Os the Campaign of the North IVestern
J Jinny, in the year mi. Addressed to
the people of the United Slates.
On the .abject of the number which I
•ImU now to you. Heel more mtereet
than on any other winch has been or will be
dicussed. It » the procUm.l.un wh.ch ,
issued to the inhabitants of Canada. 1 Ins (
was not made an article «» charge .gainst
me, because it would have re acted on the ,
administration. By the letter of the he ,
cretarv of War, of the 24th June, and ,
which was received before the proclamation
was issued, I was authorised, when I com (
menced oftVr sive operations, to give assur- ,
ances of protection to tlie inhabitants, in ,
their persons, property and rights. 1 his
was the foundation of the proclamation, and |
the substance of it was authorized in this ,
letter, and the other parts of it contained g
reasons to induce the inhabitants not to take
anv part in the contest. I shall endeavour
thrive it a fair and candid explanation, and f
state the motives which induced me to issue
it in the form it appeared. Whatever opin (
ion you may form of it—whether it meets (
with your approbation or disapprobation—
I pledge myself to produce authentic test)- ,
mony, that as soon as it was published, it £
was sent to the government, approved by (
the government, and consequently became (
the act of the government; and that, in ,
publishing it, I was intluenced by pure (
and honorable motives. _ . ■,
L feel the more solicitude on this subject, j
because, many honourable men, who have |
approved of my conduct generally, during .
that campaign, have not tieen satisfied with
every part of the proclamation. As many
of vou, perhaps, have not had an opportuni
ty of seeing it, I shall here transcribe the
whole of it; after which, I shall give such
explanations as in my opinions the text will
Bo William Hull, Governor of the ir.r
ritory of .Michigan, and Commanding
the Norik Western 'nny.
Inhabitants or Canada,
After thirty years of peace and prosperi
ty, the United Stales have been driven to
arms. The injuries and aggressions, the
insults and indignities of Great Britain have
once more left them no alternative but man
ly resistance or unconditional submission.
The army under my command lias inv tiled
your country ; the standard of the Union
now waves over the territory of Cana la.
To the peaceable, unoffending inhabitants,
ii b.ings neither danger nor difficulty. I
come to find enemies, not to make them. 1
come to protect, not to injure you.
Separated by an immense ocean and an
extensive wilderness Irom Great Bntain,
you have no participation in her councils,
no interest in her conduct. You have felt
her tyranny, you have seen her injustice.
But I do not ask you to avenge the one or
redress the other.* The United States are
sufficiently powerful to idl'ml every securi
ty consistent with their rights and your ex-'
pectatious. I tender to you the invaluable
blessingsot civil, political, and religions li
berty, and their necessary result; individu
al and general prosperity : that liberty
which gave decision to our councils and en
ergy to our conduct,, in a struggle for inde
pendence, which conducted us safely and
triumphantly through the stormy period of'
the revolution—-that liberty which raised us I
to an elevated rank among the nations of the!
world ; and which afforded a greater mea
sure of peace and security, of wealth and|
improvement, than ever fell to the lotol any;
In the name of my country, and the au-j
thority of government, 1 promise you pro
tection, to your persons, property, and rights.
Remain at your homes, pursue your peace-j
fnl and customary avocations,; raise not
your hands against your brethren. Many
of your fathers fought tor the freedom and
independence we now enjoy. Being chi 1
dreo, therefore, of the same family with us,
and heirs to the same heritage., the arrival of
an army of friends must be hailed by you,
with a cordial welcome. You willbeeman
cipa'ed from tyranny and oppression, and
restored to the dignified station of freemen.
Had I any doubt of eventual success, 1
might ask your assistance, but 1 do not,
I come prepared for every contingency.
I have a force which will break down
all opposition, and that force is but the
vanguard of a much greater. If enn
tiarv to your own interest, and the just ex
pectations of my country, you should take!
a part in the approaching contest, you will
be considered as enemies, and the horrors
and calamities of war will stalk before you.
If the barbarous and savage policy of Great
Britain be pursued, and the savages be let
loose t i murder our citizens and butcher
our w *me n and children, this war will be a
war ol extermination. Ihe first stroke of the
tomahawk, the first attempt with the scalp
ing knife, will be the signal of one indis
criminate scene of desolation. No while
mnn found lighting by the aide of an Indi
an will be taken prisoner —instant death
wnll be his lot. If the dictates of reason,
dmv. justice, and humanity, cannot prevent
th employment of a force which respects
no rights, aad knows no wrong.it will b>
presented oy a severe and relentless sys
I'm ot retaliation. 1 doubt mu your cour
a end lir.nness, I will not doubt your al
taciiment to liberty. If you tender youi
iei ce» voluntarily, they will be accepted
readily. The United ttutes offer you pence,
liberty, ami security. Your choice lies be*,
tween thc*e and war, slavery or destruc
tion. Choose then ; choose wisely, and may
He who knows the justice of our cause, and
who holds in his hand the fate of nations,
guide you to the result the most compatible
with your rights and interest, your peace
and happiness. WILLIAM HULL.
Before 1 proceed to any particular ex
planations, I ask you to bear in mind the
situation in which I was placed by the or
ders of the government. I was in an ene
mv’s country, with the command of a small
body of militia, and a few regulars, (the
numbers will hereafter be described) nearly
three hit ml red miles distant from any ma
gazines of provisions, munitions of war, or
re-enforcements. The enemy with which I
hail to contend, was all the British troops
m Upper Canada, all the militia of that
province, and all the northern and western
Indians, both, in the territory of Canada
and the United States, together with all the
strength and resources of the wealthy and
powerful North-west Company.
Placed in this insulated situation, by the
orders of the government ; and surrounded
bv all the veteran British troops in Upper
Canada, a powerful militia, subject to the
command of the British governor of the
province, who was the general of the army ;
with but a small stock of provisions on hand
and no possibility .f obtaining a further sup
ply, as the lake was commanded by a Bri
tish naval squadron, and the only commu
nication by laud, a wilderness of more than
two hundred miles, filled with hostile sav
ages ; I saw no possibility of even sustain- \
ing my situation, unless the militia could
be prevented from taking a part in the war,
and joining the British standard. I
A large portion ot the population of that
province had emigrated from the U lited
States. They had been educated with the
principles of freedom and independence ;
and some of them,and many oft u ir la’tiers,
had fought and bled iji our revolutionary
contest. They were situated more than
three thousand miles from the country to
which they ware subjected, and had no par
ticipation or interest in the measures it a
dopted. Having fora number of years liv
ed in then neighbourhood, I had often heard
them express the injustice and oppression
they sutfi red, and their natural right, and
strong wishes, to participate in the same
freedom and independence which their Bre
thren of the United Slates enjoyed, and
under which they were so prosperous and
happy. They were informed that the force
I had was but the vanguard ofamuchgrea
ter. I considered that 1 had solid grounds
to make this declaration.
In the first place, it will be seen that I
was authorized to pledge the faith of the
government, that they should be protected
in their persons, property, and rights.
Could I have believed that the government
would have authorized me to nave mad
this pledge, without furnishing the moans of
redeeming it ? I beg you, my fellow citi
zens, to look back, ami consider what took,
place, before I left Washington, on this sub
ject. In my official communications to (he
government, I stated, that in the event of
war with Great Britain, it would be neces
sary to command the waters of Lake Erie,
by a naval forte superiour to that of the
enemy; to provide re-enforcements, to se
cure the communication through the wilder
ness I was to penetrate —and a powerful ar
my, to co-oporate from the States of New-
and Pennsylvania, which b irder on
'the cast part of the lake: that, without
| these measures, it would be impossible for
line to sustain my situation ; and the ports
|of Detroit, Michillimackauack, and Chica
igo, would fall into the possession of the
I enemy. 1 hope, and indeed believe, you
! will be satisfied, there were sufficient
grounds on my part fur making this decla
I now come to that part of the proclam i
tion which regards the Indians, and the
employment of them in the war by the Bri
tish government. It is well known, that
the mode of Indian warfare is to give no
quarter. After torturing their prisoners in
the mast inhuman manner, they put them to
death, unless they believe they will be use
ful to them as slaves, or they can obtain an
high ransom for them, in their warfare,!
they have no respect to age, to women, ot
.children.; wherever their power extends, it j
becomes an indiscriminate scene of desola-l
tion ; and, on their part, a war of extermi
In the former wars, it is well known, that
many of the Canadians have joined theirj
bands, and in every respect assumed their:
juress, and so assimilated themselves to
them, that it was impossible to make anyi
distinction. If it is the Indian mode of, 1
warfare to give no quarter, it is certainly
proper for those against whom they fight to
observe the same rule. If white men paint
and disfigure themselves, and assume the
dress of Indians, and fight by their aides in
war, in such a manner that they cannot be
distinguished, 4 ask whether it is not pro
per to ire a i them in the same manner as In- -
dians. By a reference to General Brock’s
proclamation, in answer to mine, it will be
seen that he justified this mode of warfare
of his savage allies.
It is observed, if the barbarous and sav
ige policy of Great Britain be pursued, and
be savages are let loose to murder our citi
Lens, and butcher our women and children,
his war will be a war of extermination. I
(hen states, that if the dictates of reason,
luty,justice, and huma iitv cannot prev«n
he employment of a force, which respect
no rights, and knows no wrongs, it will bo
by & seve»e and relentless sys
tein of retaliation.
It will be perceived, that all these decla
rations are grounded on the principle of re
taliation ; this principle, I have ever beer
'aught by the high author ity of the laws o
nations, is well founded and just. Tht
whole proclamation has been recited ; and
I beg it may be particularly observed, that
the threatening declarations a*e hypotheti
cal ; that, if the enemy pursue this barbarous
policy we must retaliate in our own defence.
On the 13th of July, the day after it was
published, a copy of it was sent to the go
vernment. The paragraph of tire letter is
in these words; —“ Enclosed is a copy of a
proclamation to the inhabitants, which I hope
will be approved by the government. Two
hundred copies have been printed and are
lit circulation.” See Hull's Trial, page 10
of the Index. Here follow several extracts
of letters receiveil from the war department,
in reply to my letters aoout (hat dale.
“ IVar Department Hu *, t, 1813.
«< Sin Your letters of the 13th and 14'lr,
ogether with your proclamation, have been
received. Your operations are apmoved by
the President.” |j^
In another letter, dated on the same day
the proclamation was received, theSecreia
ryof war says; “The progress you have
made, and the success which has attended it,
are highly satisfactory to the President.”
In another letter from the Secretary of
W ar, dated the B*h of August, eight days
ifter the receipt ot the proclamation, he
says : “ Your letters of the 21st and 23d
of July have been received and your arrange
ments are approved by the President,”
These letters have lately been obtained
from the war office, and are certified to be
Th is it appears, from the records of the
war office, that my letter of the 13th ot July
enclosing the proclamation, won received on
the Ist of August; that on the same day,
the Secretary wrote me a letter acknowledg
i g the receipt of it, and saving that my
operations were approved by the President.
On the same day, the Secretary wrote
me another letter, referring likewise to the
one enclosing my proclamation ; in which
he said,'* tlial the progress I had made, and
the success which had attended it was hgh
ly satisfactory to the Presidentand in
an ithcr loiter, written eight days alter the
receipt of tip; proc umation, lie savs, refer
ring to the same subject, “ ycur arrange
ments are approved by the President.”
After this explanation and state of facts,
which lias been proved by the records of
the government. 1 co fidently submit the
subject 'o y-.ur candid derision.
1 have been the more particular on this
subject for two reasons which have not been
mentioned. One is, although this procla
mation was not an article of charge against
me, as I before observed, yet it was copied
from the recoroT-f the government, and
sent to the court martial as evidi nee against
me on my trial, and published with the oth
er evidence, by Lieut. Col. Forbes, in his
report of my trial. There cyuld have been
no other motive, but to have created unfa
vourable impressions against me. it is with
reluctance, that I state the other reason, be
cause it may in some measure, affect char
acters, for whom I have the highest respect,
a"d on whom the future hopes of our coun
try are placed.
By the journal of the proceedings of (he
commissioners, at the treaty of Ghent, i'
appears, that die commissioners on the part
oi Great Britain, stated some improper ag
gressmus. which our government had com
mitted against (he inhabitants of Canada.-
Nm having the journal before me, j cannot
state precisely, and it is not necessary, what
they were. Toe American commissioners
asked them for the evidence. The procla
mation, winch has been referred to, was
offered as evidence. The American com
mi'sioner> d dared that it was unauthori
zed and disapproved by the government.
On this subject, my fellow citizens, you
have biT-ie vuu the documents and evi
dence, giving me an authority to issue this
proclamation, of its bdng sent to the gov
ernment, and the Piesident’s approbation
of it, in three letters, after it had been re
ceived, —my enquiries of the Hon John Q.
| Adams, on what grounds that declaration
was made, and his answer, are contained in
jmy second number.
I I’hus, it appears, that every wheel, and
'.indeed the whole machinery of the adminis
(tration, was put in motion, however dis
tant from the centre of operation, to exone
rate itself, and place on my shoulders, all
the misfortunes which took place at the
!commencement of the war; a war, howe
jver just were the causes ofit, was declared
without any preparation ; and I can safely
appeal to the public records, to prove, con
trary to every opinion I bad given on the
In not less than three official communica
tions made to the administration, I s'atei!
that if war was declared, without the com
mand of the lake, Uetr >it, Vlichiliinackmack
and Chicago, must in the nature of things
fall into the hands of die enemy.
American Navy. — V. paragraph in ?
Washington paper states, that we shut
have in commission, or ready for service—
-7 line of b ittle ships, 10 frigates, 3 corvettes
15 sloops of war, including the ten addition
atones authorized a' the last session v l
Congress, wiih a corresponding proportion
o' light vessels.
It is -tated in the Philadelphia Gazette,
tut the cargo of the ship Caledonia, just
arrived there, cost 84,060.
q By the ship Calhoun, Allen, arrived on
L t Saturday from New-York, in the short pas
sage of 72 hours, we have received papers
s to the 13th inst. in which we have the in
. formation of the arrival at that place, of the
s ship New England, Berry, from Liverpool,
. whence she sailed on the 15th March. The
g papers brought by her contain no political
a news of importance; we give, however, a
e summary of their contents from the New
„ York Mercantile Advertiser of the 13th inst.
e The following will show the state of the
j Liverpool market;
3 LIVERPOOL MARKET.
Liverpool, March 12th.
< In Saturday and Monday hist, particular
ly Monday, we had a brisk demand for Cot
ton, and our prices advanced during the two
i, days about 1| to I 5 per lb.—butfro.m Tues
p day till Friday evening, we were very liati
[and lost about one half the advance men-1
p tinned. The sales of the week (the bulk of’j
.j which were inadeduring the first three days,}
e amounted to 17,600 balM, which included
the following American descriptions : 9,200
bales Upland, at 13J to 15d ; 550 Orleans,
fd4 to I6d; 420 Teuuessees, to 14d,
gland 260 S. Islands ut 20d to 2s 7d. On
e Saturday, a belter demand sprung up again
1 —The safes on that day amounted to about
. 4000 bags, at an advance on that day of Ijd
on Friday’s prices.—We are still in the
I hands of the speculators, who can raise or
depress us at theii pleasure. Ashes liave
j been gradually on the decline. Sales last
..'week, 630 bis. Mont. Pots, 35 a 37s 6d ;
y-1200 bis. Pearls 44s 6to 40s 6. No sales of
,|U. S. Ashes, except 40 bis. stained Pots, at
38 to SB> 6d. 1085 bis. Turpentine, of
. prime quality, brought the advanced price
yof 13s. 6. 222 ts. Cloverseed sold it 62s to
. 70. Sales of Flaxseed, 54hhds. Baltimore,
8 at 60s; 400 old New York at 70s and 100
>jdu. new, at 80s. The business done in
II Tobacco has been very trifling.
j! The speculate demand last noticed for
. almost eve y description of W produce,
! nearly sub-ided du* ing the week.
j “P. S March 14 th, evening. —There
was a moderate inquiry for Cotton this even
. ing, which increased towards the close of
die business. The total sales of the day are
estim ted at 10,000 bags—7ooo of which
f are Egyptian a 13j a I3'£d. The remainder'
(.were chieflv A erican, and of which there!
[were 1300 Uplands at 13d. Prices remain
si without alteration.”
1 London, March 12.
A general gloom pervaded die money
t market this morning. Consols 93|. ft is
| believed the speculators are attempting to
) depress the stocks, for the purpose of uiak
i ing purchases.
Every thing in (he Colonial market was
3 flat. There was a sale of foreign coffee,
a the result of which was a decline in the
price of from 2s to 3s per cwt. There was
\\ nothing doing in sugars or spices.
Our accounts from Batavia are to the Bfh
.of November. The spirit of English specu
lation would soon be felt in that colony, two
r fist sailing vessels having been dispatched
some time ago with orders to purchase up
ie coffee, and all the other productions of
t The idea of a loan to Jamaica is abandon
ed, the measure not being approved of by
Jntima'um has just been received from go
t verninent that in future all quarantine re
t gt fictions and charges are to be done away in
s the case of vessels arriving from the Medi
. 'erranean with clean bills of health. Thus
3 the valuable productions of Italy, especially
raw silks may no v be received in London in
. about the same time as they have hitherto
been detained in quarantine.
i The deputation of West India Merchants
- and Planters waited yesterday on the Chan
-3 cellor of tiie Exchequer with their memorial
- prayi: g a reduction ofdutyon Rum, proper
I tionally with that on British spirits. They
. were favorably received, and left the Chan
cellor with a confident anticipation us a sue
ii cessful result to their application.
II The indemnity act is yet under conside
ration in the French Parliament.
I It is stated that the Turks will make a
- more powerful attempt than ever to subdue!
-'the Greeks the ensuing campaign.
-| The town of Santa Maura, (in the lonian!
,ll Islands,) and several villages in the island
e of Leucadia, were destroyed on the 19th of
- January at noon, by an Earthquake; about
d 60 persons were buried in the ruins, and a
v much greater number were wounded.
London, March 8.
e In consequence of the death of Colonel
Francis Manners Sutton, the Speaker’s
- brother, the House of Commons did not meet;
d this day. Colonel Sutton died on the sth
i- inst. at Tenby, after a lingering illness,
k aged 43.
New-York, April 11,
LATEST THOM FRANCE.
a We have perused Paris papers to the 3d
II and Havre to the 4th ult. inclusive, received
-by the packet ship Cadmus, Capt. Van Dyke,
s, They do not contain a word of political
1- news, but the commercial intelligence is of
I a very interesting character, as w ill be ob
n served by the following accounts of sales
during the first three days in March :
SALES AT HAVRE,
it March 1. —1388 bales Alabama Cotton,
37 a3b s.; 4U7 do-Georgia, 27 to 281,; 352
do Louisiana, 32} to 53 ; 2600 bags St. Dor.
mingo Coffee, 15$ 9. short price.
March 2.—235 casks Rice, 35f. to 35f.
62} ; 35 bbls. brown Sugar, 74f. 50; 903
bags St. Domingo Cofi'ee, 20s to 24J- sols,
March 3.—1246 bales Alabama 29 s.;
274 do Tennessee, 30a 32; 150 Mobile, 30;
728 Georgia, 28} a 30 ; 327 Louisiana, 32
a 35} ; 1115 bags St. Domingo Coffee, 24f
a 25, lung price.
New-York, April 11.
GREAT FIRE AT BOSTON.
We have received from our Boston corres
pondent, Mr. Topliff, the following dis
tressing particulars of a lire in that city:
JV. Y. Gaz.
! Boston, April 8.
Fire, —Last night about half past lets o’-
clock, an alarm of fire was given which was
soon ascertained to be in a wooden building
in Doane-st. in the rear of State-st. said to
have taken place in a counting room, occu
i pietl by some truckmen. The fire spread
with great rapidity, and in a short time the
buildings contiguous vyere enveloped in
'Haines. The wind was high from N. E.
jand the flames spread with terrific fury in
all directions, so that stores in State, Broad,
Kilby, and Central-streets, were on fire a
the same time.
The skill and persevering efforts of o
firemen, seemed to be exerted in vain, at :
although we were reinforced with engi os
and assistance from the neighboring towns,
the fire continued to rage till after 4 o’c
this morning. The confusion necess I?
produced by the removal of goods, tr ss,
carts and other vehicles crowding through
the streets, and each one intent upon the
rescue of his own property, together with
the appaiing appearance of the devouring
element, presented such a scene as I never
before witnessed. The fire spread with
such rapidity, that a great part of the goods
in the buildings were destroyed.
A number of stores west of Kilby-street
were emptied, or yearly so, of their con
tents, and piled up in promiscuous heaps ia
the streets, such was the apprehension that
the fire would not be stopped short of Con
gress-street. Every .thing in the Post-Of
fice, in this building, was packed up and
ready for removal, and I was also prepared
to rpiit, as at one time it appeared that no
effort of man could prevent the fire from
extending to it: but by the great exertion
of our firemen it was arrested on the east
I side of Kilby-street. Several of our inde
pendent companies volunteered their servi
ces last night, and remained underarms till
daylight, guarding the property saved—ma
ny of them are still oil that duty, as the
streets are almost 'blocked up with every
specie of goods.
The lire, took place in (he very centre of
business, and probably there is not a sec
tion of it where a greater amount of proper
ty was at risk. It is impossible to calcu
late the loss. Most of the stores were oc
cupied by dry good dealers, having just re
ceived their spring stock. I have been
round this forenotin and viewed the ruins*
and have ascertained the following particu
lars relative to the number of buildings des
troyed, occupants, See,
Broad-street. —Pour stores occupied by S.
11. Norris, dry goods dealer; Daniel Ap
pleton. do.; (i. &T. Searle, do.; bewail,
Williams & Co. d 0,.; L. P. Grosvenor, dry
goods broker ; Mitchell Sc Freeman, crock
ery, wear dealers.
Central-street. —Twenty stores, occupied
by J. Leeds & Co. dry good dealers ; Sam’l
Sumner, crockery ware dealer; William
Wl'i'ney, dry goods dealer; Nathaniel M.
Heywood, do ; j. Snelling, jr. commission
merchant; Edward Clark Sc, Co. dry goods
dealers ;G. N. Fisher, do.; Richard Ward,
do.; Dexter & Almny.do. ; Ward & Snel
ling, do.; Phineas Foster, do.; Bean & I
Blake, do.; 8. R- Miller Sc Co. do.; G. &T.
Searle, do ; Daniel Appleton, do.; John
Rogers, do. ; Josiah Dow, dry goods broker;
Win. H. Ward, dry goods dealer ; Brigham
& Waldo, do. ; Hubbard Greenough & Co.
do. L. Tiffany Sc Co. do. ; Fessenden
Clarke, do. ; G & W. Bangs St Co. do. ;
B. B. Grant, do.; S. H. Babcock & Co.
do ;Wm Hurd, do. ; VViu- T. Martin, do.;
Dwight F. Faulkner, do.; John Fairfield,
Stale-street —Four stores, occupied by
Hastings & Marsh, drugs and paints; S.
Thaxter & Son, mathematical instruments,
j&c.; Gedney King, do.; Johnson & Sew
! all, dry goods dealers; Francis Whitney,
W ost India goods dealer.
•j Kilby-street. —Four stores occupied bv'
Thomas Donnie, jr. dry goods dealer ; Skin
i ner Sc Dunn, do. Samuel A. VV'alker, do. ;
Nathan Bridge, merchant; Stephen Thay
er, hardware ; C. & C. F. Adams, dry
I goods dealers; William Lang, junr. do.;
i! Benj. Adams Sc Co. do ; Fox Sc Bixby, do.;
: | Daniel Stone, do.; Isaac Samuel do.; Scud
: der & Park, hardware dealers.
,j Liberty Square. —Six stores, occupied by
Michael Roulstone, plumber and glazier ;
Joshua Bannister, tinman ; Eph. Locke,
auctioneer; S. L. Cunningham, do.; Jer.
Smalledge, painter; John Evans, grocer ;
I—, oyster shop.
1 /)jane-street —Six stores improved ami
. occupied by T. K. Jones & Co. auctioneers ;
Ij Henry Parkett, inspector of pickled fish ;
f Little Sc Edes inspectors of beef and pork,
- and cooper*; Wells Sc Basset, do. ;S.
s Train Sc Co. leather and hide dealers;!.
Groce, carpenter; S. Bowker, Blacksmith;
P. Perrin, agent for Dover nail factory ;
, Hastings & Marsh, paints and drug deal
! era; Maconsber, Howard, Sc Sawin, U. S-