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The Daily times-enterprise. (Thomasville, Ga.) 1889-1925, June 04, 1889, Image 2

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THE DAILY TIMES-ENTERPRISE. JOHN TRIPLETT, - - - Editor. S. B. BURR, - Business Manager. The Daily Times-Knterfbise i' published erery morning (Monday exepted.) The Weekly* Enterprise is published everr Thursday morning. The Weekly Times is published crery Sat- * urday. Subscription Rates. Daily Times-Entkbpp.ise, . . . W JKULY Enterprise, Weekly Times, Daily Advertie no Rates. Transient Rates.—50 ct:. per squa-c first insertion, and 40 cei ts for ea h quent insertion. One Square, one month, - - - • One Square, two months - - - - One Square, three month ;, - - - On. Square, six months, - - - - One Square, twelve monti $ 5 00 8 00 12 00 20 00 35 00 Subject to change bv soecinl nrranj ‘»mcnt. ^ N.B, BI'UB, IIiinIiicnm Mnnnfirr, SPEC!AI. MITICK. In order to insure pr« nipt inserti< n, ail Advertisements, changes, locals, etc., should D9 handed in by noon be ore the day d pub lication grovvirg ia the eastern flutes tor nearly | over nutil the period for infection next a century and that is now known ii»« ccur I spring. B VMIN KN8 XOTI( K. I’arties leaving Thonmsvillc for the sum mer can have the Times-Kntkrprise sent t» any address for 50 cents per month. Ad dresses can be changed ns often ns is desired TUESDAY, JUNE 4, 1H8£.| Dampening Their Ardor. /Some wag, with a knowlegc of human Dature, perpetrated a joke on the "bottld sojer boys” of Albany, the other day, by sending a bogus tele gram, as if from the sheriff of Berrien calling, calling on them, as the near est military company, by authority of the governor, to come down and arrest Jacob Young, the outlaw who had entrenched himself with arms and swore he would not be taken alive. It is said that the various reasons for not goiDg were amusing to hear, but, after considerable effort, a corporals guard were obtained who were willing to face the one outlaw. Fortunately, however, for the future prosperity of the company, the joke leaked out. We don’t blame the boys; they didn’t go into the thing for war, and they don’t want any foolishness. |The LeConte Pear. We publish below the report made by Mr. M. B. Waite, the government expert, on the disease that has attack ed the LeConte pear tree in this sec tion. Mr. Waite has given the matter an exhaustive study and his conclu sions will be read with interest by the public. It is proper to say that the orchard of Judge Fleming, of Baker county, was attacked by the same dis ease a few years ago, that it has entirely recovered, and that it is now in a perfectly healthy condition. The LeConte tree is one of wonder ful vitality and is well calculated to overcome the inroads of disease, as has been proven by those who have been engaged in its culture in this section for years. While the report of Mr. Waite is full and intelligently expressed, it is proper to say that our pear growers are not very uneasy, would be better for us, if we could say that the LeConte pear had immunity from disease,but as it has been demon strated otherwise we can only say it is not serious, and former experience has demonstrated that fact. In response to several letters front pear growers and from the ohief offi cials of the S., F. k W. Railway, stating that au unknown disease was damaging the LeConte pear groves of South Geor gia and North Florida, the writer was commissioned by the Secretary of Agri culture to investigate the matter. Ac cordingly the writer has been at work in the pear groves with microscope and scapel. Ajb far as the cause of the dis ease is concerned satisfactory conclusions have been reached. The information is given through this medium in advance of any government report on account of the special present demand for informa tion on this subject. Hod. Edwin Wil letts, the able Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, who has ebarge of the scientific work of the department, Baid to the writer when starting: “I desire particularly to aid the growing industries of the South and the West, and as you aro going south, be sure and make your investigations as thotough as possible. Give all the information you can con cerning the difficulty, and assure the people that the Department of Agricul ture at Washington is willing to aid them in every nay in its power.” I wish to thank the people where I have been for the many favors received, and am under special obligations to the S., P. A W. Railway for opportunities ot making this investigation thorough. THE MAI.ADY. The diseaso which is damaging the LeConte pear trees in South Georgia and North Florida is the genuine i>ear blight. It is the same obscure and destructive i that has been the bane of pear more or less nhirevsr the pear b gr iwn in the Uoited States. . WHAT IS PEAR PLIGHT The blight in the pear tfe<> and a fen other related fruits is a specific dist asc. It ii the work ot a microbe In other words, it i- due to a species of bac eria which lives in the pour twigs and bark as a (run parasi’e and kiils a. a result ot its presente. The tfrms “blight,” "rust" and “die back ’ are often used rather vaguely to ntnu any , f the diseases or jnjuii. s to vi-getaiion. Bit in this ease we are d' » ] i;ie with » sp<cifie dts-ase which is peculiar to t he pear audit- adit*. Teis i» hy no ura r a the only di-ease of the pear trte. YooThumen, a German botanist, enumerated twenty-three sptci- s of fungi that are known to occur on the oear. Of these the greater number ar. true parasit* s which live at the i-xpeiw ot the t ear rod are mere or less it juriou- to it. Of tlit—e p-ar diseases caused hy furgt only I ur ft v- done sufficient dam age iD the la-tim Unit'd States to at- tract attention. IVpiritioes were 'rad io study up the trout, e in ilie L C nte orchards it cas- it -I ou <1 he any one of these or somethin!: new, lit", the first stride o' the iisr-nd tissue which was placed under 'he me'' m"\ '■ revialod immense nunfeisof characteristic microbes of pesr b ull’- Abundantly repea'ed trials a.ways cav< the same result sod th« (Eternal charset ts «-f the dis ease are so proiourc. d as to leave no possible doubt. HISTORY. Prob-bly do disease of phots has been more discussed and wtitteu about than pear blight. The first positive record of the cccurano.i of this disease is on the Highlands of the Hudson ia 1793. The first American book on fruit culture, published in 1817, contains a chapter on blight in the pear. Since that time there has been no end of articles in horticul tural papers, books and journals, espe cially in recent years. All sorts of the ories and speculations have been indulged in by borliculturalists and fruit growers concerning the cause of the disease. The theories are usually as different as the individuals in whose brains they originated. Some attributed it to thp work of insects, others to fretzing and froz-n sap. Some thought it was due to an over supply of sap, while others to a deficiency of the same. But it was reserved for Prof. Burrill, of the Uni versity of Illinois to discover the real cause of blight. This he did in 1880 Prof. Burrill’s remarkab'e discovery ot the bacterial nature of this disease for ever put an end to the wild speculations and theories concerning it and practically canceled all that had been written pre vinusly concerning the cause of blight. The observations of the other writers as to mode of occurance and distribution still remain of value. In 1883 Prof Burrill published a name and description for his now species of microbe. It is now known to botanists as Micrococcus amylouorns, Burrill. From 188-1 to 1887 Prof. Arthur, of the New York Experiment Station c inducted a very careful series of experiments in tbestudy of pear blight. He fully corroborated Prof. Burrill’s work, and discovered val uable new facts about tbo disease. Prof. Arthur carried out his experiments with moro completeness thaD had beep done before, and as a result the proof that the tniorobes cause tl c blight is as perfeot as any biologic il demonstration can ever be. Still in tho light of all these dis coveries the only remedy known is to out out the diseased parts. EXTERNAL APPEARANCE. Unfortunately this is already too fa miliar to many readers. In general the blight may be recognized as a rather sudden dying back of the ends of the branches without any evident .cause. The leaves shortly after the death of the branches die as a natural result, and the dead branches present about the same appearance as limbs that arc accidentally broken off. The freshly killed twigs present a rather blackened or more soggy and moister appearance than a broken twig. Frequently there ia a gummy exudation given off. By far the greater number of- the points of infection are the blossom spurs. In neatly every instance the disease can be traced to a blossom cluster as the start ing point. In the greater number of cases the fruiting spurs and tips of tho branches arc blighted, and that is all. In tho more severe cases it continues to spread downward, killing the larger branches or oven the whole tree. It fre quently runs around a largo branch from a diseased spur and girdles it completely. All above this eventually dies, although tho leaves may remain green for some time. The disease progresses on the main limbs only in tho inner bark and cambium layer, this being the only vital part. It appears on the truuk and main limbs as dead slightly sunken patches. The work of the previous year is told THE MICROBE OF PEAIt BLIGHT. The m'erube which causes pear blight belongs fo a group of plants v.-hioh are the smallest of all living thin -s. Further than tbb>, it is one of the smallest of its kind. Each individual is a nearly sphcrial, simple, colorUss, vegetable cell. This microbe h.-s no appendages of any sort and no power of I, c.unnii IP. ft spreads in the pear only by increase in numbrrs. It i t a very e intnon error to think that bac.eri« are animals This is not so, for they are p'aot c-I. wilt a coll wall of cellu'osu. Soma i h a of th almost infinitesimal hz i of these minute parasites ntay bn gained wluni is state ft that it would take over tw.nry thousand of them placed side by side to r.-t-ch an inch, and yet these little le-iuga kill largo pear trees. They m -k-i uo in numbers what they lank insiz -. There miorobes multiply at a tretneudius rate, by division. A microbe absorbs a little more juice from the pear tree, lengthens out slightly and forms a constric.ioo iu the middle. This gradually deepens until the original cell is completely separated into two. Thcs; lali apart,, each one to again divide into ivo, and so indefinitely. This process gives^hf ra a power of multiplication which is only limited by the food supply at band. The miorobe lives in the liquid contcn's of tho cells of the pear tree, appropri ating their substance and kil iog the tissuo as far as he penetrates. The cells that make up the bark of a pear tree aro nearly a hundred times larger than the microbe cells. How tho microbes get through the cell walls from one cell into the next one is not yet known. It is certain that they do get through and do the work of destruction, and the theory is that the baotcria secretes a ferment which dissolves or softens a portion of the cell wall, thus giving ao entrance. The gummy exudation given off by tho diseased limbs contains countless millions of the microbes. These, with many others from oracks in the bark, are washed into the ground by rains. Many, and probably the greater number, remain in the twigs and wero found by Prof. Arthur to be alive the next spring. These miorobes may be made to grow in suitable nutrient solutions outside the tissues of tho pear tree. They grow and multiply in great profusion in broth from potatoes, corn meal and other vegetable substaners. Further, it is found that they develop in an infusion of garden a ,il. This brings up the question os to whether the mien,bee multiply iu the soil iu nature. This question is uot yet answered. It is not known how the microbes get inside the tree in tho spring. Thorn is scarcely any doubt but that they get in from the air, or at least from the eu'side. Prac tical pear growers and tho few botanists who havo studied this disease agree that the common method of gaining ontranco is through the flowers. Possibly bees spread the discasa from ooo flower to another, aud perhaps the vi-cid surface of the stigma in the flowtr furnishes a starting point. But this is theory. It is not known just how they get a start, but one thing is sure, when they do get iu they make great mischief. As may be inferred front the above, there are two possibilities for infection. First, from (he microbes left over from the year before and shed out from tho dead limbs or blown up in the dust. Scoond, from microbes which multiplied and increased in the soil. PRODUCING BLIGHT ARTIFICIALLY. By inooulating the pear blight microbes into suitable healthy tissue-, blight may be produced artificially. If a freshly blighted twig be scraped with a knife ia a small quantity of water a great many of the miorobes will bo washed out into the water. Tbis may be used for a very satisfactory experi ment which any one can try. By dip piDg the point of a pin or a knife into this water and thrusting it iuto a green pear at tbis da'e, tho disease will begin to show at the point of inoculation iu threo days and by a week’s timo the pear will be thoroughly full of tho blight. The blight was also produced in part of tho trials in the growing tips, but the “green fruit is much more reliable on account of the moisture it contains. This was tried repeatedly and never failed in case of the green fruit. The tissues of the pear arc tho soil in which these bacteria thrive, and putting them in there is like planting so many seeds. WHAT WILL KILL THEM. Wo have iu tho above then a pretty good test for the vitality of the microbes. As a preparation and foundation for future experiments for a remedy, it was thought desirable to test the susceptibil ity of the microbes to certain poisons which are known to kill higher parasitic fungi. Accordingly preparations were made of some of tho well known fungi cides which are used in spraying the grape-vine for the prevention of mildew by the dead weather beaten branches. - and black rot. The microbes were In by far the larger number of cases of mixed up in these instead of water, and dead twigs and branches examined as a check, one was prepared in pure the disease had stopped progressing and ! water. This material was then used for a crack has formed between the healthy j inoculation. Tho uninjured microbes and diseased portions. The tree at once j readily produced tho diseaso, and part of forms a layer of cork or bark over tho ; thoso treated to the fungicides were heathy part, thus healing up the wound, j killed. Without going into the details A if markable case is freqncntly seen ! of the experiments, which were conduct- in which the disease spread in larger cd with care, it may be said that the jatchcB on the trunk in the inner bark, jut failed to kill the cambium layer next tho wood. Here a new bark is seen to bo forming underneath tho old. The fact that the disease in nearly every in stance has stopped progressing leads to the belief that no moro damage will be done (bis year. The danger seems to be simple solution of copper sulphate killed even when as low as i per cent, solution was used. Bordeaux mixture (a mixture of lime and copper sulphate solution) and Eau Celeste (a solution of copper below 2 per cent. The 2 per cent, solu tion did the wotk, however. The or ganism is thus shown to be reasonably husc ptib e to nrc inary luneicidcs, and the question corn s up: Can not the tree- b: spratud wiih these fuogiciirs in the way that grape vines aro before the period of infection, and ftte entrance ot' the organism prevented? Theex- P-riment is certainly worth trying, and it is hop'd 'hat it will be. If successful, the trea'iner.t w. u!,i nor he expensive er i nr.raeiieal. Un‘( r ir.a'rly one mils- waif until n-x- s: riot: be^ote anything in this ini- c<n be tri-d. THE LECONTE I'EAR. The history of the introduction and rapid spread of this superb pear tree is well known to most readers. The tree is remarkable for its vigorous and luxurious growth, its early fruiting and wonderful productiveness, which must be seen to bo fully appreciated. The young pear orchards with their vertical branches heavily clothed with dark green foliage and the older trees drooping under their immense load of valuable fruit form a horti cultural picture that js without a rival. On its merits thousands of acres of the best land iu South Georgia nnd North Florida have been planted with this pear. Although scarcely ten per cent, have yet reached the bear ing age it is rapidly pushing forward as one of the first agricultural pro ducts in this section. The tree has been usually flic very picture of health free front the usual pests of fruit tree: The orchai ds have received care and attention that is commendable. In deed they are models of their kind. Previous to the present outbreak the Le Conte pear was considered to he free from blight, and although it is a little down at present, it seems scarce ly probable that the disease will do more than to damage the tree for a few years. AT THOMASVILLE The blight was observed to be very severe. Some orchards within a mile or so of the place were only slightly attacked aud have a fine crop of Iruit; others have nearly every fruiting spur killed. Many of the trees in the gar dens about the town are badly af fected, so that they have scarcely any fruit. But few trees at this place are killed, and rarely is a large branch affected. The disease here is mostly confine i to the tips of the branches and the fruit spurs, some trees show ing two or three hundred distinct points of infection. As to the general result, a prominent shipper of pears ftom this point gave it as his opinion that there was a good half a crop in this vicinity. If the disease should not continue next year the trees will recover and do permanent injury will result. AT BOSTON, GA Here the blight was the most severe yet seen. Most all the old trees near town aro dead or nearly so. The blight Bprcad doavmvard, attacking tho largo limbs and trunks, either killing the trees entirely or perma nently injuring it. Here, as elsewhere, the youug orchards are almost en tirely free from blight, although, as an exceptional case, a half dozen cases of the disease were seen in the nursery rows. There is very little fruit here except on the young trees just coming into bearing. AT CAMILLA. Here the blight was also very severe. The disease behaved the same as it did at Boston, killing the large hranohes, and frequently tho whole tree. AT QUITMAN. This point seems to be on the outer edge of the affected area, only a few scattered twigs of genuino pear blight were 6ecn. AT MONTICELLO, FLA. There is very little blight at this place. No damage done, but just enough blight to say that tho disease has reach ed that point. AT TALLAHASSEE. During the few hours spent in search ing for the disease around this place, it was not found. A few diseased limbs were shown me, bat no genuine pear blight. However, I am informed that at Live Oak, Madison and other points in middle Florida tho disease has dono considerable damage. BLIGHT IN OTHER FRUITS. Precisely the same disease—microbes and all—occurs in the quinec, tho apple, the Siberian crab apple and in the wild May Haw. These plants all belong to tho natural order—Rosacea:—and aro near allies of the pear. I havo not yet found tho miorobes in tho plum, nor any other stone fruit, although somo dead twigs of the plum were examined which looked a little like blight. They doubtless died from some other cause. Tho disease occurs in all the varieties ot pear; some years it is worse in some vari eties and some years in another. Where tho Kit tier stood near diseased LcContes it was muoh less affected than they were. On tho other hand Bartlett and Howell in tho same position socmcd to be worso fleeted. OTHER FEAR DISEASES. While visiting the pear orchards iu the study of blight auother disease was frequently observed, and I avas informed that it had done considera ble damage to some trees in past yenrs. it is known as the leaf spot disease. It may he recognized by small circu lar brown spots scattered over the leaves. The same thing ou the fruit p. m., Wednesday will be returned Saturday morning. All work guaran- - t . , v ., 9 . teed as good as new. Sam M. Wolff, of Sulpnurct of Potassium failed to kill | inch in diameter, each one being tho j Agent, iog and in Broad St. sulphate and ammonia) of tho usual | causes a scabby .nasty appearance, strength, killed the microbes. Solutions j The spots are scarcely an eighth of an C Q n 1 Mfrtt aP XI a! A AM *11*1 Pa .1 a J L A 1— tit I t _ 7 _ J.11. - ■ .A . _ L .... 1 . • j 1 growth from a single spore. Wliou a leaf lui3 very many of these spots ou it it turns yellow and falls off. In this way many trees ntay be entirely defoliated hy the end of June. These leaf spots are the work of a small par asitic fungus. Ititmuch larger and higher up in the scale than the mi crobe, but it is still very minute and not unlike tbis smaller being in its physiological action. That is, it is a destroyer of vegetation. At Boston four trees were seen suf fering and about to die from a disease known as “root rot.” The top of the tree presented a sickly yellow appear ance, alike all over with no local dif ficulties. In such a tree the cause of the trouble is usually to be found in tho roots. Upon digging most of the roots were found to be killed bv a fungus which had extended its del icate net work of avhite mould-like threads over and through them. TREATMENT. There is no satisfactory remedy known for pear blight, The disease is purely local, killing ns far ns it goes, but leaving all below it healthy. The method pursued by the growers of the North has been to cut out the diseased limbs below the dead part. This does very well where there are only a few dene branches, but where blight is scattered over a tree at a hundred different points it is scarcely possible to do this. In young orchards and those slightly affected this should he vigorouly carried out. As far as pos sible, in all eases, it is advised to cut out nnd burn all diseased lirnbB. Be careful to burn up evory limb, for, by so doing, you destroy the millions of microbes contained in them, and les sen the chance tor infection next sea son. It seems to be the general experi ence ot the pear growers of this region, as it has also been in other states, that the heavily manured and over-stimu luted orchards are damaged more by the blight than others. It is there fore deemed advisable to use ferti lizers with moderation. Only enough to keep up a moderately thrifty growth No doubt much is to be learned as to the best fertilizer for this tree. With our present knowledge of pear blight the above treatment is all that can be done. After the microbes get started in a branen there is no hopes of anything ever being found to reach them beside cutting out. It seems probable, how ever, that some of the best fungicides may be sprayed on the pear trees be fore the period of infection in such a way as to kill the microbes when they fall upon it and thus protect the tree. There is little hope of any remedy be ing found except a preventive one. In the short period that has elapsed since the true oature of this disease was understood no experiments with preventive remedies have been tried It is hoped to determine what the pos sibilities are in this line by experiment next spring. It is unfortunate that the nature of the case makes so long a delay necessary. This experiment, if successful, would be of benefit not only to the people in this region, but to the pear growers of the whole country. THE OUTLOOK. How much is this thing going to amount to? Is the question frequently asked. Of course no one can say defi nitely. In other parts of the country whero pear blight done damage it has been muoh worse during certain years than others. Like other plant diseases duo to fuugi it is usually bad for two or three years and then begins to disappear, perhaps to gain increase after a term of years. There, has been so called periods of epidemic of pear blight which passed over. Certain orchards are always moro or less uninjured. It seems reasonable to suppose then that the present out break will not do more at the most than damage the LeConte pear groves. Thero aro thousands of uninjured orchards and still greater numbers of youDg orohards not ready to bear. Are these all to be severely handled before tho disease takos the downward tread ? There is still good grounds for hopo for tho pear growers in two lines. First, that the disease will run its course and diminish in severity. Second, that something may be found which will pre vent infection of tho trees and by proper attention pears may be aucccssfully grown even if the blight should contin ue. The pear growers may rest assured that if botanieal science can do anything towards oarrying out the second line, no effort will bo spared to aceomplish it. M. B. Waite, Department of Agriculture. Washington, D. C. MUSQUITO BARS. Of all kinds. A good bar complete for $1.75. Patent bcadsteud attachments. Agent for Armstrong's palont canopies, mudo In walnut, chorrv and untiquo oak. Geo. W.FonnEs, May 17 If. Masury Building. Will tuko contracts for wall papering, Can furnish rcllab c man and guarantee work. Geo, W. Forres, Masury Building. Wallpaper at Ip x prices, select pat- erne, Geo. W. Forbes, Masury Building laundry. Collars 2c.; cuffs 4c. per pair; shirts qc. Work received up to 2:30 o’clock n m VVjisXn...ill La I When you are con templating- a pur chase of anything’ in our line, no matter liovv small may be the amount involved ACT WISELY By coming to look over our large and well selected stock of Clothing, Gents’ Fur nishing Goods, Hats, etc., that is new and seasonable. To buy of us. After seeing the prices and examining the qual ity of our goods you can’t resist them. It is impossible to do as well elsewhere. JNTO an be found. We get the choice of the best goods on the market, andbuy and sell them at LOW. k can Depend Upon It That our prices are the lowest, our as sortment the most complete, and our quality the highest. Dont fail to call on us. 0. H. YOUNG & GO Clothiers and Furtishtrs. 106 Broad St,