Thursday Morning, July 4, 1816.
/ AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE.
“Hail, Indj:fent)knce! hail, the auspicious mom!
With jov we welcome thy return; ,
This is the Day which gave fair Freedom birth,
And ranked us with the nations of the earth.” :
The Fourth of July, a day memorable in the annals of American history, again returns.
Its return is welcomed by thousands and tens of thousands of the American family, who, this
day, celebrate the Anniversary of their Liberty—the freedom of the Western World. For
ty years ago, the fathers of our country announced the hallowed resolution, “that these
united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states; and that they are
absolved from all allegiance to the'British crown.” For the exercise of these natural and mo
ral rights, the mother country stigmatized us as REBELS, and made war upon us: yes, a
bloody, sanguinary, and eventful war ensued. But Heaven crowned our exertions with success.
After seven" 5 years” of labor and danger—of disasters and triumphs, Great-Britain acknowledged
our independence—and we became a free people—enrolled among the independent nations ol
The return of this day is doubly propitious, because it still finds us a free, prosperous and
happy people. Though the storm of war has recently beat upon our shores—though the voice
of- disaffection for a moment darkened our horizon—yet a kind Providence has restored to us
the blessings of Peace—and unusual tranquility every where reigns. Here, representative go
vernment is highly venerated, and in successful operation. Herey civil and religious liberty is
sacred, guaranteed by the Constitution and the laws. Here, no haughty monarch, no aspiring
duke or lord tramples upon the rights of the people, and grinds them by oppression. Here, the op
pressed of the Old World finds an asylum from the oppressor. Here only* on the habitable globe,
are genuine freedom and pure republicanism known. Hail, happy people! and
“Thrice happy land! where sacred freedom thrives,
Friend f the" opprest, andgiiurdian of our lives;
Europe amaz’d! beholds thy rising fame,
Arid unknown lands shall long revere thy name.”
Assembled, fellow-countrymen, as you will be this day to commemorate the birth day of
Independence, forget not the hand which has succoured you in ad versify, and made the sun
beams of prosperity to shine bright upon you. Cojitrkst your situation with the Old World.—
Where will you find a parallel to your own rising greatness and fame? Do you look into the
rolls of antiquity? Your search will be in vain. Glance your eye to Africa, Asia and Europe,
and nothing but slavery, ignorance, and superstition present themselves. But, Americans, how
different is your prospect! Though lately embarked in war, that war has terminated success
fully; it has raised our reputation as a military people: Our gallant Navv has acquired laurels
which confound our enemies and astonish the world: Our Army has done deeds ol valor which
would have beei worthy of Greece or Rome in the zenith of their greatness. But honorable
peace ensued. The din of war no longer thunders its echoes on our shore. Theinerchant, the hus-
Randman, the mechanic, and the laborer are no longer called to the tented field to defend their coun
try and oppose the steps of our invading foe—but each respectively pursues his vocation, none
to” disturb or make him a lira id—While we thus call to mind the distinguished goodness of Pro
vidence towards as, let this day be observed with propriety. Let ingratitude, intemprance, and
profanity be strangers to our breasts. Let party feelings be laid aside, but American sentiments
predominate; and the only strife be who shall do most to perpetuate the benign influence of Li
berty to generations yet unborn.
W e this day take the opportunity of presenting our readers with the Declaration of Independence,
the most important and interesting state paper that the records ol history can produce. W hether
we regard it, as a monument destined to preserve to a particular people the memory of their own
inestimable bright-right—of as an illustrious precedent to which every oppressed nation ol the earth
may appeal, when they nobly clare to Rebel against Tyranny and Usurpation—it equally
strixis as is the m ist deeply interesting production with which human wisdom and virtue have
blessed the race of man. It is notin the power of language to exhibit the magnitude and extent
pf its importance to the great family of mankind and to all succeeding ages of the world—Nor
could the pen of eloquence itself describe in appropriate terms, even its powerful influence on
the minds and hearts of our countrymen. Suffice it to say, that no philanthropic foreigner will
ever read it without admiration and applause; nor any true American listen to it without emo
tions of sympathy and indignation—of gratitude to his fore-fathers, and everlasting hostility to
IN CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1776.
By the Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled.
When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the
political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the
earth, the separate and equal station to which the law's of nature and of nature's God entitle
them, a decent respect for the opinions of mankind, requires, that they should declare the
causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evideut—that all men are created equal; that they are endow
ed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights: that among'these are life, liberty, and the
pursuit of happiness. That, to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men,-de
riving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any form of govern
ment becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it,
and to institute anew government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing Its
powers in sucli form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness.—
Prudence, indeed, will dictate, that governments long established should not be changed for light
and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more dispos
ed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which
they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the
same'object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is
their duty to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security.
Such has been the patient sufference of these colonies; and such is now the necessity which con
strains them to alter their former systems of government. The history of the present king of
Great-Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the
establishment of an absolute tyranny over these States. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a
candid world. ;
He ias refused his assent to law's, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless
suspended in their operation, till his assent should be obtained; and, when so suspended, he
has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other laws, for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless
those people would relinquish the right of representation in the Legislature—a right inestimable
to them, and formidable to tyrants only!
He lias called together legislative bodies, at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from
the depository of their puohc records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with
his measures. . \
He has dissolved Representatives Houses repeatedly, for opposing, with manly firmness, his
^invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused lor a long time after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby
the legislative powers, incapaole of annihilation, have returned to the people at large, for their
exercise; the state remaining in the mean time, exposed to all the danger of invasion from with
out, and convulsions within.
He hasjendeavored to prevent the population of these states; for that purpose obstructing the
laws for naturalization of foreigners: refusing to pass others, to encourage their migration hither,
and raising the conditions of new appropriations of lands.
He has obstructed tiie administration of justice, by refusing his assent to laws, for establishing
He has made judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount
and payment Of their salaries,
He has erected a multitude of new ofjfcers, and sent hither swarms of offices, to harrass our
people and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies, without the consent of our Legisla
tures. , X
He has affected to render the military independent of, and superior to, the civil power.
He has combined with others, to suuject us to a jurisdiction, foreign to our Constitution, and
unacknowledged by our laws; giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation:-—
For quartering large bodies of anifed troops among us:—
For protecting them, by a mock trial, irom punishment for any murders, which they should
commit on the inhabitants of these states:— i
For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world:—
For imposing taxes on us without our consent:—
. ...' depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of trial hy jury:—
For transporting us beyond seas, to be trieckfor pretend’d auffences:—*
For abofisfiing-the free system of English lawin a. neighboring province, establishing therp;, i
an arbitary government, ind enlarging its boundaries so af to render It at once an example and I
instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into tlifese colonies:— i
For taking away our-charters; abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering fundamental! I
the forms of oiir governments.-— ' . ' 1
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power, to legi s .j
late for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has 'abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection, and waging war against!
He has plundered our seas, ravaged out; coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of ou r i
people. * . I ‘
He is, at this time, transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the. works ®[i
death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun, with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy, scarce. |
ly paralelled in the most barbarous ages; and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow-citizens, taken captive oh the high seas, to bear arms again,;
thdir country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by P
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabi
tants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule o£ warfare is an undistin.
guished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
In every stage of these oppressions, we have petitioned for redress, in the most humble term« :
our petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A prince whose character is thus
marked, by every act, Which may define a tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them, from
time to time, of attempts made’by their legislature, to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction I
over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration ami settlement 3
here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured then I
by the ties of our common kindred, to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably in. 9
terrupt our connections and correspondence. They, too, have been deaf to the voice of justice IP
and consanguinity. We must therefore acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our seja- "
ration, pnd hold them as we hold the rest of mankind—enemies in war;—in peace, friends.
We,i therefore, «Ae Representatives of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, in general C< ti
gress Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world, for the rectitude of our intentim >,
Do, in the name and by the Authority of the good People of there colonies, solemnly publish an:
declare, that these(United Colonies, are, and of rigjitj ought to be, FREE AND kNDK-■
PENDENT STATES; that they are absolted from .all allegiance to the British crown, and that S
all political connection, between them and the state of Great-Britaiii, is and ought to be totally ?
dissolved; and that, as Free and Independent States, they have full power to levy War, conclude 1
peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things w hich indepen- 1
dent states may of right do. And for the support of this declaration, with a linn reliance on the f
protection of Divine Providence, w e mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and !
our sacred honor.
Signed by order and in behalf of the Congress. • John Hancock. President.
Attested. Charles Thompson, Secretary. |
New-Hampsliire.—Josiah Bartlett, William Whipple, Mathew Thornton.
Massachusetts Bay.—Samuel Adams, John Adams, Robert Treat Paine, Elbridge Gerry.
R/wde-Island, Sfc.—Stephen Hopkins, William Ellery;
Connecticut.—Roger Sherman, Samuel Huntington, William Williams, Oliver Wolcotf.
New-lbrk.—William Floyd, Philip Livingston, Francis Lewis, Lewis Morris.;
Mew-Jersey.—Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, John Hart, Abraham 1
Pennsylvania.—Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Franklin, John Morton, George Civ- )
mer, James Wilson, George Ross.
Delaware.—Caesar Rodney, Thomas M‘Kean, George Read.
Maryland:•—Samuel Chase; William Paca, Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll, of Carrolton.
TT.rginiu.'^- 1 George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jeflerson, Benjamin Harrison, Tho
mas Nelson, jun. Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter Braxton.
North Carolina.—William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn.
South Carolina.—Edward Rutledge, Thomas Heyward, jun. Thomas Lynch, jun. Arthur Mid
Georgia.—Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton.
WASHINGTON S LETTER ON BRADDOCK S DEFEAT.
From the Weekly Register. .
Mr. Nilf-s-—As the enclosed may cast an ad
ditional ray of light upon the history of our coun-
try.and as all that relates to Washington, how
ever minute, cannot fail to beqiarticularly inter
esting to every citizen of independent America,
and more especially, an accurate, simple and
unaffected relation of an event so important in
its nature and consequences as that ot Brad-
dock's defeat, dictated in the spirit ot feeling
and affection, by one of the most illustrious he
roes and patriots our country ever produced; l
send it to you for publication and preservation
in your valuable Register. This copy w us found
among the papers of the late colonel Henry Fitz-
hugh, ofKiiig George county, (Virginia,) indors
ed in his hand writing thus: “A copy ot colo
nel George Washington’s letter to his mother
immediately after Braddock’s defeat.” It w ill
be recollected that Mrs. Washington, the mother
of the late general, then resided at Bushfield,
in Westmoreland county, on the Potomac, the
next county below King George; and also, that
Mr. Samuel Washington, the general's brother,
then lived next neither to colonel Fitzhugh,
with whom he was in habits of intimacy and
friendship. From these circumstances there
can be no doubt about its authenticity.
Copy of Colonel Ge-.rge Washington’s letter
to his mother, immediately after Braddock’s
“‘Honored Madam—As I doubt not you have
lizard of our defe.it, and perhaps have had it
rittpresented in a worse light (if possible) than it
deserves, I have taken the earliest opportunity
to give you some account of the engagement, as
it happened, w ithin 7 miles of the French fort,
on Wednesday, the 9th inst. We marched on
to that place, without any ‘ considerable loss,
having only now and then a straggler picked up
by the French Scouting Indians. When w e
came there, we were attacked by a body of
French and Indians, whose numbers, I am cer
tain, did not exceed 300 men. Our’s consisted
of about 1300 well armed troops, chiefly of the
English soldiers, who were struck with such a
panic that they behaved with more cowardice
than it is possible to conceive. The officers be
haved gallantly, in order to encourage their
men, for which they suffered greatly, there be
ing nearly 60 killed and wounded, a large pro
portion out of the number we had: The Virgi
nia troops shewed a great deal of bravery, and
were near all killed; for I believe, out of three
companies, there is scarce 30 men left alive.
Captain Peyconee and all his officers, down to a
corporal, were killed. Captain Poulson shared
near as hard a fate, for only one of his men w as
leit. In short, the dastardly behavior of those
they call regulars, exposed all others, that were
inclined to do their duty, to almost certain death
—and at last, in despite of all the efforts of the
officers to the contrary, they broke and ran, as
sheep pursued by dogs, and it was impossible to
“The general was wounded, of which he died
three days alter. Sir Peter Hacket was killed
in the field, where died many other brave offi
cers. 1 luckily escaped without a wound, though
I had four bullets through my coat, and two
horses shot under me. Captains Qrme aadMor
ris, two of I the general’s aids-de-camp, were
wounded early in the engagement, which ren
dered the dijty hai - d upon me, as I was the only
person then|left to distribute the general's or
ders, which 1 was scarcely able to do, as I was
net hall recovered from a violent spell of k-
ness that cohfined me to’ my bed apd a waggon
lor above ten days.* 1 am still in a w eak ami
feeble condition, which induces me to halt here
tw o or three days, in hopes of recovering a little
strength to enable me to proceed homewards,
from whence probably I shall not be able to stir
until towarqs September.”
The following remarks on the progress nf
science in the United States, are extracted from
a letter, written, as is said, by Dr. Mitchell to
one of lus European correspondents;—(iamdeti
“There w as probably never such a time as the
present for the cultivation of natural sciences in
America. Think of the number of able hands
actually engaged in the several branches, for
which they have a preference, and whom 1 have
had the pleasure of seeing within a few months
at New-York. Mr. Bradbury, who returned
from the land of the Mandanes and Ricaras. on
the high Missouri, a few years ago, loaded with
indigenous plants and other productions, is now
as ardent and as capable as ever to discover
new objects. Mr. Frazer, after enriching Eu
rope with the plants which he and his father
found in tlieir long and diversified tours through
the United .States, has lately brought from Great
Britain a rich supply for our parterres and gar
dens. Mr. lialinc-sque, already distinguished
for his ingi nious, learned and original publica
tions, is now employing the acuteness of genius
in botanical, zoological, and other investigations.
Mr. Nestall, the traveller through the vast re
gions west of Lake Superior, and north of the
river Missouri, possesses superior qualifications
and unquenchable ardor. Whitlow, well know n.
among other things, for his zeal in favor of a new
economical vegetable, and fpr introducing most
elegant figures of plants, painted in transparent
colors. Mr. Pursdi, the author of the Flora of
North-America, a grand performance, posting
up all that his predecessors and cotemporaries
have done, and adding thereto his own exten
sive and correct researches. Mr. Rich, the pub
lisher of the Synopsis of the Genera of American
plants, the neatest and most convenient manual
that has ever been offered to our botanical stu
dents. Mr. Le Seur, the famous voyager to
Timor, New-llolland and Van Diemen’s Land,
whose knowledge of marine zoology surpasses
that of every other person with whom I have con
versed. Mr. Maclure, long known as our
ablest geologist; has now come to take the field
again, with directing and doing the most inter
esting works. Admiral Coffin, in addition to
professional merit of an exalted degree, is a
treasure of ichthyological facts; and much may
be expected from his spirited exertions to ex
plore the depths of the ocean. Nor are these
all,” &c. j
J. C. i Zimmerman, esq. has been appointed
commercial agent, ad interim, of his majesty
the king of the Netherlands, for the city and
state of New-York.—New- Fork Mercantile Ad-