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Macon Georgia telegraph. (Macon, Ga.) 1836-1844, July 21, 1836, Image 1

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MACON By n. B1KTLETT. i'erius of Subscription. riiKCE Dollars,/wid in advance. will pay for the pa- •tront year. Five Dollars, paid «'» advance, will pay fir the paper t too pears. Tus Dollar*, paid in advance tdl payjor Ik* paper fire years. ,hu n not paid within su months after the pear hat commenced. Three Dollars and Fifty Cents per annum gill be charged. If not paid until (he end of the year, four Dollars per annum will be charge—with interest thereafter. Terms of.Advertising:. Advertisements not exceeding one hundred ' words, half g sjutre, or trec/re brevier lines, will be inserted one time for One dollar. Men more than one insertion is given, 73 rents for the first, and 50 rents for each continuance, —from which a deduction of onefourth willbt made, when paid in ad ranee. sheriffs , Tut Collectors’ and Coroners' Sales arechat- \ g ( I bp the letp. Yearly Advertisers will be allowed two snuarcs ineaeh i p, per fir Twenty Dollars per annum; and in the same ialio for a larger space—payable quarterly. The expenses of our business, and the state of the times, njnire, that these terms should he rigidly adhered to. XT Our Carrier*. Blnrk or white, are not author- jsed 10 sell on per*. Persons detected in purchasing from them will be prosecuted, .71.2co.v, G&oiuu.i, TJUtVMtsnatr, jui.v 21. isse Volume X.—Autaiher 56. 3?<D3SKRg. •‘STRlKt’ THE LTRE’AGAIN.’ ,V'ir York St Darien MAite of Packet*. t/it BltPl Amelia Strong. J. Chare, Master, Shift Premium, Mr. Matthews, 44 LAvh new •• Darien, C P. Buckley, 44 “ Macon, A. Bibbin*. 44 ’dehr. I). It. Crane. T. Baker. . 44 All good and •iihstutitiul vessel*, well calculated for tlie trade, with good accommodation* for passengers, r.nd experienced commander*. One of the vessels will al ways tie at each end of the Line to receive freight, and will sail regularly once a week. Shippers by this line ran effect Insurance at five eighths percent and they may rely upon the vrssels being regularly despatched. The subscriber* are also agents for several Steamboats lo run regularly during the Imating season between Darien, llaivkiiisville, und Macon, and are induced to tieliev ■ that they can give great facilities in forwarding -oods destined for the interior of the State. HAWES. MITCIiFLll & COLLINS. Darien. 1st July, 1835 11 Agents. .Tfacon Steam float Company, Steamboat SUPERIOR, Capt. George Willcox. do. EXCEL, 44 J. L. Willcox. mills company have now their line of Beats in From the London Metropolitan for May.. A Governess Wauled. bt' MRS. ABUT. “Oar govermm lelt u», dear brother. Last night, in a strange fit of piqae, Will you kindly seek out for another r We want her at latest next week: Haf I'll five you a few pUiu credentials. The bargain will speed to complete: Tako • peii—jest set down the essentials, And begin at the top of tbf short! With easy andwiodrst decision. She ever most move, act and *K*k. . She must understand French with precision, Itatn.n-sn<1 Latin and Greek; She must play the piano divinely, Kxret on the harp and the lutr, «. Do all »ortV of needlework finely, And m.k. (feather-flowers and wsx-frait. She must answer all queries directly. And all sciences well understand, Faint ia oils, sketch from nature correctly, And write German text and short hand: She mnst ring with power, science and sweetness. Vet thr concerts must not sing at all. She mutt dance with rthrrial Declares, . Yet never must go to a ball. She must not hare needy relations, Her dress must be tasieful.yet plain, Her discourse must abound in quotations, Her memory all dates must retain; She must point out each author's chief beauties. She must manage dull natures with skill, Her pleasures Bust lie ia her duties, She must never be nervous or ill! down, and its merchandize up, shall be continued to the uses intended by Mature us common and econo mical high-way*, or whether the Legislature uf Geor gia, will voluntary » motion a dangerous system, and try to create ah artificial railway running dibganally iro.u the mouth of one ol'these rivers, the Savannah, ZIW miles to the head of another, the Ockmulge'c: by means of a Banking system; and the result* of which is doubtful, if there is any truth in our common- me speculations; and the facta which will be submitted, as I advance in the discussion. I assert, without the fear of contradiction, that laud carriage, admitting nil circumstances the same can never compete with wa- forward and set to work ou own their capital, make of die state is common property, and in winch every i mission, who otten makes the remittance mthe return citizen has an equal right. Oil that right, and the broad I ship; to*-. ^ is arrangement, the Auctioneer draws principle of equity, it seemed to uie unjust to take the | out of the Dank money to buy bills, and he gets his .hare of A, w ho plants 100 miles from the head of tin-1 profit by << ...ng to letail merchant, ail over the cou- vigation in the South-Western part ol the mate, and 1 apply it to the benefit of B, on the North-West, thus enabling him to get his cotton to market, and bn sup plies buckd; about tu o-tbird* less than wbat A pays to accomplish tii* same end. Furiker it has been stroug ly urgt d ilmt flhee these rail-roads are built, tecy w* be very productive. Now, sir,. 1 bate lor session* past, urged on those who use this argument, tu „o luisM. ou ..ute, v/hb pay the bank interest and las commission* tor the negotiation. Thus, Netviork has become the emporium of the United elates und the st all make to some broad accusations that have oeen boldly put forth during this discussion. Mr. Presi dent, 1 have been very concise in my remarks on tho danger attached to monied monopolies, md endeavor ed to illustrate them by a reference to the United States Bank, and’ the part it has so conspicuously acted iu the political arena. I have more especially done so, warehouse of foreign goods. This assents the pres- j to engage die attention of this houorable body, and di- t utvs sad Manets, rp B complete order for freighting- They have nsw steamboat added to their line called the Superior, ami ten Tow-Boat*. Tite Boats will run regularly betWe-n Macon and Darieu, one of the steamboats leaving Darien every five or six days with tow-boat*. The company haw now sixteen tow-boats, all first rate boats, built express ly for the navigation o r tl|u Onriillgee and Altamaha rivers; these increased facilities will enable the com pany the means of giving the greatest 'despatch to cotton or goods shipped by their line. They Have a Steamboat and a number of Sloup* lo carry cotton und merchandise between Darien and Savaniiah. and Darien and Charleston. There are also, live first rate Packet* running regularly between Darien and New York, which come to Ilawcs tilitchel, of Darien. Agt sitsfor the above floats : J. GODDARD, Macon. Bores. IIkni;v & Wai.tf.ii. Charleston. i„ Bai.owin' ft. Co. Savannah,' Hawks, Mitchell A- Collins, Darien, flco. K. Robert*. llawkinsville. Uacon. 'i-ltli Dec.. I-X".. 2n 'orenalgee Steam float Compassy. *»**£?* r lllri compuuy will be prepared to commence hu sines*, carlyin llie next season—They will havi a line of Packet* between New York, and Darien aild steam vessels to forward goods from Darien ro Macon —-The agent* in New York, Charleston, and Savannah, will he authorised to contract for the delivery of good* m Macon, at a freight agreed on without' intenuedi- cle charge and tlm agent in Macon will receive cotton deliverable in Savannah. Charleston, and New York— The company’* vessels and boats, will be of first das* with experienced commanders, and no expense will be (.pared to meet the patronage ofthe public. PFI. R. YO.NGE& SONS, 1 gents in Darien may 87th 1835 49 _____ lf:im itsr SVaU .irrauxe entttl o f the If-hr write own o<le,\ Yet be not pedamix->r * -«, If *te> wear none but ikepoottaxe bnowes, If (hr deem it high Ireuonttn birt. If to mildness -he i.dd reuse aad spirit, Lngnge her at once without fear, 1 love to rew ard honest merit, Aad I five—forty guineas a year!” “I accept, iny good sister, vnur To-morrow my search I’ll begin, In all circles, iu every cuuditioo. I'll strive such a treasure to win j And if, sftet years of probation, My ryes on tbe uooilrrshould rert, I’ll engage her without beritatioo, But out on the terms you suggest. Of a brldr I hare ne'er mode selection, For my bachelor thoughts w ould still dw ell Ou »u object ro near to perfection. That I blush half my Idocies to tell; Now- this list that you kindly lists granted. I’ll quote nod refer to through life, Bui just Idol out—*A Governess Wasted, 4 And hood it with—‘Wanted* With Ur conveyance, and, therefore, that those rivers vrhicli are adapted to steam-boat navigation will ever he the ordinary liigh-wsys of society'; more especially as the expense of transit, is an important object to the agri culturalist, when produce is at its minimum price— the same remark applies to tbe consumer, whose great aim, will be to get his supplies at (lie lowest possible rate; :uid the competition between die inland mer chants will ever secure to the water carriage tbe prefer ence; and this i intend to illustrate uinre fully. Having, sir stated these irrefntgible truths. 1 will ’proceed to apply them to the’ subject before the senate. The strong and principal reason urged by the friends of this deleterious‘scheme, is. that a rivalry has grown up between Charleston, in South Carolina, and Sa- vannah. iu our owo state; and that by the former bav- ‘ ing erected a Rail road to Hamburg, contiguous to, and connected w ith Augusta, that it is the interest, and ought to be the pride of every (teorgiau. to sustain Savannah, ana make her the great sea-port of this such advances, as Lorn self-interest will insure exer tion, and vlic-u they had shown they were in earnest, 1, as one would afford aid. The Georgia Railroad Company have et out 40 miles of railroad, beginning at Augusta, this unterprize deserves, and will receive the patronage of the 8taw who will *«y to other applicants “go thou and do like wise.” However (may regret the necessity, a higii sense ofduty to the country, compels me to give some cogeui reasons, why 1 cannot believe that'this Central Railroad will ever be completed, consequently 1 can not run the risk of vesting them with a banking mon opoly; and thus set a dangerous precedent.—dst. Because the obstacles are too many. 2nd. Because the amount required to build it, will be too greut, and its profit* wiil not remunerate file advance. Sir. the distance is said to be ZOO miles, principally over a bar ren country, and an elevation of 5 tu <i00 Feet lo be o- vercouic, with viadnetsover three considerable rivers. From an official estimate it will cost Uotu 1500,001) to state, and to effect Ibis object, tin* Legislature will act two millions of dollars; considering our climate, poc unpatriotic and i-jitr. the state, if it do is not iucor-' uliar habits, ami being yet untrauu'i w this species of porn to this Rail road ’ with Banking pnv leges. Mr. j work, a* well as the errors and difficulties that will oc- President, I call the attention of tlie Senate, and the ! cur, I think it prudent to take ’the latter sum as the people of Georgia, to this most extraordinary mode of j safe data op which our calculations ought to be predi- reasoning; Charleston rivals Savannah by her Rail- cared. We will, then, take, the sum of twft millions of road: tlie advocates of Savannah, to counteract ihi* i dollars, a* tbe xitm to be raised to accomplished the <>b- rivalry ask for tlie means to make a rail-rood running 1 ject and assuming that it will tHke eight years before SPEECH MAJOR WOOD, O*-' MclNTOSH 111 the Senate of Georgia, Dec. 1635. on the Bill to charter the Savannah Ceutral Rail-Road, and grinding Banking Privileges thereto. -Mr. Pklsioe.nt:— 1 have listened, with the most profound attention, to the argu mem of the honorable Senator from Chatham, in Niippoit of this uew scheme ; and i wish I could persuade myself lliet he is correct. Nay, 1 bate en deavored. sir, to discipline uiy mind in.o ihe belief, that the plan proposed will eventuate in good; that it -v- ill be benelicial either in a sectional or general point of view; but, sir, I must confess, that tlie more I re flect on the subject, the less feasible it appears and tlie most insuperable objections arise in my mind against it. I think 1 see, in prospective, not only immense d inger likely to grow out of it, to the Union Puny, hut lathe people nt large: so strong and irresistible ate my objections, lliall uiu.-t be permitted at least to he sitate. before 1 go further. This is a new and impor tant experiment, und one which should be examined with the greatest rare apd caution; and all its bearings, present as well as future, maturely weighed. Impres sed as I am with a deep and intense solicitude on this important subject, I must solicit the indulgence ofthe Senate while I present some views which have occur- Piouccr Sletttn & Pole Boat Line. T .F.; proprietors ofthe abov- line notify their friends and the public, that they will have run ning oil the Altamaha and Ocmulgee rivers during the summer and fall months, four or five Pole Boats. particularly adapted to low stages of water, and vhicb will be aided by Steamboats when the water will per mit. 8 hi piers by this line may depend upon every at tention being paid, and exertion used to give despatch to property shipped by it to any of tbe landings on said river*. J. ’I. ROWLAND, Ag’t > aeon. AGENTS. Messrs Holcombe, Peck & Co. Charleston. E. P. Butt*, Esq. Savannah. Koni.Atn, Crane A Shacvelfofi), Darien, Halstead, Tavi.hr ft Co. llawkinsville. Macon. June 3|) 1 <>m ~ Commission ttusincss, Darien. t lilE undersigned have resumed business as a- bove, and will ns heretofore^ pay prompt atten tion to all business entrusted to theircare. We believe »ve have made arrangements that will enable us nt all lime* to forward goods for tho interior witli the least possible delay, by steamboats when the river will ad mit. or in extreme low river by small flats or lighters, built expressly for that business. On our wharves are large Storehouses, calculated for the storing of cot ton at the least possible expense, and onr opportunities to forward cotton inlaud or coastw ise, are not exceed ed bv any other House. Darien, May 4 J0, 1635. HAWES, MITCHELL ft COLLINS. iFommisttion Business, Darien. red to my mind ; and to enuble me to do so more dis tinctly. i shall consider tlie subject matter of this- Bill, under three aspects. 1st. As to that spcciesof Internal Improvement which is best adapted to the topographi- ad situation of the state. 2d. As vo carrying forward he system of Internal Improvements, through tlie a- gonoy of Banks. 3rd The consequences that are ikeiv to result therefrom. Sir, 1 am sensible of tlie great imponnnceof the subject before me. as well as aware of my own incapacity to present it in all its ariotts hearings. Would to Heaven, that 1 possessed dint expansion of mind, and flow of eloquence, which would ouuble tue, to impress on those who hear uie, flte deep and solemn conviction tinder which I ad dress tins iiouomhie body. In the absence of both these qualifications, I will yet endeavor to contribute my humble inite to tne preservation of onr common country from the imminent danger that I apprehend from this fatal srbeme. Sir, on thesubject of internal improvement, the spirit of the age is at work, and I - trust it will lie carried forward throughout onr whole country, iqd that every rational plan will meet and receive the support of every citizen of Georgia. I participate with others, in tins Common feeling. That I may be more distinct on tiffs head, I, at tbe very threslffiold of the discussion, avow myself a most ar dent friend toimproviiigthc state, eilherby Rail-roads or Canals But while advocating these great objects. I draw a distinction between the end and the means proposed to attain it. and state that ury opposition on the present iustaucc. is confined solely to connecting tlie baulting system as the means; and this from a conscientious belief, that if it once takes root in this or any other of the Uuited States, that it will sooner or later destiny the liberties ofthe people Mr. President, I have been taught by experience to draw a distinc tion betweei) plan* predicated on sound rotnmon-sense principles.and which onght more especially to regulate all schemes of internal improvement, and those which 200 nfiles transversely across the couutry to Mr.-on, leaving her rival iu tbe full possession of all the fruits of her euterprize, instead of making a direct effort to counteract her, a* 1 expect, iu the course of these re marks, to show, ought to be done, is this the system of internal Improvement, so ardently spoken of by its advocates, obi ionsly to lay the whole stale under contrilmticn arid make it tributary, for tlie benefit of the few at the expense of the. many l W ill gentle men seriously contend that this plan is tbe best possi ble means of putting down tite struggle of Charleston to injure Savannah—while their attention is bestowed on tills new sctieuie, do they not leave Charleston to enjoy tbe Traits of her euterprize, and continue lo increase the injury 1 Will a railway to Macon, lie the means of w ithdmvving the conrse’of trade which it is alleged is setting to Charleston .'—for myself 1 can not see the force of this argument, nor is it sustained by either eouiid teasou or litet. As the scheme ofthe advocates qf Savuuuali. has nothing in it to carry con- victiou to my mind, permit me. sir, as a real friend of Sarannah, and for Uie purpose of malting her a lead ing seaport in our state, to present another plan and give my reasons in support of it. I will make up an issue with the honorable senator from ChaUiani, and leave it to be decided by tlie judgment and common sense ot every msttiteitsted mau. It i«, no doubt, die object of the Charleston rail-road to attract from Au gusta and tue country connected with tier, all the trade she can to I Jt.-ilesion,por w iil Ufi-i Central Railway in terfere with that project; out another and different course may deleat it. Augusta lies at Uie head of Kleaui-boat navigation, ana is Uie depot now of all the raw material grown and brought from the North- Western and contiguous counties; that formerly there was about 175,000 bags of cotton collected there, to be transported lo the ocean ; ;bat this bulky arlicie mnst go hence, either by wuter to Suvaiiuah or rail-road to charleston ; that the railway can onij carry down 7000 bales a month, which if sold* confined to mat deposited in Augusta, would only remove 64,000 bags. But that now, Uie cotton grown in Carolina, which used to go to Augusta takes th- new route to Charles- tlic whole sum subscribed is paid iu, there will accrue a full interest on half of it, say for 4 years, which will om course of trade, and no effort by Charleston to uu ’port oil a large scale can long be sustained, unless done by ait advance of cupttal. If she has a capital, and chooses to employ it iu au unprofitable conflict, she must ultimately he tne loser, i fear, Sir, the Senator from ChaUiam, has not assigned tlie true cause for the decay of Savannah, it is, and i regret to be heveit, a want of solid mercantile capitil, which it is uotiu the power ol* tins body to legislate into iter pock et; instead, therefore, of capital, she conics and asks for Banking Privileges, winch will give her a uoniinai credit, and in the absence of real, substantial c.pitui Sir 1 again repeat, had the advocates for tins now scheme asked separately for bank capital, audio-signed Uie reasons of Uie houorable senator, i would have \ tr ied for it,andjoiuedmy humble voice with his in its fd- vor; but a scheme is brought forward, which may lie considered us a precedent lor future application which, if my past view is correct, must terunii ne iu at; abortion. Sir it is true that in t(ie County of Cn.it- ham, Uiere is congregated much latent, much patriut ism. and no one tu tlie state appreciates these briliaui qualifications mure iiiau Ido: besides t own propet.j in Savannah, and allied in sincere mendthip will, some ofher hist and most respectable citize us; atidyet some visionary plan* have emanated Irani that section of the State. At one lime ihe Ugecbee canal engaged their attention; next its extension to the Altaiuutu ri ver, and at (its voiffitteuce of me Oconee and Ockmut gee, the agricultural products of the West, were to How along it, and swell the exports of Savannah; tnis splendid scheme, lived its hour iu the ueivspa per. ana now sleeps u dead letter on our statute book; hut not before the little urmaiigkble cauul lo Ogechee, 13 tnile> in length, had cost the people of ucorgiu, amount to $4(J0,tlG0, added to tlie capital, give* a gross : §94,001) cash paid out of tiie Tuasunj The last session amount of2.400.000, which, at nil interest off* percent. ! another project wax got up, asking Lie pledge of tlie wjli be §120,000. To this, add for tbe annual repairs, i state, lor two millions of dollars, to biriid this same ratl- as estimated by Mr. Cruger, $139,641,92 makes an. way, but iu tlie House of Representatives only ho annual aggregate amount of $259,641 92. While ou voices could lie raised in it- lavor. sir, could 1 this detail, let us take a hasty view of the probable I forever ciose the Halls of our Legislation against all profits These Mr. Crngerbas classed; principally ! future application for banking privileges connected relying ou carrying cotton and passengers If the { with intcrtialimprovement, 1 might be-disposed not Charleston railroad cun only carry 64.0110 in a year, * to oppose the present experiment; but it is the pre rect it to tlie fearful, though perhaps remote, conse quences, that will sooner or later grow out of thin new scheme of connecting banking privileges with rail-roads; and I here most conscientiously declare, I tremble for the future liberties of the democracy of Georgia, should the plan succeed. Some, from a su perficial view of the subject, may, indeed ask how ?— Sir, 1 will try and concisely answer the question. I wiil, for the sake of argument, admit that the proposed plan may surceed agreeable to the anticipation of its most strenuous friends: its very success will naturally furnish additional reasons, to future legislators to fol-. low our steps, and increase and extend these privi leged monopolies to an indefinite degree. If one rail road. with bauking privileges, has been successful, why should not another ? If Savannah can by this means build her rail-road to Macon, why may not o- lher towns, counties and villages assume the saute re sult. aud demaud ot the legislature similar privileges f Now. sir. at this moment i have oue remark to make woithy of consideration, it is that Savannah is a com mercial citv, banks should exclusively be confined to commercial operations ; though, therefiire, this rail toad bauk from ist peculiar locution may pqs- tMy build the contemplated road, yetin *u< h cases, she will be among the few solitary instances of' success; while country banks multiplied, beyond the bona fide wants of the community, will ouly bo urne machines for speculation; and that the rail road and hanking sy tem extended as it inevitably will, by the precedent here set. will have tho certaia tendency of 44 making tlie rich, richer, and the poor, poorer.” We have already, with those in progress in being O' miles in length, the Central toad having to travel 200 miles will be able to transport in ihe same time somewhere about 50,000 bags, which at $1 50 per hag will make 75,000; 10,000 passengers, it is al so assumed, will go annually, which, at $8 tlie sum given, makes 80,000; giving a produce of $155,000, nr.d lea vmg a deficiency of upwards of $100.00(1, now from whence is this sum to be raised? certainly not from merchandize goiug West; besides. I have as sumed that it will lie employed all the year in carrying cotton, when not more than twn-thiids can safely be relied on, consequently the amount on that item will be diminished one-third I interpolate one remark, which I alluded to before, that the interest on the Cun al disbursement, wonld only be $30,000, compare that sum with the above short estimate.- If my argument demnnitnUiigiy proved that land- carriage could not stand competition with that by water, as applied to the Savannah ri :er. and Carolina railway, it is equally true with respect to the navigation of the Ockmnlgee. Now. as t* supplying tiie middle country with mer chandize, I will say, that tlie course of trade has chan ged, and that Macon and countries to the South and West, look for their supplies direct from Ncw-York. by the Altamaha. where there arc at present, 7 or 8 steam boats, with wheels at their stern, and which fly constantly between Macon and Darieu. They cost about $10,000, tow two boats, carrying 4 to 500.000 pounds weight, and make their passage in 5 and 6 days, propelled by ettgiiies of from 50 to 90 horse pow er.' In less than*5 years there will be 20 of them, and the number will produce such competition, us to re cedent that we are about establishing, that alarms me; for 1 consider tbe present the entering wedge, Which driven to completion, forever rives the liberties of tbe democracy ofour state. My soiicitupe, 1 confess is so deep and profound, that if the Dili lior establish ing tite Court ol'Errors was pending. uiea$u>e Jdeeiu so important to the interests uud character of Georgia, i would sacrifice it, to save the country from being saddled with ibis porteutious system; I tint, then both houses six rail-road charters, with an aggregate capita! over nine million of dollars, and each, if this bill passes into a law will have banking privileges craiited them. They have tbe powet to issue three dollars for one on their capital, which will enable them to throw into circulation a paper currency to the u- inouut of27 million , to which add the capital of the already chartered banks spread over the state, of up wards of six million ; and then there will be ttsUd rights to certain monied monopolists to tbe amount of 93 millions of dollars. Are gentJciiD n prepared to look this state of things in the face ? Are they not fgjr deductions from obvious premises 7 it is the influence and effect of such a state of things, in prospective, which produces the most gloomy apprehensions If ibis bili passes, thereby es;ablishing a preredeni for the future, one or two results, it strikes me, must ine vitably occur. Tbe first is, that the patriotism and penetration of ! tlie people, strengthened by ingenious arguments, that compelled to oppose* this bill, because it will serve as ! will be used by our political opponents, may induce a malign star, to guide others who may seek tbe saute ! them lo withdraw their confidence from those who have, mischievous views. Sir, the voice of the people ofthe . from sectional, or less laudable motives, set this dan- state has often been raised again* une.xteiisioii o! bank-J gerou* precedent for-posterity. They may not only ing capital; nor can 1 be led to beiicve that it wdt be less 1 remove tbf present actors in th * measure, but it may odious tu its features, because coupled with tlie popular i be tiie means of shaking t* the very foundation, a par- seeling in favor ot interai inipiot cntetit, norwid this j ty who have assumed (and hitherto acted on thatas- mautio, like chanty, cover the multitude ot sins, that sumption) to be the exclusive guardians of the democ- will flow from it. 'Sir, It therefore becomes our duly, racy of tbe state. Sir. this then, ben g a new and very rather to increase than diminish the safe-guards of Lib- important scheme; und as it may have beatings even erty. The Macedonian, when engaged in sapping ! more extensive than those ( have suggested, i therefore the liberties of Greece, daily piovci! by experience, consider it to be our bouuden duty, to submit this ton, leaving, perhaps under 150,000 bags, for water' duce freight to the lowest possible profit, t put the transportation,—tlie present competition of the laud ! queslonto every uian of common sense; if a capital of conveyance with that by water, mainly depends { near 2^ millions can possibly compete with oi ou the impediments to the navigation in ths ri ver, arising from low waters in die Fall of the year, aud which prevents bouts running early, consequeit- one of $200.0<H) doing tbe same amount of butsues* ? These small boats cap go at most stage* of the river, carrying merchandize up. especially thut which is bulky, and ‘ of tly agricultural produce accumulates there until the j consequently bring down in - return the produce of rivet rise*. Sir, if lain correctly informed, the shul- j tbe country Before Ileavethis bruuciiof the subject, low part ofthe river extends down for about GO miles to a place called Uerslmun’s Lake, below which the river is navigable at all seasons. Tins subject was brought lo my attention last w iuter, oil an application to charter a company to make a canal through die swamp from Augusta to this designated spol. 'The distance, us 1 have just stated, was estimated at GO priles, aud 1 feel assured that a cauul could lie con structed contiguous lo die high laud, at die cost of $10,000 per miie. which would be an expenditure of $C00,000,oud dm* furnish the means al all seasons fora constant arid uninterrupted water communication be tween Savannahuud Augusta, w bile tlie interest on tins ou lav would be only about $30,009; w hicb 1 beg boup. r permit uie to say, diat the railroad projected by Mr. Spalding lrpm die great bend of the Ockmnlgee to Flint River, and uuodier contemplated from thence to Columbus, must have the inevitable effect of subtrac ting f.om the contemplated profits of die Central rail way. In no invidious spirit,or feeling, have 1 suited this subject to the cousideratiou of tlie Senate, but sincerely, and widi a sniglo eye, to prevent a dange rous precedent being set of connecting banking pnv ileges widi railroad project. 1 shall now proceed to make some remarks and iilustratiousou die second point I proposed discussing, sir. there are various and conffic tiugpiinons ou the utility of Banking institutions having had means of acquiring some information ou this able senators w ill bear ill mind for 1 (hail advert to tins ! subject 1 readily admit dint Banks, under w holesome branch of the subject again. I am informed by a friend, who has done much business iu Savannah, aud now occupies a respectable othcc under die Li. State* there, that cotton has often been brought down the river as low as 25 cents per bale, but admitting it should stand at 50 cents ; iu such an. ex ent 5 or i> steamboats, each carry ilig two tow boats, and making a passage down and up. in ten dr twelve days, would take the cotton down as fast as It at rived In Ais regulations, and when judiciously managed, are to a certain extent neceasarry for commercial operation*, especially when confined to great commercial cities-— 1 aui also aware ofthe avowed hostility of the people oi Georgia to these institutions; to whom 1 yield some of my predilections in their favor. It, how ever, may be considered as aside maxim, in all cases, to have too little, rather dian too much of a banking currency in general clrculutioo; but it is also in my humble opin- gusta; and dieu a return cargo of inlaud uicrchan- ion, a mistaken notion, that a u amount ofbauk currcu- dize, especially the heavy articles, of iron, salt, grocer ies, ftc. which alone can fie obtained in ibis way, at any moderate pi ice. Here, tlien, the demand aud wants of the pjuuter and merchant would lie satisfied. Compare, dierelbie, a disbursement of $20(i,0tl(i in steamboats,'u ith die cost of the Cliaileston tail-way, estimated at $1,400,000 ; and every one will admit that laud carriage cannot contend with dint by water. emanate from visionary, selfish, or sectional feeliugs. because the diminution ot chatges for tteusportiou in While the former should be the po(ar. star bt which we should guide our course the latter ought to be weighed widi care and caution aud no further sustained dian in dicated by dcinons'tr ition I therefore adopt a princi ple in logic, that to arrive at a correct conclusion, von must lay down correct premises. I set out, then, with assuming it as a principle, that internal improvement, to be beneficial, must be auapted. as well to the topography of the region over which it i* to pans and its special localities, as to the quantity one, a* iu relation to die odier, will always give the water conveyance tiie preference. Here,* tiieu, is die rivalry ofthe Cliurlesiop rail-road to he put down ; it i* through this citanncl that Savannah must contend widi Charleston, aud attract to her wharves the legiti mate business that she is jusdy entitled to. This is but a brief outline, which might he amplified and sus tained hy olher arguments ; but Heave it, tp advert to an addidonal topic iu favor of the proposed caual. Suppose the Athens rail-road carried through, and a ed—whether agricultural alone ; its quality Hid kind ; manufactures, mineral or other production*, cither on 1 H E’Uuderalgned have'foruied a Copartnership • the mirfnce or drawn from the bowels of the earth: al- JL tor the purpose of transacting a general Com- so the facilities which will tic afforded *ociety. by a ra- missiou und other business under the firm of 1 pid transit or either men or merchandize from one SNOW ft ROOFERS, I place to another. All these are ingredient* of calcnla- and offer their services to their friends, and the public tion; and if the aggregate amount will justify the out- generallv, is the above business. Forwarding Goods lay, then every eiiconragcmenl should be given to and produce to and from the interior ofthe State, will ; lira undertaking.—But, wir, here permit me to warn receive particular attention'. It may be .proper to , tlie advocate* of these local efforts, ngaiust taking ei- state that they have no connection with any of the ther the state* of New-York or Pennsylvania as their Steam transportation lines; Goods for the interior will example, yet this subject is never mentioned, without alwav* ha snipped by those who will probably give both these states, being held up as a mirror in which them the greatest despatch. ISAAC SNOW, we are to conspicuously View onr own defect*—not Jan 1.1635 26 GEO T. ROGERS reflecting that both these large states have a gr ogrnphi- — , ;—:—; ; cal position different from every other iu the Union— \PT Marryatt’s complete works in 1 volume, New-York has on her borders both lakes Ontario and Pencilling* by the *»“>•. ! Erie: the latter coir.muuirales with the chain of lakes Gilbert Gurney, a novel, in 2 volumes, ! to the North Wesson whose shore* are immense bo- 1 he Nival Sketch Hook, 2d *erien, j diea of fertile land und capable.of holding a very dens*e l.ifo and timci# of Rienzt, . _ ] population : tl\e products and manufactures of which 8P^in revisited, by the author ofa year in spam, a ]one« can find their most direct course to the ocean. and quality of tire material which will he the subject; junction sliouid be formed with the one contemplated of transportation. These must he accurately estimate frorn Cincinnati!; or, even if llie latter should through Private Life of La Fayette; Rienzi, Adventures of a Rifle Brigade, Colton on the Religious state of the country, Tomlin’s Law Dictionary, Milford's Pleading*, &c. Ac. Just received and for sale by June9 50 JAMES S. OLCOTT. <*«*ort;ia Candles ftc. ''ONES Georgia’allow caudles,- A0\I7 10 do sperm do. 250 galls, heat Lamp Oil, 300 do Linseed Oil, With a variety of Groceries, just received and for vigable river* '*le bv march’9-37 CHARLES CAMPBF.ELL. ° 1 through these two slates A large and pavigahle ri ver, tlie Hudson, in the state of New-York, advances into the interior 160 miles to meet this commerce and then from the head of navigation, by a canal is con nected with these lake*. Penns) Ivania has pursued the same policy, though not so advantageously situat ed. and in doing so, has entailed on posterity a debt of from 30 to 40 millions of dollars as a legacy. Dt any one resort lo tne mnp. and he will find this deli- the Saluda Gap, lead fo Hamburg, a disiauce of 571) miles, aud there meet t|ie Charleston rail-road, thus saviug the making of 130 utiles ; in the former case, ihe products of cotton of all the counties contiguous to it, as well as those of tlie inland states, of beef, pork, cordage, cotton-bagging, besides a variety of manufac tures, must be deposited in Augusta, on their way to tlie ocean, and. when there, it is obvious that lira wa ter conveyance, on acconnt of the diminished price of freight, proceeding from previous competition be tween tbe Charleston road and tiie river, will assured? ly attract the mass of material to Savannah, for foreign export. This brief view will show that tlie object I have before me, is to sustain Savannah against the ri valry of Charleston, and that a union of that city and Augusta is the interest of both. If 1 cannot give my assent to this hill, it solely proceeds from the obnox ious feature, giving Banking privileges—not that I love Savaunali less, lint because 1 love the whole country more. I embrace the present moment to call the attention ofthe senate to the topographical charac ter of this part oftlra state, leading to our alpine re gion from Augusta. Here then is the true ground over which rational internal improvement ought fo raise its head: Here labor, and toil, and capital, must be called in aid of civilization and a deiue population. Here internal improvement slioti d be fostered. Ttere are no navigable rivers in which steamboats can rly —no Jeyel plain where thp teamster can wend his way with ease to market; and as far as the Legislature has power, internal improvements should be led notforced.- cv should he at command, equal to that of irar exports: equally visionary is the assumption that a metallic me dium is required proportionate to the amount of com mercial operations. The precious metals, hy the com mon consent of civilized uatious, have a representative value, which each regnlates by their purity; at this enlightened period, however, gold pud silver are as much articles of trade, as either rice or cotton, aud rise or fall in proportion to the demaud for them. Ido not laean that their intrinsic value varies, hut in rela tion to their abundance or scarcity either in this coun try, or in Europe. One of the reasons; and tlie prin cipal one assigned hy lira Honorable Senator from Chatham, is that there is an absence of hanking capi tal; as relates to itsbuisines wants; and as an evidence thereof, the prosperity of Charldeton is quoted, hav ing her baukiug capital by the late Charter, of a new Bauk, to the amount of two millions, which will enable that place to send Agencies to Savannah, and proba bly to Macon. The Honorable seiiatorstatcs, that the banking capital of Savannah is only $1,250,000, and that this railroad, is absolutely necessary to ressuci- tate her falling state. He also informs us, that her exports the p receding year, were a fraction over six millions, anil that this it will be over teu millions of dollars. 1 think my honorable friend has been rather incautious in his statistical Illustrations; instead of proving that Savannah is on the decline, he furnishes us with the fact that her last annual export exceeded “That au ass loaded with gold could pas. through ihe gates of their strongest cities.-’ Shall not than the His tory ofthe past, enlighten our steps, and teach us wis dom for the future < The designs on die nbetties of a free people, have never been curried oil openly and in the luce ofday, but hy gradually corrupting the parts, until the great mass were sunk below resuscitation.— Mr. President, 1 trust that 1 have demonstrated, that there is no immediate necessity for banking capital m Savannah; orif reallywanted, lwas prepared to give it iu i distinct character, and 1 regret to draw the conclusion, that the present bill befoie die senate, is a secret and delusive mode of obtaining it. Nay, sir, when it is found that this Railroad cannot be built iu tbia way. those who follow us iu this chamber, will be called on to relieve from that part ofthe burthen, with which the hook is now baited, nut with the retenti >n of the banking privileges, it i- against all chat .cred ition- oplies that Free States ought lo guard, and the present is one ofa hideous character; 2D miles on each side of tiie road of exclusive privilege, besides a duration of 33 years. It has on this floor, been admitted that the city of Savannah has become exhausted, and impover ished by past misfortunes, to which the rivalry of Char leston may be added ; but that she has made a last of fort, and borrowed from the City Banks $500,0U) to enable her to subscribe largely for this stock; but is she sure that she can get the remainder taken from other quarters? If she looks to Northern capitalists, are we to believe that they will not consult their own interest aud look more to that, than the prosperity of Savannah? W ill they not make enquiries, aud obtain results? YVill they not make similar calculations to those, I have just sketched to the Senate 7 Cau any one believe, but thut lira future produclubility of tilts railroad,wv\l not be taken into' cons.deration, as well ns thvliind ondquantity ol competition it has to encoun ter ? 1 say, therefore, should adventures, he found to risk their money, it wiil then to them be an object of speculation, and for this reason ihereskoulunotbe found one patriotic man ou this floor raising his voice tu ils favor. Sir,can we expect future Legislation lo resist the example set them by this t Will not tite same rea sons he used hereafter to carry forward this deletcr- rious system ? What right will oursucccssors hav e to refuse other sectional demands tor internal miprove- grave as well as great question to the consideration of our constituents and first take their opiuiou, whether they are willing to carry on internal improvement iu tin state, thiougli the dangerous agency of banks or not? 1 ask the decision ol the senate on the resolu tions I have laid on your table, previous to the final vote on this biil—which are in these words, ‘‘As an en lightened and extensive system of internal improve ment would .• ready conduce to the best interests of the state, provided it could be graduated on u just ami equal scale; and as several plans have been submitted to tho Legislature, none of which have entirely met the ap probation of the mpjority; aud whereas there is one scheme, which it is contended, will be highly beneficial, and is well calculated to build railroads through tho. country, without taking money out of the Treasury or. requiring aid from the state, by only permitting them to he built by banking operations, thereby incieasing this cheap ami rapid mode of conveyance. To this it has been objected that as vou multiply batiks, you di minish the value of bank paper; aiso that it has a ten dency to create a monied aristocracy, thereby chaining the poor to the car of the rich, and thus indirectly un dermining the fundamental principles oi our democra tic institutions ; with a view, therefore to ascertain tlie sentiments of the people of Georgia, ou tins important question, lie it Jiesolted, that the voters throughout the state, at the next general election, are hereby requested and authorised, when giving in their ballots for mem bers to the- General Assembly, for those who are for connecting banks with making of railroads, tp endorse oil their tickets, "Internal Improvement hy Banks,” and those who are against their being united, to endorse on their tickets, “No Banksand the superintending officers of said general election, shall certify to the Go vernor of the state, the result in each of their own coun ties: And be it further resolved, that it shall he the duty of tlie Judges of the Superior courts, in their re spective circuits, and the Justices of the Inferior court in each county, at every term that shall intervene until the first Monday in I <ctober next, to cause these re solutions to be lead ill open court by the clerk, and then referred to the Grand Jurors of the Superior.Court.”* Wnichever way the people may respond lo these reso lutions, 1 shall submit. One year’s deiaj will give time for reflection, and elicit their opinion. If they approve incut, with tlie same privileges? Sir, what cannot of the present scheme those who advocate it will be money, connected with sectional combinations, effect? strengthened in the justice of their cause; if they dis- l.oi>k with profound attention to tlie Bank ofthi U. j approve, we shall have anticipated their wishes by net States, a powerful monied corporation, who has more acting on it now. Senators of Georgia, 1 entreat, I than once taken part in the politics oi thecountry, and through the agency ot its money, shewn the immense influence it held ou the destinies ol the democracy ; did it not openly wield itsgreat resources without scru ple or disguise, in trying fo prevent lira re-eiectiou of Geu. Jackson 1 Editors, and Urar papers, were bought up, aud their exertions used to subserve its purposes. Sir, a virtuous and enlightened free press is oue oi the greatest blessings in a Free State; it sheds the rays of reason and Liberty over society, and spreads correct political principles over the minds ot our respected yeomanry, the real bone aud sinew of the country; it is tlie sentinel placed on tbe watch-tower of nberiy, to sound the alarui on the approach of danger, wbetner from the influence of money or ambition, bo long therefore, as Hie press is virtuous and patriotic, and keeps alive the vestal fire of Freedom, wo are safe. At that period, it wa* the reverse: the money oftlra Bank corrupted a part of the press—the money of the Bank bought up unprincipled politicians, both in aud out ofCongress; meu, too, of high sbtndiug aim Dis tinguished talent, and elevated rank—all tirase for lira sake oflucre, enlisted under the banners ofthe Uniied the former, by two millions of dollars. There must States Bank, whose great effort was to obtain a re certainly have been a considerable increase of business | charter, that it mightdissolve every asuiratiou infavor tlie Savannah, accessible tn Augusta. 130 miles by ,, ... ... steaui-hoats; the Altamaha passing through the cen- arna i r . ?*!!, ,*1 S*";' r i l tre of tiie state, also navigable to Macon and Milledge- l\ Anril oi’ ' £ Anchor Brand, for sale by viUe , ^ , mo , be interior; Kesides the Chatta- ApnlSl 43 CRAFT ft LEWIS. , loorhee „ fine river on tl)e sou thern boundary, novr tJdjSa JAMES S. S. OLCOTT is my ails constantly used Ijy steamboat*from the Gnlph ofFlo- f©thori»ed agent during , 11V absence front the rlda to Columbus. Here, then, i;i onr own state, and Bute. July 14 55 JAM ES S. OLCOTT. no over 100 miles apart, are three fine rivers, now — daily used by steam-boats, and piercing deep into the cotton growing region. Now. what ia the enquiry neation correct. Denying, therefore, any analogy, be-1 It is conceded that there is co possible mode by which tween those states and Georgia, let us analyze our | the produce ofthe Western Counties can be got to own advantageous point*. We have three la>ge na- Augnsta, but by land carriage, which must be impei- ile rivers within Our limits; on the North-Fastr I led by steamor animal power; that the soil on which Notice* ■ b Mr. JAMES P, BRADLEY is my which naturally presents ■ itself ? Whether all these . | r authorised agent during mv absence from the navigable streams, which furnish a cheap nnd ready has hitl’erto compelled me to withhold my consent to i own goods tn New York, has them sold at a mnrder **We, July 7 64 It THOS. WOOD means of conveyance of the staples of the country, ‘ several plans proposed. TJie money in the Treasury 'ate advance al auction, pays the Auctioneer a eom- it must pasa is so heavy, that a bag of cotton costs $3 to g«t it to tlie liead of navigation, aud that articles of first necessity, iron, salt, groceries, are no v saddled with a heavy expense, from the tardy transportation. Every reflecting man must here see the necessity of enconraging the exertion of those to be benefitted.— Sir, this i»agrand qnestion, and requires mature deli- t (-ration on the part.ofthe legislature, in what shape it could be rrccouiraplished. I have always had tne strongest disposition to forward the claims of tiffs sec tion ofthe State, hut a high sense of impartial justice to produce this happy result; as one 1 am ready to vote Savannah an increase of bank capital, if her vvants require it. but I cannot do it under the disguise ofa datigerinus, though popular scheme, because denom inated internal improvement. M e have been told that Savannah ex ports 215,000 bags of Cotton; I think, in the House of Representatives it was stated at 240,000. Let me ask. Mr. President, where does all this raw' material come from ? Is it, or is it not, bought with Savannah ia pital ? if with the former she must have enough—if bought elsewhere i* must be with other capital. Sir, we know that h-df this cotton goes from Augusta. 60 to 80 000 bags from dacyn. and the bal ance from other places; that purchased in Macon arid Augusta, is mostly bought with otlier than Georgia capita], founded on a credit abroad, by bills of ex- cliauge, discounted in the several Bank* in the State, and 1 feel no hesitation in stating that “one million and a half of bank paperi” trill coverall the direct intercourse between the cot ton grower and the cotton buyer.. The re puted circulation in the state, is butweeu 3 and 4 mil lions. A great d eal of cotton is received by the coun try merchants, which they ship themselves, to meet their engagements in N. Y. and elsewhere, and there fore cannot be Brought into the account requiring bank capital, for it is Fraught without it. Another allegation oftlie Honorable Senator forthe decay of Savannah, is. that she han no direct foreign import*, and Charles ton has. ergo Savannah must have more bank capital. Permit me; 8 ir, to digress a little op this point. Years long gone by, our merchants used to import direct from the manufactories of Great Britain, and perhaps France, but generally on a credit of 9 and 12 mouths, with the risk to the seller of a delay of payment; now. to a certain extent, this trade has changed; instead of selling on time, the European manufacture ships his offreedoui. Sir. i regret to remark that to tiie inter est of this monied corporation, there became allied al most oil tlie riches, wealth and aristoctncy ofthe L- nion; as if there was a mutual and strong sympathy among all those who worship at the shrine of wealth. In this great conflict and attack of a monied corpora tion on the citadel of our liberties, it was alone saved by an incorruptible democracy ; in which tlie love of country, predominated over selfish cousideratiou, and sustained the purity of our holy institutions in tlie per son of Andrew Jackson. Allow me ftir.iipr to advert to the second struggle ofthe bauk for power on the re moval of the deposites from its vaults. 1 need not ad vert to the panic which was raised from one cud of tue continent to the other the iiue and t ry against the Pre sident ; the dennnnciations both out aud iu Congress, that the couutry was Tuine.':—hankiupled ? Where are all these false allegations ? Disprove d hy the continued prosperity over our land, from Marne to Louisiana; from the shore of theoceap to the highest mountain-top. Sir, ( press these instance* of Rank influence on the attentio.i of honorable senators, with a view to future and more fatal coiiscquencesTrom this portentous scheme ; aud with no view to raise auy false alarm, but in the performance of a sacred duty tp the cause of liberty, sir. I have examined the politi cal horizon before to-day and drawn conclusions, from plain and palpable indications, which enabled ntc to make predictions so correct that with humble confi dence, I may sav they have had some of the character istics, of prophecy- 1 allude especially to the first speck that appeared on the political horizon, in an “ adjoining state,” on the snbject of nullification.. A principle so dangerous to our glorious Union, and so deleterious in its ch-racier, a* since that period to have shed a baneful influence over onr once happy and united country I caw it in embryo in S. Carolina, in 1829—1830. ' Btu I will not anticipate the answer i implore you to pause and give the people time to de cide ou this mouieutuiis question themselves—to pause before you destiny that cement which has hitherto uni ted our hands and iicarts in the great cause of civ il li berty and Union. My social, uiy political friends, let me call on you in the name of our common, our glori ous country, not to endanger the standing of the Union Party by hasty, hy premature action. I feel bound, by every motive of patriotism, to warn you of a very possible and fatal result; not merely ponlined to those who may set theit name* to this record, hy which you may stand condemned before the people, but endanger principles on winch the future happiness ol yourselves, your wives, children and posterity depends. Should I hav miscalculated on the good sense of my fellovv-ci- tizi ns, and lira people should be found approbating this dangerous system, then my apprehension of tha ('an. erons situation in tvhirh they place themselves vvi! be still more fatally realized. In proportion lo the facility of procuring money, so you increase the dssire to ob’ain it. founded either on tlie wart of reflection, imaginary wants, or the desire of speculation. It ib immaterial by which cur fellow-citizens are tempted to become borrowers. wherever these paper money banks are established, those who control, will, either'in their corporate capacity make these loans, or else those who have their confidence, will draw money out, at Bank interest, and lend it to borrowers, who cannot, in the first ins once obtain it direct; the second will lend to the third, at ahigherrate of interest, in proportion to the diminished means of the borrower; and the danger of loss still securing a lieu on al! he has. Here, then, the fatal system commences, und goes on gradually, like a cancer, leading to some vital part, slowly but surely. Alas, it is then too late for repentance—the lender has his victim by the throat; he must submit to such terms a-i are dictated, or be ruined; all freedom of action is gone , political subserviencies follow, and the soil over which these railroads are to rurt, will be the track by which father and son will drag their chains, led by a monied master, to the poll*. From this moment, com mences in the breast of the once high minded, inde pendent. American yeoman, moral degradation, and the (.therial spirit of liberty, bids an eternal adieu to the breast of this slave of a monied aristocrat. Is this picture too highly colored ? I appeal to every public man who is conversant at onr elec tions for the justice of the delineation I pray you then, honorable Senators of both parties, to reflect on these, even possible consequences, be fore vou decide. If you doubt the arguments which I have used against the dangerous tenden cies of monied institution*. I entreat you to weigh those so often and forcibly presented to the Atncr- ic»n people hy President Jackson, and. which all paries must admit carry with ihetn irresistible conviction, especially to every men who is a Re publican in principle.f To the friends of Gov ernor Clark, his opinion oueht to carry much w o-b» si d Ira. while filling the Executive Chair, , ‘Lost hy a vet* of 32 to 39—Jour. Senate; p. ls'6.