to keep the Indians in subjection. Recommends an incense of the army, to correspond with the increased wants of thq ; countiy.] WAR AND NAVY DEPARTMENTS. I invite your attention to the suggestions on