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The weekly sun. (Columbus, Ga.) 1857-1873, August 02, 1859, Image 1

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oSlceklij §hm. T. Df.WMIF K. I V VRINGTON....T. GILBERT. THUS. GILBERT A CO., r'tlillVoprietors. —— SUBSCRIPTIONS. For one jour, pyal>lein advance 4-2 no F,ir -six moat)i9*j>ayallc in advance 1 i>-> ADVERTISEMENTS. Advertisements will be iueerted in Sim at one dollar per sqmireden lim s or less in nonpareil type,) for the first insertion, arid fifty cents for each subsequent insertion cf the same. Professional and other cards, not exceeding five lines, inserted six months for eight dollars, i r for twelve months at fourteen dollars. Announcements of candidates for a time not ex ceeding three months, five dollars: hr all time over three months, at the rate of two dollars, per month—pay required in advance. Tuesday August 2, 185 9. Mr. David I*. King, formerly of Arba coochey, Ala., died at Santa Clara, Cali fornia, on the 17th of June. + The Baptist State Convention of South Carolina convenes its session at Sumter, S. C., to-day. ♦- - The dwelling of Mr. John Guedron, in Harrisburg, near Augusta, was destroy ed by fire on the morning of the ‘27th in stant. — The Raleigh Standard understands the Central American Missiou has been ten dered to Hon. J>. M. llarringer, of North Carolina, and declined. Seven cases of sun stroke occurred in Memphis, Tenn., on Thursday last, and one on Friday, two of which terminated fatally. + The Athens (Tenn.) Post pays that no rain has fallen in that immediate vicinity for three weeks or more, and that the dry, hot weather is beginning to tell very seriously upon the cornfields. ♦ The 15th of August is the birth-day of Napoleon 1., and is oberved as a holi day in France. The truce between Aus tria and the Allies in the recent con test in Daly terminates on that day. ♦ The Mobile Tribune says Mr. John Smith, of Barre, Miss., one of the most extensive manufacturers and wealthiest citizens, committed suicide on the ISth instant, by hanging himself in Iris own bouse. No cause is assigned for the deed. ♦ A mass meeting of the Sons and friends of Temperance is appointed to come off at Atlanta on the 15th of September. Rev. J. E. Ryerson and other distin guished temperance orators are to be present and address the meeting. So says the Crusader. ♦ The Raleigh Standard states that the Trustees of the University of North Car olina, at their recent meeting, decided to tender the Professorship of History in that institution to tlie Rev. Francis L. Hawks, of New York. The Standard be lieves he will accept. r - At a . meeting of the Directors of the Savannah, Albany and Gulf Rail Road, in Savannah on Tuesday, Captain John Screven was elected President of the road, to supply the vacancy caused by the death of Dr. James P. Screven. Southern Planters’ Convention. The Grand .1 unction (Tenn) Quid Nunc says: The Great Planters’ Convention of the Southern States, for the promotion of Southern Agriculture, will convene at Nashville, Tenn., on the 10th of October next—the time of holding our State Fair. _. The Alta California, speaking of the way the Fourth was celebrated, says: Never before in San Francisco, has the day been so generally and so patriotically celebrated; there was no quarrelling, no confusion, no drunkenness upon the streets, all was conducted with becoming dignity and order, of which we may just ly he proud. The Democratic Congressional Conven tion in the Augusta District, met in Au gusta on Tuesday, and nominated John .1. Jones, of Burke county, as a candidate for Congress, to take the place of lion. A. H. Stephens. The Constitutionalist says Mr. Jones was the Democratic can didate for Congress in that district, in 18')•'!, and sustained the canvass with great credit to his party and himself. Fatal AUr ay In Huntsville, Ala. An altercation occurred on Wednesday last, 20th inst., in Huntsville, Ala., be tween two journeymen carpenters named John Whitworth and Samuel Davis, in which the former was killed by a blow over (lie head from a stick of wood in the hands of the latter. No grounds for commitment wero found against Davis, and the Court discharged him. - ♦ If any one doubts our capacity to “keep cool” under the present arrange ments, — with our own fan in our left baud and the devil at our right with his fan, why, all we have to say’ is, they’ are as green as a gourd. Fan Devil.— Col. Sun. We trust our friends proximity to the devil may always be as cool and agreea ble ns at present. — Augusta Dispatch. Certain and sure Mr. Dispatch. Our Devil is one of the right stamp, not of that burning sort you are used to in Au gusta, and by our own and his efforts we expect to keep as cool as a “cowcumber” with these fans, and when irritated, to be enabled by this process to take to the ir ritating parties “like a feather.” ♦ Miss Bowden, aged 12 or 11 years, was thrown front a buggy in Marshall county, Tenn., last week, and killed. She was the daughter of the widow Bowden of that county. The Wetumpka (Ala.) Spectator states that Mr. A. S. Fiquet was brutally mur dered at Nixburg in that county, last Sat urday, by a roan named Carter. Carter has been arrested. l\m. Newson, of Nashville. Tenn., while on his way to visit his relatives in Mississippi, was thrown from the train of the Mississippi and Tennessee Bail Koad, last Wednesday, ami so seriously injured that he died in a few minutes. The Democratic State Convention of California, have nominated Hon. Milton S. Latham for Governor. The vote stood, lor Latham 133, Weller 104, and for Nu gent 2V*. Mr. L. was in 1848-9 and 1850, a resident of Russell county, Ala. The following items are from the Waynesboro’ News, published in Burke county, Georgia: A gentleman has left at our office a head ot corn, containing eleven well de veloped ears on one stem. It is agreed that the crops of our coun ty are good. It is dry at this time, and a continuance of this weather mav injure them. There are 4,000,000 scholars and 150- 000 teachers in tl%e public schools of the l nited States. There is one scholar for every live persons. In Great Britain, there is oae scholar to every eight per sons. Iu France, one to every ten. The election for city officers is begin ning to be agitated. Two candidates for the Mayoralty are already announced. A. J. Noble and Walter Coleman, Esq. Are there any more entries for the race? Trot out the steeds..— Mont. Adr. VOLUME IH-. Kansas Constitutional Convention, The Kansas Constitutional Convention is now in session at Wyandotte, and is slowly progressing with its labors. A Bill of Rights has been reported, but not yet definitely acted upon. It contains twenty-three sections. R “ eis “i*h the declaration that all political power is inherent in the people; prohibits slavery in tire State; proclaims religious tolera tion : defends the soundness of the writ of habeas corpus ; protects the freedom of legislative debate, forbids the transpor tation fit.m the Btatc of any party for any offence committed within the .State limits: prohibits imprisonment for debt; insures the naturalized citizens the full privileges accorded to natives; anu de clares that no citizen of the State shall be held to appear before the Supreme Court of the United States an an appeal from the supreme court of the te, but that when appeals are taken on questions of inter-State law. they shall only be through or froui the district courts ot the United States. The negro question occupies a large share of the convention's attention, nnd comes up iu a variety of forms. The sec ond article of the report of the Commit tee on Education, required that the legis lature should establish a uniform system of education by means of common schools and the higher grades, “which schools shall be open for the admission of pupils of both sexes.’’ When the matter was brought up, Mr. McDowell.(Hem.) moved to add the words “except negroes and mulattoes.” This was the occasion of a most exciting debite, between the Demo crats and Republicans, of which we pre sent a few gems, illustrating the spirit of both parties: Mr. Stinson, (Dern.) of Leavenworth, said : We are supporters of popular sov ereignty ; we of Leavenworth come here from a people who have declared that they were opposed to negro residence, suffrage or education in our midst, and we intend to obey the will of our con stituents. Mr. Kingman (Rep.) said: If gentlemen were afraid of the con tamination of colored children, why not do as he did—educate their children at home? He would not send his children to a school, either with those of the gen tleman from Leavenworth or the gen tlemen from Africa. This section, as it stood, he felt willing to vote for. Brown county was not especially a negt'o loving section, and he himselt, were a family of colored children to come into his neigh borhood, would desire their separate ed ucation, and endeavor to provide means for that purpose. He would not do this because of any prejudice, for lie should consider himself unfit to sit in this con vention did he frighten himself by the shadows of the one hundred negroes who might be in Kansas.” Mr. Slough, (Democrat.) —His children should not associate with those of an in ferior race, nor would he put his hands in his pocket to pay for their education. He was willing that the colored people, if they paid taxes, should have their pro portion of school funds, and he would go further, and allow the entire control of it to themselves. Mr. McDowell, (Dem.) of Leavenworth, wanted to keep the negroes entirely out of Kansas—utterly prohibit their resi dence here and amalgamation with us. The African race was an inferior race, and he wanted to keep them out of Kan sas for the benefit of the white man, the Anglo-Saxon race. This was also a meas ure of protection. We were living on the borders of a slave State—one, too, which was gradually emancipating her slaves. Hold out the premium for the residence of these free negroes, which the fanati cal Republican party desire to do, and we should be overrun. Mr. Thatcher, (ltep.,)of Lawrence, made a very exciting speech, and closed in a blaze cf oratorical fire, thus: Here we take our stand, our organic law shall not have written on its pages these tyrannical differences of taste and color. Shall Kansas, which has come through such an alembic of crime and oppression, whose garments, as she en ters the Union, are red dyed with the blood of freedom-loving citizens shall she mark upon her constitution this iu famy ? make its every line reekiug and redolent with the blackest marks of deg radation and darkness? No! never! never! Deatli of Hon. M. A. Browder. We regret to announce the sad intelli gence of the death of this gentleman, which occurred at his residence near Glennville, on the 25th instant. Major Browder was a man of fine practical sense, and great force of character, li* all the relations of life, public and pri vate, he was deservedly esteemed, and his death has left a vacuum that cannot soon be filled, for he was emphatically a public benefactor. For two successive sessions he repre -1 sented Barbour county in the llepresen ; tative branch of the State Legislature, i and though many differed with him in his views of State policy, his course was characterized always by fearless indepen dence, aud an honest zeal for what he conceived to be the true interests of his constituents. At the time of his decease he was a candidate for re-election, with a flattering prospect of success, but death summoned him from the conflicts of this world to “that undiscovered country from whose bourne n > traveler returns.” Beace to his memory. Tlie Kansas Disturbances. The Kansas correspondent of the Bos ton Traveler, writing from Wyandott, July 10, says that for some time past a Commission, authorized by the legisla ture, one of whom was appointed by the House of Representatives, one by the Council, and one by the Governor, con sisting of Hon. Henry J. Adams, Samuel C. A. Kingman, and Edward Iloagland, have been investigating the claims for damages incurred during the disturbances of 1555-C. The following is a summary es the result, which is to be reported to the Constitutional Convention: “The total amount of the claims filed before the B ards amount to the sum of $1,250,900 66. The amount awarded is about $500,000. The remainder of the claims were either fraudulent, or present ed by citizens of Missouri. The total number of cases is between 400 and 500; of these the free state men have 335; pro slavery 60. The value of crops de stroyed, $39,052 GO. Horses stolen, 340. Cattle 406 head. Fifty-three houses and saw-mills were burned. The largest amount awarded is to Col. Eldridge, pro prietor of the Free State, who receives $40,000. The smallest was to a person who claimed over $2,000, and was award ed $9. _ Havre Cotton Market. Havre, July 11. —The sales of cotton for two days past were 12,000 bales, and the market advanced one to two pence. Orleans Bat quoted at 105 to 1051 francs. ♦- The New York Board of Health have 1 declared the ports of Havana, Cardenas, and Matanza9 to be infected by yellow fever. I HE WEEKLY SEN, The Free Negro Problem. The Philadelphia North Americau, a leading Rlack Republican paper, candid ly admits that free society is a failure, and discusses with seriousness the ques tion of arriving at a satisfactory solution of the problem of the final destiny of the negro. Making due allowance for the influence engendered in the breast of the white race, and the partial legislation na turally resulting from the relative social status of the negro, it still finds a loss in attempting to explain the general degra dation that characterizes the negro in a state of freedom. In the free States he has the advanta ges of liberal laws, the exercise and ex pansion of his faculties are unrestricted, and the way to the accumulation of wealth and the comforts of life are as free to him as to the white man. True, in some localities, municipal regulations may modify the relative social” and political condition of the negro, but generally, his liberty is so enlarged that Ills capacity for competing witli his superior,—the white man—is thoroughly Rested. The American thinks that the difficulties might be removed by transplanting them as colonists to their native Africa. But eveu there experience has preceded him, and proclaims his utter incapacity for self-government. The Republic of Libe ria is but a melancholy illustration of tbe blindness of fanaticism, and affords the negro a gradual transition from civiliza tion to the listlessness of his native bar barism. In slave States, his contact with slaves would be incompatible with their condi tion, cursing them with his idle and vi cious habits. In the erection of new free States, their immigration thither is pro hibited by the provisions of the organic law ; because he sinks in the effort of competing with the white population, and is utterly unfit to constitute an ele ment in a thrifty and enterprising com munity. Where lies the difficulty ? It is, as the American truly says, in the constitution of the negro himself. It is congenital, and stamped upon his nature by the ordaining hand of God. Iligber lawism may defy and run roughshod over the laws of the country, but nature’s law r s have placed an insurmountable ob stacle in its path. So far it may go, and no father. Iu the expressive language of the New York Herald upon the same subject:— “The efforts of the humanitarians have failed to improve their condition by the abolition of domestic slavery, and have demonstrated the fact that something more than the removal of political and social disabilities is necessary to improve the condition of the negro.” It is need less here to expatiate upon the effect of slavery upon the present and future con dition of slaves, and their lamentable con dition in free society. If freedom does not suit him, slavery must be his natural and normal condition. This is as apparent to the Black Re publican as to the slaveholder. After a caudid but reluctant confession of the negro’s inaptitude for freedom, why do hisj)suedo philanthropists prate so much of the benefits of liberty and the “curse of slavery?” It is because agitation is a necessary element in the success of the Black Republican party, and its selfish leaders hold the leading strings. Remove them and the sober sense of the masses will soon recover the sway. The Coolie trade, and the Appren tice system, though spurious forms of slavery, attest the necessity which sooner or later will compel England and France to re-establish it in their colonies. The United States are a manufacturing as well as a producing people. England can only manufacture the staple we produce, and return it in different forms. Cut off the supply of the great cotton staple af forded by the Southern States frem her looms and manufactories and she would shrink from the fearful consequences. Her supply of cotton from India and oth er sources is too capricious, uncertain aud limited to be relied on. Her only reliable resource is from the Southern States, and the great instrument of its supply is the slave labor of the South. Exeter Hall philanthropists and Northern “freedom shriekers” may prate loudly of the “evils of slavery,” and the emanci pation of the African, but the productions of the South in or out of the Union, and her valuable system of slavery constitute a power that can bind over the nations of the world to keep the peace. Hatlier Cutting;. Some few years before Daniel Web ster’s death, tlie same raft of scurilous editors who now occasionally disgrace themselves by maligning his memory, because they could not bend him to their sectional and narrow purposes, were in the habit of personally attacking him in their columns, in connection with his private affairs, aud especaially made a point of the alleged non-payment of his debts. After a good deal of provocation of this kind, Mr. Webster yielded, in one instance, to the very natural impulse of administering a deserved though morti fying rebuke to his assailant. Address ing him a letter, among other things Mr. Webster remarked as follows: “It is true that 1 have not always paid my debts punctually, and that I owe mijney. One cause of this is, that I have not pressed those who owe me for payment. As an instance of this, 1 enclose your father's note, made, to me thirty years ago, for mo ney lent him to educate his boys.” A Remedy for Sea Sickness—Darby’s Prophylactic Fluid—Read tlie fol lowing Testimony from Professor Dudley. Steamship Columbia, June 30, ’59. Prof. Darby :—A few hours after leav ing Charleston, I felt the symptoms of Sea Sickness. On taking a few drops of the Prophylactic Fluid, in a half tumbler of water, I found relief. The next day feeliDg sick again, I was happily relieved in the same manner, af ter which I had no more sea-sickness. Yours truly, PROF. DUDLEY. N. B. This Fluid will quickly remove all offensive odor from a stateroom. See directions accompanying each bottle. For sale by all Druggists. 50 cents a bottle. Painful Accident. We regret to learn that Mr. Thomas Bottom, a steady and industrious young man, employed at Slater’s machine shop, met with a serious and painful accident yesterday.* While attending to some portion of the machinery, he was caught in the fan wheel, by which his left arm was broken in three places, and his body severely bruised. We are pleased to state, however, jhat his injuries, though painful, are not considered dangerous; and we hope that be will soon recover the use of his limbs. —Augusta Const. * ( We were shown a few days ago a hand ful of cotton of this year’s growth, from the plantation of Wm. H. Milton, Esq. This is early even for this locality, but if the weather favors, much will be opened in the next week and picked for market. Marianna (Fla.) Patriot of 23d. COLUMBUS, GEORGIA, AUGUST 2, 1859. The Convention-The South, Mr. Clay, the editor of the Iluutsville Democrat, recently addressed a letter to the Hon. L. P. Walker, asking his opin ion ob certain important subjects. We subjoin one of the queries ami Mr. Walker's reply : “ What position should the Southern Democracy assume iu the Charleston Convention ?” “ I answer, first—We should insist upon adopting a platform before making the nominations. 2uJ— This platform must embody the first of the foregoing propositions, and should embrace, in principle, the second, also * —3rd—If the first of these propositions —viz: protection of slavery in the terri tories—is not adopted, the South should withdraw from the Convention, and make its own nominations, and enunciate a platform of principles consistent with the dignity of sovereign States and the great right of self-protection. In adopting this course, we must expect defections from our own ranks. Old Saturn him self never devoured his offspring with more facility and apparent relish, than do some men their opinions, and profes sions, for the sake of the emoluments and honors of office, forgetting that in af ter life, the recollection of their treachery will remain only like demons upon the memory, to taunt them with the cost at which they purchased them. But our ranks will be re-inforced by the good men aud true of what is now called the “Opposition.” And I, for one, will hail them as brother.?, whatever may have been their antecedents. When the South is beleaguered by enemies, at home as well as abroad, let us remamber the Christian precept, “Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not vex Ephraim.” Mr. Walker’s position is the only cor rect one. Protection to slavery in the Territories is the only cardinal principle of political faith in the South. Our pecu liar institution is in danger of being cir cumscribed within its present limits, and Southern men should not suffer themselves to be amused or their attention diverted by the agitation of an impractical issue, while the real permanent question is smothered and suppressed. The North is seeking what Mr. Toombs in his lecture in Tremont Temple, Bos ton, denominated a “gentie euthanasia” of slavery. There is no better or more insidious instrumentality to effect this than Douglas’ much vaunted idea of Con gressional non-intervention. The South ern interpretation of this question is that Congress shall legislate for the protection of slavery in the Territories, and for its protection only. Iler domestic institu tions are incomparably more important to the South, than the integrity of any party purchased at the price of surren dering this right, and the adoption of this as a cardinal principle in its platform is the only condition upon which the South can honorably cooperate with any party in the Charleston Convention. Should the Democratic or any other party, and particularly the Southern members of that party, connive at its repudiation, it will be the proximate cause of its dissolution and utter overthrow. Before going into a nomination at Charleston, Southern delegates should demand and insist upon the adoption of protection to slavery in the Territories as a condition precedent. Should the issue be made—as we hope—and ignored, there is but one alternative left, and that is to withdraw from the Convention, and have no complicity in the foisting upon the South, Douglas or any nominee adopting a platform embracing his principles.— Property of all kinds needs protection. The distiction between meuin and tiium, cannot be enforced without law ; neither can subordination among the slave popu lation even here in the extreme South, be maintained without it. The South does not demand any peculiar or extraordina ry regulations favoring slavery. She on ly asks that property in. slaves be placed upon an equal footing with all other pro perty. It is conceded that Congress can neither legislate slavery into, nor out of a Territory, but when slaves are car ried into organized Territories, Congress should intervene if necessary for its pro tection. Douglas’ interpretation of the Kansas Bill is as hostile to slavery as the Wilmot Proviso. It is reported at. Washington that the Mississippi Stato Convention have in structed their delegates to the Charles ton Convention to withdraw from that body unless they succeed in engrafting upon the platform the repeal of all the laws against the African Slave Trade, and the enactment by Congress of laws for the protection of slave property in the United States Territories. The South Carolina delegation will follow them.— The next movement in the programme is to cal! a Convention, if it is not already called, of disaffected Southern States, to meet on the 10th of November, to declare the dissolution of the Union, and to in duce as many States as will cooperate to withdraw from it.—W. Y. Tribune. As to re-opening the Slave Trade, that we regard, in this juncture, as an imprac tical issue. The enactment by Congress of laws for protecting slave property in the Territories is the paramount ques tion, —one that must be met and decided. So far as the moral sanction of the thing and its wholesome effects upon the slave are concerned, there is no difference in buying a negro from Africa and buying one from Virginia ; but it behooves us first to secure protection to the slave proper ty we already have iu the States, or that may be carried into the Territories. This being consummated, the discussion of tbe African Slave Trade question will be properly in order. The Southern States represented in the Charleston Convention should, v ith undivided front, present an ultimatum, and that should be the guar antee of protection by Congress to slave ry carried into the Territories. If not ac cepted, they should withdraw. The Mobile Mercury, speaking of the Mobile and Ohio Railroad, says: A friend from the road informs us that track-laying is progressing finely above West Point, the Monroe county lise be ing now passed, and that not will Okalo na be reached in god time, but the de termination is to reach Verona by the Ist of November. Verona is beyond that frightful net work of creeks which turns so much of the cotton of Itawamba coun ty to Memphis. By the speedy completion of the road beyond Old Town Creek, that trade will be effectually tapped. Taleut. Men-may have the gifts both of talent and of wit. but unless they have also prudence and judgment to dictate the when, the where, and the how those gifts are to exerted, the possessors of them will be doomed to conquer only where nothing is to be gained, but to be defeat ed where everything is to be lost; they will be outdone by men of less brilliant, but more convertible qualifications, and whose strength, in one point, is not coun terbalanced by any disproportion in an other. Columbus.—>Her Future. NUMBER ONE. The future of our city, commercially considered, is certainly a question of par amount consideration to every citizen, whether rich or poor. When we look around, we seethe most strenuous efforts are making by rival cities and towns to divert thelarger portion of the trade which we now get from us. The Railroad now fast approaching completion from Macon, Ga. to Eufaula, Ala., will cut oft'from us several valuable counties which have heretofore dealt liberally with us, while the projected road from Montgomery to Eufaula will strip us of another large slice of country in Alabama. Lagrange is doing her utmost to get a road through Troupe and Harris to our city, which road, if built, will never benefit us one dollar; but on (he contrary, will turn cotton south of the Pine Mountain to wards Augusta. The past season we re ceived over 100,000 bales of cotton, and we will receive perhaps a like amount for the next two years ; but who does not see that Eufaula will soon stand a suc cessful rival for a large portion of the trade of Alabama and Georgia which now comes to us? Soon she will have in addi tion to the river, a railroad connection to Savannah, and with good money facili ties, what is to hinder her from becom ing as good a cotton mart as Columbus? Montgomery is not going to sit idly by and see us divert her trade from Pike and other lower counties of her State, neither will she yield to us the trade of North Alabama without a struggle. West Point, though by some considered as not in our way, still possesses an amount of vitality which is able, properly wielded, to inflict severe injury upon our commer cial interest, Macon is reaching out her hands to South-western Georgia, and between her and Albany we will loose vastly. ZENO. NUMBER TWO. What now is the true policy of Colum bus? Has she any other commercial re sources by which she can maintain her present position, or advance to any high er standard amongst her rivals ? We think she has, and those resources are such as no other city or town surround ing us, possesses to so great a degree. We allude to her manufacturing resour ces. We have a water power, which seems to have been arranged by an over ruling Providence expressly for this emer gency. This water power i3 capable, if judiciously arranged, to operate a large number of cotton and other mills, which shall change the staple of our sunny South into fabrics, for wear and other useful purposes. The country for years has been well nigh demented on rail roads. These serve their purposes, and in all cases redound in greatest good to the sea port towns. Citizens tax them selves heavily to construct these high ways of travel and transportation. All this is very proper, but whether it is prudence to continue this expenditure to build new roads with the hope of getting increased trade, is another and very dif ferent question, and not so easily answer ed satisfactorily. Our opinion is that, surrounded as our fair city is, by such rival interest in rail roads, all contending for the cotton trade, she should for the present let rail road project and turn her capital into manufacturing, and establish the foundation of a trade, which will in the course of a few years, amply make up for the loss of cotton receipts. It is an established fact, that purchasers al ways hunt up that market wherein to purchase, which affords the largest as sortment from which to select. And why may not Columbus become that place ? The God of nature has placed at our dis posal more than ordinary facilities, and it is only required at our hands to im prove them. ZENO. NUMBER THREE. Mauy men object to invest their means in manufacturing enterprises, occasioned doubtless, from previous failures of other companies. No one, however, will for a moment question the proposition whether the investment will pay good interest.— What then is the difficulty ? simply that there have been mismanagements, com panies have‘been formed with a capital barely sufficient to build and put in run ning order the necessary machinery. It is expected to pay its way at once, and to do this, its goods are thrown into north ern markets, where they are sold to meet advances. Such a course as this always proves ruinous to any business. The proper plan is to raise a cash capital suf ficient to work a mill until it. shall have secured a trade that will make it self-sus taining. The owners of the mill should become the holders of its goods, and not northern speculators, and in a few years it will begin to return them profits. No rail road ever yet constructed, supported itself at first, and why should a cotton mill? Like a child, it must be assisted until it becomes able to take steps of it self. We contend that by manufacturing our city can fully and amply sustain her pres ent proud position among her sister cities of the State. She can become in a few years the great supply point of the arti cles which we now travel to Massachu setts and other nor!hern States for. It only requires men of means, who are willing to take the same risks they do in rail road enterprises, to take hold of the matter. So far in our history of manu facturing, our present mills have had to struggle almost single handed to live. They have fought the battle manfully and are now begining to reap the reward of their labors. ZENO. NUMBER FOUR. One serious obstacle to the establish ment of manufactories in our city, has been the exorbitant price asked for wa : ter lots. This, in a great measure is a sound objection, and one which the wa ter lot company, in justice to our future prosperity as a city, should promptly re move. I grant that the construction of the dam aad canal have cost very large ly, but they should, as good citizens, be satisfied with a reasonable interest on their outlay. But this objection can be easily obviated. All along the Chattahoo chee, from this city to West Point,—a distance of thirty miles, are the most eligible sites to be found in any country, with an abundance of the finest granite for building purposes. Three miles north of the city there are goodlocations for one hundred mills, with an abundance of water power, seemingly prepared by the God of Nature for this very necessity. These sites can be purchased for a song iu comparison to their value, and stiil be sufficiently near the city. On the site where the Columbus Factory stands there is already constructed a canal, with openings for several mills, and we have no hesitation in saying for the owners of this property, that any company de sirous to erect a manufacturing estab lishment, can be supplied with water power aud a lot at very low rates. In the city our Canal is arranged for 18 mills, with facilities for extending it a distance sufficient for 35 or 40 mills, in a very short time; and which will be done should the demand arise for its extension. The Cotton crops of Georgia and Ala bama amount to about one million bales, ,tnd a respecta’ le quantity of first class wool: all of which should of right be manufactured in the borders of slave States, so that if there is a profit aris ing from its manufacture, onr enemies would bo deprived of it. It has always appeared a strange course of reasoning to me, that the Northern or foreign manu facturer can buy our staple and return it to our doors at a cheaper rate than we can afford it at. While it may be, and is true, that Northern labor in some ca ses is cheaper, it does not seem to us there is a difference sufficient to cover freight, insurance and other attendant expenses'. Ilete the raw material can be placed in the manufacture!'"? hands di rectly from the planter’s team, without even the expense incurred of paying a commission for buying, or having it weighed ; and so far as labor is concern ed, we apprehend there is not an ave rage of three dollars per month to the hand greater. The taxes are, or should be light, that persons desirous to invest, may be induced, by all applian ces, to enter in. A ness aud facility for obtaining material, the great scope of country to bo supplied, and to become our customers, we say with confidence, Columbus should be by far the greatest manufacturing mart of the South for cotton and woolen fabrics. ZENO. We will venture the assertion that no city south or west of Lowell, Mass., pos sesses advantages superior to Columbus for a great centre of manufactured goods. On the east we can claim to Virginia and Maryland,—west to Texas and Missouri, —to say nothin tof the vast area of new country yet to come under the wings of the American Eagle,—south to the Atlan tic and the Gulf, —north to Kentucky. All this vast area of country can be as easily induced to buy their supplies in our city as in Massachusetts. All that is necessary is, to erect the market for them, manufacture the goods, and let them know they are here in abundance, and they will giadiy avail themselves of our city as a market in preference to abolition Massachusetts. This is the way to establish and carry out successful ly the great doctrine of Southern rights, | which is so much spoken of. It is South ern independence, and when we thus be come independent, we will obtain our rights under the Constitution without the aid of infiamitory speeches in Congress or on the stump. Any city to prosper and grow in wealth and population, must have local enterprises. Railroads, though useful, are not, strictly speaking, of this nature, as they generally empty their treasures into the laps of seaports. Such is the history of the roads which we have aided. The Muscogee road, although a great benefit to us, and we may say the : savior of the city, is still inuring more to the benefit of Savannah than our city.— | The reason is obvious. The same has been the result with other roads leading i to Charleston, S. C., and the same will | be the result in the roads leading to Mo | bile, Ala. Every foot of road we build is of greater benefit to Savannah than to ourselves ; while we receive a proportion able benefit Savannah receives double, and not a dollar invested. If now we turn our attention to building and put ! ting in operation Cottom Mills, we cre j ate a local cause of increased trade. We I make Columbus a common centre for trade in manufactured goods,—we raise a supply, and just as naturally as water | flows down hill, the demand will follow, and that demand will be just in propor tion to the supply. This state of things cannot be brought about in a day or a year. Men must be found willing to ] embark in tbe enterprise and wait for ; the return half as long as they have wait i ed for dividends from the Muscogee and Mobile and Girard Railroad, —yea one third as long. It is idle to say we can. I not divert trade from the North. It can j be done more easily than the trade of ] North Alabama can be diverted from ; Montgomery. , ZENO. Extensive Arrival of Blacks from Canada, en route for the South. “On Thursday morning,” says the Cleveland (Ohio) Democrat, “ the packet Union arrived from Port Stanley, Canada, with sixteen fugitive slaves, who had es caped from the South at various peiiods within the last two years, and who had been living at the negro settlement of Chatam, Canada West. Becoming weary of Canadian freedom—which to many blacks embraces the exalted liberty of being. inadequately clothed, and near ly starved to death—they were about to return to the South, preferring plan tation life to the responsibilities attend ant on a state of existence for which cir cumstances have rendered them peculiar ly disqualified. One family, consisting of a colored man, his mother, wife, and three children, who escaped from Near Paris, Kentucky, about one year ago, af ter the experience aft’orded by a hard Canadian winter, began to sigh for their ‘old Kentucky home,’ and a short time ago they wrote to their master, informing him of their desire to return, and re questing him to meet them at Cleveland. When they arrived on the old packet, their master was there to meet them, and they expressed their gratification at the meeting iu a manner which denoted a sincere regard for him. ‘Old Aunty’—a venerable negress, whose black and shin ing face stood out in strange contrast with her hair, white as the driven snow —took occasion to ’spress her mind’ in ve gard to Canada. ‘L>oy kin all talk about dar freedom over dar,’ (pointing with a canebrake finger across the blue water in the direction marked by the ‘Union’s’ wake,) ‘ but I'd a heep leveyer stay with we dem down iu Old Kentuck.’ The en tire party took the train for Cincinnati, happy in the thought that they were go ing home.” Statistics of Decatur County. The following statistical facts may be interesting to our readers. We are in debted to Mr. 11. B. Overstreet, the cen sus taker, for them : Total population, 11,264 —Whites, 5,- 740 ; Slaves, 5,415. White Males 2,851 Sunday Schools 0 White Females 2.528 Academies 5 Idiots 5 Common Schools 15 Deaf and dumb 1 Cotton and Wool Fac . 2 Lunatics 2 Steam Saw and G. M.. 5 Free negroes 2 Dry Goods Stores 16 Lawyers 14 Drug Stores 3 Physicians 24 Family Groceries 3 Military Companies 1 Retail Drink’g Shops.lo Dentists.! 1 Hotels 2 Tailors 2 Temperance Societies 1 Dagherrean artists.. 1 Ladiea Charitable So. 1 Churches 35 Masonic Lodges 2 Public Journal pr’d 2 Rev. J. E. Edwards. We learn that this able and eloquent divine has been requested by Bishop Pierce to take charge of the Methodist interests in San Francisco, where, (it is believed, his eminent talents, piety and eloquence will be attended with the best possible results in the promotion of the interests of the denomina ion of which he is so distinguished a member. We learn that Mr. Edwards has not yet made up his mind to accept the position, though the opportunity is of too flattering a ’ character to suppose that he will do oth erwise than most seriously consider it.— i Petersburg Intelligencer. Mr. Childs and three of bis children, living in the western part of Griffin. Ga., were struck by lightning on Monday last, 25th inst. One of the little girls having a railroad spike in her hand at the time, ’ was more seriously injured than the rest. She is, however, rcovering. Buchanan no Candidate. The Bedford (Pa.) Gazette, in an edi torial in its issue on Thursday morning, declares, as if by authority, that Mr. Buchanan would not be a candidate for a re-nomination. 67189 [NUMBER iti. Farther bjr lire North Briton. The London Times says that Frauce has spent fifty million pounds sterling, and sacraticed fifty thousand men, only to give Milan a Piedmontese instead of an Austrian master; and that she further establishes the Pope in his temporal dig nity, even beyond his imagination. It concludes with the opinion that. Napo leon's game must be a losing one The News says that Italy lias been de ceived iu her hopes, by this peace. His tory, it adds, will call Napoleon to a strict account for having entered the war with false pretences: nr.d with having signed a mock and st ilish peace, which leaves Austria impregnably fortified iu the heart of northern Italy, while the central portion is committed to the patron age of the Pope. The Morning Post says that the Pope is deprived of the substance, Imt retains the shadow of his supremacy. It was rumored in Berlin that she Em peror of Russia would soon arrive, to at tend a family conference, touching the disposal of the Prussian crown after the abdication of the King. The announcement of pence was read in both Houses of Parliament ; and was received with loud and prolonged cheers. ♦ —■ Information Wanted. Some eight weeks ago, Mr. Clement Sellier left Tallahassee for New York, in tending to pass through and spend a day in Savannah. lie was seen in Albany by a former citizen of this place, but nothing has been heard from him since. His family here are anxious for informa tion, and will be greatly obliged to any one who may be able to give intelligence of his whereabouts. He is a man in mid dle life, about 5 feet 10 or 11 inches high; blue eyes; wears whiskers; a French man by birth, with considerable foreign accent, and by trade a painter. lie is unfortunately addicted to “spreeing.”— He started to visit a brother in N. York, who has since died. Should this notice meet his eye he is requested to communi cate at once with his family. By the death of his brother he succeeds to a snug little estate, unless sharpers in New Y'ork swindle him out of it by*setting up and establishing a pretended will, sup posed to have bean gotten up for the oc casion. — Floridian. Wheat Croji of America. The wheat crop of this country, just harvested, is set down at two hundred and one million of bushels, or about for ty millions of barrels, or one and three fifths of a barrel of flour for every one of the twenty-five millions of individuals in this country. This would not seem to be a great deal more than our owu wants would require, and it would not be if we had not the other cereals, aud particu larly the great crop of Indian corn’ to help out the supply Ohio is given a produc tion of 20,000,000 bushels; Pennsylva nia 25,000,000 ; New York 20,000,000 ; Illinois 20,00,000. The New England States have decreased in their production oj wheat, but the West has increased four to one. The amount of land under wheat cultivation this year is thirty-three per cent, greater than in 1855. We frequent ly hear of a production of thirty-one bushels to the acre, but the actual pro duction per acre does net averags two thirds of that amount. —— —- From the Rome (N. Y.) Sentinel, July 10. Newspapers not Prepaid. Thellornellsville Tribune says the Post master of that village has received the following reply to enquiries made by him of the Postmaster General, which is as follows : “UesT Office lU'pabtbext, ) Appointment Otlice, July s,lße‘J. j ‘•Sir: In reply to yours of the second instant, I inform you that if transient newspapers happen to be mailed to you without having the postage on them pre paid, you are entitled to receive them from the office of delivery on paying such amount of postage upon them as ought to have been paid before they were mailed. “Respectfully, &c., “lloratio King, “First Assistant Postmaster General.” It appears that the present post office law requires that all transient newspapers passing through the mail should be pre paid, but it. sometimes occurs that such papers pass through unpaid until they reach their destination, the rate of charge on which is simply expressed in the above letter. Tlic Progress of the Press. Within less than one hundred years ago, the establishment of a third printing press in the United States was regarded by many of Dr. Franklin’s friends as a hazardous enterprise. Since then, such has been the multiplication of newspa pers in this country, that seven hundred and fifty mills are now employed to fur nish printing paper; these mills are op rated b} T 2,000 engines. The annual pro duct of these mills reaches the enormous quantity of 270,000,000 pounds of paper, from which was realized the pretty little sum of $27,000,000. A pound* of paper requires a pound and a quarter of rags. 340,000,000 pounds of old rags were therefore consumed last year in the man ufacture of paper. A Palace. An exchange says Col. J. A. 8. Aeklen, of Ala., is about erecting a private resi deuce at his plantation opposite Red Riv er landing, which is designed to cost $150,000 —and $125,000 more for the furniture and furnishing. The following is the plan of this immense edifice. The style of the edifice is castellated Gothic, with a frontage on the liver of 104 feet, on the two side wings of 104 feet and a centre compartment of 220 feet deep sur mounted by a lofty and beautifully pro portioned tower. The building will con tain 50 rooms, exclusive of closets, bath rooms, wardrobes, etc., spacious and amply provided with‘all tlie modern im provements in comfort and elegance. All the walls of the building are to be double, with the passages inside. A Young Z.ady on n Drill. While drilling recruits, a Liverpool sergeant discovered among tiie awkward squad a pretty girl disguised in male at tire. She blushed and excited the ser geant’s suspicion, who found, upon ques tioning her, that she was endeavoring in this manner to reach a near and and dear relative in the rank and file of Eng land's defenders Twenty-five shillings and some petticoats were given her, and she wa3 sent, an unhappy maiden, back to her home in Dublin, to be corrected by her parents. . *■ A Cargo of Africans. A gentleman of this city received a letter from Jacksonville on Monday last, post marked 16th instant, on the back of which was endorsed, “a cargo of 600 Af ricans has been landed on the Florida const near Smyrna.” If this intelligence beftrne, it is to be hoped that the parties guilty of such a bigh-lianded violation of the law of the land may be arrested and dealt with to the fullest extent. —Tallahassee Floridian. An American on the Field of Ma genta. Hod. John G. Thurston writes to the ! Clinton Courant in regard to his visit to the field of Magenta, ns follows: “The dead were buried in different paits of the field, as Tuany'as five or six hundred in one grave, and, as you may : imagine, the stench was overpowering. We saw twenty-six hundred of the woun ded in the hospital in this city, and a sad sight it was, I assure you—some with one arm or leg shot off', others with both legs and the head mutilated. Their only consolation was that they were most kindlv cared for.” * -- An African Wild Animal. Gaboon Rivf.r, April 21, 1850. Having ticca for the last four years hunting in the immense wilds of Central Western Africa, and having bad many times the opportunity of hunting after that most formidable animal, the Troglo dytes Gorilla, or African Ngina, Ngila or Ngia, and having met with many and killed r> % tow, I have tried to study, to the best of my ability, its habits, modes of living, and other peculiarities. And without pride l may count myself the first white man who has set?n alive, met and killed this wild animal; and I have sent oft lately the Largest and best pre served specimen in Europe or America. More than two years ago, I sent perfect specimens of adult gorilla females to Philadelphia; and six months ago, I seat the same academy the specimen of the largest gorilla ever seen. No bigger ono can be possibly found or killed: its size was a great object of wonder to the na tives. This animal belongs, in soinc de gree, to the ourang-outung chimpanzee family, but is tar more formidable than any ot them. Below is the measurement of two sent to Philadelphia: One male measured from the extremity of one arm to the other, seven feet and four inches; his height was almost six feet and a half, anti the circumference of his big toe five inches and a half. The other measuied from the extremity of one arm to the other nine feet and lour inches; his height was almost seven feet anil a half, aud tiie circumference of his toe six in ches and a half. You may judge t>v these measurements of tlie immense cixe of these animals. The jawsuf the ngina are immensely powerful, especially iu the male, the head of which is also de fended by a crest, rising gradually from the forehead up. This peculiarity makes it quite different front the skull of a man Tlie hair is short, and of a reddish brown color; tiie hair of the body in the females is black. 1 have killed one of which the lower part of the back was of reddish brown also. Among the males the hair is shorter, grayish and thin in the middle of the back : many have long black hair on the arms ; the face, hands and feet are intensely black; the eyes are grey. The muscular power of their arms ami the size of their fingers indicate a prodigious force. 1 have seen a tree three or four inches in diameter broken by them. Their arms are much longer iu proportion than their legs, but the bones of the latter are much stronger atui thicker; and the capacity of the chest show also the immense power of the ani mal. The skeleton of man is very deli cate and slim in comparison. The in tensely exaggerated features of the face, its large and deep eyeballs, gives to the animal, especially the male, an expression of savage ferocity seen, I think, in no other animal. From the immense canine teeth by which the jaws of the male are defended, one would naturally suppose that the force of theanimallay principal ly in its jaws, and that its principal means of defence was there. But this is a mistake; the prodigious strength of the monster lies more in his hands and feet, which lie uses indiscriminately. One of my hunters, who wounded a male, paid for his temerity with his life; the animal seized him witii one hand, took hold of his abdomen, aud tore the flesh an<Tintestines with tho other, and with Ilia teeth stripped (he right arm of all the flesh. I have succeeded in getting, at different times, five young gorillas, cap tured after the killing of tho mother. 1 observed that when they wanted to bite me, they used to take hold of me first with their feet. I have never been able to tame any of them, or to accustom them to eat anything but wild nuts and berries of tiie forest. Iu this particular, the go rillaisquiteunlike the chimpanzee, which is easily tamed. Though one would naturally suppose, from the canine tcetli of the ngina, that lie sometimes lives on meat, 1 must say that I have never yet discovered, in the stomach of any specimen, anything else than vegetable matter, such as nuts, wild berries and fruits aud leaves. Although skeletons of this animal may have been taken to Europe or A.mcrica, I have seen but very incorrect and exagge rated accounts concerning it. Tlie too confiding ship captains or others have been too apt to take for granted the sto ries related to them by the natives of the coast concerning tins really wonderful animal, which is to them an object of great terror.. Jn their superstitious fears, the natives ofvthe interior say that bad men aro changed sometimes into nginas. The one who killed my hunter was said to be angina that had been a man first, and no gun could kill him. —Correspondence A'. Y. Tribune. Remarkable Fountain in Florida. A traveler iu Florida thus describes a spring in that State : Taking a narrow path weerossed through some dense underwood, and al! at once, stood on the banks of the Wakulla Spring. There was a basin of water one hundred yards in diameter, almost circular. The thick bushes were almost growing to tlie water’s edge, and bowing their heads un der the unrippled surface. We stepped into a skiff and pushed off. .Some im mense fishes attracted my attention, and I seized a spgar to strike them. The boatman laughed, and asked me how far beneath the surface I supposed they were. I answered about four feet. He assured me that they were at least twenty feet from me ; and it was so. The water is of the most wonderful transparency, Dropping an ordinary pin in the water- - forty feet deep—we saw its head with perfect distinctness as it lay on the bot tom. As we approached tlie centre I no ticed a jagged, grayish limestone rock beneath us, pierced with holes; one seemed to look into unfathomable depths. The boat moved slowly on, and we hung trembling over tlie the edge on tlie sun ken cliff', and far below it lay a dark yawning, unfathomable abyss. From its gorge comes forth with immense velocity a living river. Pushing on just bej'end its mouth I dropped a ten cent piece into the water, which is there one hundred and ninety feet in depth, and I clearly saw it shining on tiie bottom. This seems incredible. I think the water possesses a magnifying power, for I am confident that the piece could not be seen so dis tinctly from a tower one hundred and ninety feet high. We rowed towards tlie north side,*and suddenly we perceived in the water fisli, which were darting hither and thither, and long, flexible roots, luxu riant grass on the bottom, all arrayed iu the most beautiful prismatic hues.— The gentle swell occasioned by the boat gave to the whole an undulating motion. Deathlike stillness reigned around, and a more fairy scene I never beheld. •So great is the quantity ot water here poured forth that it forms a liver of it self large enough to float fiat boats with cotton. The planner who lives here thus transported his cotton to St, Marks.- Near tiie fountain we saw some of the remains of a mastodon which had beeu taken from it. The triangular bone below the knee measured six inches on each side. Tiie Full OHicial Vole. The Secretary of the Commonwealth, Col. Munford, lias now made up, with full* reliability, as to its being officially correct, the vote for Governor of Virginia at the last election. The official report gives Letcher 77,229; Goggin 71,427; — total majority for Mr. Letcher, 5,802. A question, however, says the Enuui rer, may arise about the vote of Ports mouth, which was not returned in con formity with the law, by being included with that of the county. If,,therefore, the Legislature should reject the vote cast in Portsmouth, from the fact of non conforming with the rules, it will increase Mr. Letcher’s majority to 5,943. la a Fix. lady ami gentleman in the vicinity of New Haven chancing to be bathing au nat ural, but unseen by each other, being sep arated by a ledge of rocks, a mischievous boy exchanged one pile of clothing for the other. Their perplexity and embar rassment on emerging from the water may be better imagined than described. But, , seeing no other alternative, the lady donned the male, and the gentleman the female apparel, hoops and ‘ ‘every ami made their way to their homes in that guise.