Circular No. 10. \
Third Series, j '
FOR THE MONTH OF JUNE, 1891.
Rhurned to xaa Dxpabtkxnt or Aobicttltorb, June 1, 1801.
State or Georgia, Department or Agriculture, \
Atlanta, Ga., June 6,1891. /
The reports for June are not altogether as good as we would have
them to be. The present condition of the crop is largely due to the
late spring and the drought that followed. The present status is
about as follows:
The acreage in con»is about 105, but the condition is only 89 as
against 97 for the same date last year. An increase of 5 per cent, in
area, but a falling off 8 per cent, in condition. This may be very
speedily changed if the rains continue to help the hot June sun
This crop somewhat relieves the outlook, for while the acreage is
only 85 per cent, the condition is 73 per cent. A falling off of 15
per cent, in area, but an improvement of 15 per cent, in condition
with comparative freedom from rust.
There was only 76 per cent, sown as compared with last year*
which means a very small area, but the condition is 91 and free
from rust. Great pity a full crop was not sown.
This all absorbing crop seems to be in a condition to bailie all
calculations. The area is reported as 90 per cent, and the condition
80 per cent. This seems to indicate a greatly reduced crop. But
no very safe calculations can be based upon crop of cotton before
June sunshine and July and August rains have done their work.
But it is safe to say we need not look for another 8,000,000 bale crop.
Sugar cane, potatoes and melons all promise well.
There can no longer be any doubt as to the fearful injury to this
important crop. The improvement from May report is only 2 per
This important crop should receive more attention. Full of
pleasure, health and profit, larger areas should be planted.
: ' TOBACCO.
The increase from 85 acres in 1890 to 1053 acres in 1891 shows
that the public attention is being directed to this very profitable
crop. The new method of drying will work a revolution in tobacco
culture. It is far more profitable than cotton.
We again respectfully urge correspondents to make up reports
from 28th to 30th of the month, and mail them on or before the 1st.
This is very important. A few days often makes great changes in
crop conditions. Cooperate with us cheerfully, and we will try to
do you good.
We put in this report some valuable receipts, which farmers and
gardeners will do well to preserve.
AVERAGE for the sections and state.
RECEIPT TO FREVENT BUD-WORMS INJURING CORN.
Get chloride of lime and copperas, desol ve in warmjwater and soak corn over
night, using one pound of each to the bushel of shelled corn. Sprinkle corn
meal over the corn to dry it and help handle it Besides preventing Bud-
worms, this will prevent birds frem pulling up the corn, and at the same time
cause the corn to come up very bold and grow off rapidly.
TO THE FARMERS.
For weeks past a drouth prevailed throughout the State, accompanied by
high, cold winds which, following the long continued and heavy rains of the
winter and early spring, parched and crusted the land to such a degree that
except on the lighter lands, and in instances where the preparation was very
thorough and the planting early, “ stands ” of both corn and cotton were very
imperfect and the general crop outlook vory unpromising. In many cases re
planting was necessary, causing great delay, and a large amount of extra and
expensive labor. Every practical farmer knows that poor “ stands ” cause im
perfect cultivation, for the plowman, in order to save every plant, is compelled
to leave a ridge or unbroken space on either side, thus giving the weeds and
grass a fine opportunity for development. Much of this subsequent trouble
can be overcome by rapid surface cultivation, or thorough pulverization of the
Corn is so backward that, even in lower Georgia, much work is yet to be
done. As far as possible scrapes, sweeps, and what are known as cultivators,
or combination plows, should be used—running flat, and passing over the
crops rapidly. A well shaped scrape, with a small scooter, say 2| inches,
attached to hold the scrape in position, will throw just about enough dirt to
the corn, and will leave the lands flat and level as nature intended, and which
experience has proved to be the true and proper plan. Deep preparation and
subsequent flat and shallow cultivation, other conditions being favorable, are
bound to give good results.
The almost universal rains of the latter part of the monih have done much
to revive the drooping spirits of the farmer, as well as instil new life into the
growing crops. Only a short time is left until the maturing of the crops,
and every movement should be made to count, until both corn and
cotton are “laid by.” Energy and pluck now will count wonderfully in
the final result. Continue to plant peas, millet and corn in the drill, for
forage. For the latter, the rows should be about 38 inches apart, and the best
results have generally followed where the plants were about three inches in
the drill. If, from any cause, a farmer has failed to plant an abundance for
food supplies, let him supplement his already growing crops with these rapid
developing and early maturing varieties just mentioned. Let me urge that
closer attention be paid to the details of the farm. It is attention to these ap
parent trifles that swells the receipts and adds to the comfort of the farmer
and his family. The man who, on each trip to town, carries something from
his farm to exchange for needed articles, which cannot be raised at home, is aa
a rale out of debt and is getting from his work an enjoyment wholly unknown
to his less thrifty neighbor, who depends on one crop for all his needs. If this
plan has been productive of good to the individual, why should it not be
extended to the masses 7 Let us study the methods of our enterprising neigh
bor, and where be has been successful, let us profit .by these methods and
adopt them unhesitatingly. These lessons, gained from every day obserYa-
tion, are worth all the finely spun theories which could be burled at us for the
next six months.
If you can spare the time and team, and have some land in good tilth, break
it up deeply and closely with 2} inch scooter, and then either rebreak directly
across the first plowing, or bed out open with a straight Bhovel; fertilize abund
antly and plant a crop of June corn. The crop will Tiave ample time to
mature, and the seasons being favorable, you will be delighted with the yield
of your experiment
Continue to plant potatoes. Don’t wait for rain, but go ahead. Open holes
about every sixteen inches, pour in water, press the damp earth to the roots of
the slip, cover with dry earth and in a short time the young plants will grow
off. This should of course be done in the afternoon.
I will be pleased to receive questions from farmers at all times and will
answer as far as possible. Should any farmer be successful in any particular
line, I would be glad to receive bis plans and publish them for the benefit of
others not so fortunate.
I think it well to call the earnest attention of my fellow farmers to the im
portance of using every effort to keep our boys at home wheh they grow up*
If wo had in Georgia to-day all the citizens we have lost since the war, by the
constant tide of young mon going West, we would have no need to stir our
selves on the want of population. And os a rule they are the very best class.
The brainiest and most ambitiouB go from us, and give their adopted homes
the benefit of their energy and enterprise. Our annual loss through this
channel is incalculable. Had we kept them here what a mighty impulse they
would have given to every branch of business, especially to improved farming.
Thousands of our waste places would be dotted with beautiful and attractive
homes. Schools and churches would abound ovor all the country; and tho
necessity which is now forcing so many farmers to towns and cities would not
be upon us. If half the thought and energy had bceu given to this subject
that bos been wasted npon trying to persuade the European emigrants to
come among ub, our condition would to-day bo prosperous instead of lan
Thousands of dollars have been spent, and the time and talent of successive
legislatures have been exhausted, on wuys and means to induce immigration.
Mon have proposed to divide up their thousauds of acres into fifty and one
hundred acre lots and give, or sell on cheap and accommodating terms, each
alternate section to the foreigner who would come.
But when our boys grew up and wanted homes no State appropriation wns
found ready to help them buy; no paid agent soliciting them to settle here or
there, giving them all desired information as to the special advantages of this
or that section. No legislative brain has been taxed in this direction. Often
no land could be found for sale by these young men, except for cash and high
figures at that. They have not been kindly and generously assisted to got a
foothold and a start in their native State. Hence, when they have heard of
the wondrouB attractions of the great and growing West, and tho ease with
which homes could be secured there, they have picked up bug, baggage and
The home instinct is strong in the human heart, and wo should encou rage
and foster it in our boys and girls. Encourago them to marry and settle down
to manly life in our midst. Help them by dividing our too large estates, and
selling or giving them homes on living terms. Cultivate love of home and
State pride in them from their infancy. Cease grumbling at our lot; and
above all, show them how to make homo happy, by presenting them daily the
living type. H you are careless and slipshod in your ways of farming, hard
pressed and in debt all your life, your boy will leave the farm as soon as he
can. But, if you make your cotton a surplus crop, by learning how to raise it
cheaper; if you raise your leading supplies at home; show yourself contented
and happy; pursue your calling with leisure and pleasure, your boy will settle
by you and do the same. jil
If you make yourself a slave and raise your boy a slave, he will be a tree-
man when he grows up, and hunt another cdosting place.
But if you lead a free and independent life on your farm, and surround
home with elegance and comfort, your boy will walk in tho way his father
trod, and bless his race and honor his God.
This course pursued will largely solve the immigration question. A happy
and contented people, with peaceful and prosperous farms, will be so attrac
tive that good people Becking a better land, will freely come and be truly
welcome. And this is the kind of immigrants needed here.
We need and are ready to welcome home seekers, able and willing to help
us build up our country and develop our resources.
As a thriftless, homeless class of more workers, it is doubtful if the negro
would be improved upon by the scum of Europe. '
SH VLL GEORGIA BE REPRESENTED AT THE WORLD’S COLUM
BIAN EXPOSITION AT CHICAGO IN 1893?
This is no idle question. It is upon ns and we most meet it.
Thu query naturally arises, what good will it do us? Will the good to be
derived from such representation justify the outlay of time and money? The
object in view will be to let the world know, who we are, where we art, and wh >t
w h >ve. Tho average man hns no just conception of who we are. So persist-
cut have been the misrepresentations of dur traducers, and so industriously
have they been circulated, that wo are largely looked upon by the outside
world, as half-civilized ruffians. Tho idea very largely prevails that it is not
safe to co>ue among us. We are not known and recognized as a high toned
Christian people—civilized, refined and cultured. The world does not know
that we dispense a generous hospitality far ahead of other sections of this onr
great and growing country.
Wo need to meet and mingle with the representatives of all nations and
other sections and teach them who we are. That we have no occasion to bow
the head in simme in any presence. That we are the equals of God’s people
anywliere-ropen hearted, generous, brave, hospitable, honest, industrious and
law-abiding. This exposition will offor us a rare opportunity to show these
qualities to the world. •
_ WHERE WE ARE.
There is & prevailing impression that our clime is inhospitable; that'Georgia
is largely a sickly marsh; that ininsmas and microbes find here a congenial
home—in short, that our climate is too hot for comfort or health. We need
to let the world of home-seekers know that this is emphatically a mistake;
that wo liuvu a climate peculiarly healthy and pleasant; that our nights are
delightful evert during July and August; that we have mountain air and
water and sea breezes and baths.
WIIAT WE HAVE.
Again, we should, by all means, have a fair and complete exhibit of our
mineral, manufacturing and agricultural products. EspecUlly.should we show
them what a wide range of fruits, vegetables, cereals and textiles we can grow
profitably. What a variety of soils and elovations we'have, how cheaply a
man can live, and what sources of income be can find here.
Wo liuvu never shown the world our agricultural products. Through the
alliances, duns and granges, and individually, let us begin in time and get up
exhibits from each county, showing its resources and capacities.
Forethought and concert of action will enable us thus to set before the
world an.exhibit that we would justly feel proud of. Such an exhibit would
direct the utlcution of the best class of immigrants to the fact that we havfi one
of the best sections of this great country. .
If the farmers will take hold of this tiling it will be the pleasure of this De
partment to render them every assistance in our power.. We think the time
lias come when the farmers should lead off in this matter.
The expense would bo so small in comparison with the good to be gained
that it should not deter us for a moment in undertaking this great work.
This is emphatically the age of advertising. And if we do not advertise we
will be left behind in the race of progress.
I beg that the farmers will read and consider these suggestions carefully,
and act promptly uud energetically.
r _ R. T. Nesbitt,
, , Commissioner.
FOR SQUASHES AND CANTALOUPES.
A valuable preparation for gardens and orchards can be made by dissolving
one table spoonful of commercial or crude saltpetre in one gallon oi water.
Sprinkle this solution on cucumbers, squashes, cantaloupes and all similar
vegetables late in the afternoon; and it will prevent ravages of the insects that
are so destructive to them- Pour a little around the roots of them,- and also
cabbages to keep off cut-worms.
This is a fine wash for tho bodies of frqit trees. It is claimed that it will
prevent blight if the bodies of the trees are thoroughly cleansed with this
solution early in the spring and two or three times afterwards, and a small
quantity poured round the roots.