The weekly banner. (Athens, Ga.) 1891-1921, June 23, 1891, Image 7
Circular No. 10. \ Third Series, j ' CROP REPORT FOR THE MONTH OF JUNE, 1891. Rhurned to xaa Dxpabtkxnt or Aobicttltorb, June 1, 1801. State or Georgia, Department or Agriculture, \ Atlanta, Ga., June 6,1891. / GENERAL REMARKS. The reports for June are not altogether as good as we would have them to be. The present condition of the crop is largely due to the late spring and the drought that followed. The present status is about as follows: CORN. The acreage in con»is about 105, but the condition is only 89 as against 97 for the same date last year. An increase of 5 per cent, in area, but a falling off 8 per cent, in condition. This may be very speedily changed if the rains continue to help the hot June sun shine. OATS. This crop somewhat relieves the outlook, for while the acreage is only 85 per cent, the condition is 73 per cent. A falling off of 15 per cent, in area, but an improvement of 15 per cent, in condition with comparative freedom from rust. WHEAT. There was only 76 per cent, sown as compared with last year* which means a very small area, but the condition is 91 and free from rust. Great pity a full crop was not sown. COTTON. This all absorbing crop seems to be in a condition to bailie all calculations. The area is reported as 90 per cent, and the condition 80 per cent. This seems to indicate a greatly reduced crop. But no very safe calculations can be based upon crop of cotton before June sunshine and July and August rains have done their work. But it is safe to say we need not look for another 8,000,000 bale crop. Sugar cane, potatoes and melons all promise well. PEACHES. There can no longer be any doubt as to the fearful injury to this important crop. The improvement from May report is only 2 per cent. GRAPES. This important crop should receive more attention. Full of pleasure, health and profit, larger areas should be planted. : ' TOBACCO. The increase from 85 acres in 1890 to 1053 acres in 1891 shows that the public attention is being directed to this very profitable crop. The new method of drying will work a revolution in tobacco culture. It is far more profitable than cotton. We again respectfully urge correspondents to make up reports from 28th to 30th of the month, and mail them on or before the 1st. This is very important. A few days often makes great changes in crop conditions. Cooperate with us cheerfully, and we will try to do you good. We put in this report some valuable receipts, which farmers and gardeners will do well to preserve. AVERAGE for the sections and state. * 8 a 4 | 1, 1 f J [potton—Condition. i | J II 1 l#elon»—Condition. 1 ^ToUiooo—Acreafe. I 3 a § 1 2 1 § j ! ! s j 8 ] ! o J a s d 3 j 1 * 8 4 5 0 7 8 9 10 If 12 is u IS IS 17 18 19 20 21 North Georgia..... 07 76 5 100 7 83 81 80 90 91 95 100 100 85 1000 440 40 00 40 7* 92 Middle Georgia.... 80 70 11 94 5 83 80 91 9-2 83 104 90 90 1275 200 23 08 20 100 ion Southwest Georgia Southeast Georgia. 83 73 30 99 :V3 72 82 90 92 70 78 R1 90 9400 410 23 14 25 80 95 91 74 23 83 10 1)1 78 OS 92 70 90 82 80 1050 m 07 04 IH 90 East Georgia 89 74 11 80 15 77 83 89 83 81 88 90 83 88 815 8 32 53 41 85 82 Totals (5) 410 307 80 438 72 409 401 413 451 395 401 338 433 439 13370 1053 187 2C2 190 421 405 Average. 1891 89 73 10 91 14 82 80 no 91 79 93 89 87 88 13370 1033 37 52 38 84 93 Average, 1800. 97 58 42 47 52 SKI m 95 07 90 98 02 03 93 85 21 37| 38 88 97 RECEIPT TO FREVENT BUD-WORMS INJURING CORN. Get chloride of lime and copperas, desol ve in warmjwater and soak corn over night, using one pound of each to the bushel of shelled corn. Sprinkle corn meal over the corn to dry it and help handle it Besides preventing Bud- worms, this will prevent birds frem pulling up the corn, and at the same time cause the corn to come up very bold and grow off rapidly. TO THE FARMERS. For weeks past a drouth prevailed throughout the State, accompanied by high, cold winds which, following the long continued and heavy rains of the winter and early spring, parched and crusted the land to such a degree that except on the lighter lands, and in instances where the preparation was very thorough and the planting early, “ stands ” of both corn and cotton were very imperfect and the general crop outlook vory unpromising. In many cases re planting was necessary, causing great delay, and a large amount of extra and expensive labor. Every practical farmer knows that poor “ stands ” cause im perfect cultivation, for the plowman, in order to save every plant, is compelled to leave a ridge or unbroken space on either side, thus giving the weeds and grass a fine opportunity for development. Much of this subsequent trouble can be overcome by rapid surface cultivation, or thorough pulverization of the surface soil. CORN. Corn is so backward that, even in lower Georgia, much work is yet to be done. As far as possible scrapes, sweeps, and what are known as cultivators, or combination plows, should be used—running flat, and passing over the crops rapidly. A well shaped scrape, with a small scooter, say 2| inches, attached to hold the scrape in position, will throw just about enough dirt to the corn, and will leave the lands flat and level as nature intended, and which experience has proved to be the true and proper plan. Deep preparation and subsequent flat and shallow cultivation, other conditions being favorable, are bound to give good results. The almost universal rains of the latter part of the monih have done much to revive the drooping spirits of the farmer, as well as instil new life into the growing crops. Only a short time is left until the maturing of the crops, and every movement should be made to count, until both corn and cotton are “laid by.” Energy and pluck now will count wonderfully in the final result. Continue to plant peas, millet and corn in the drill, for forage. For the latter, the rows should be about 38 inches apart, and the best results have generally followed where the plants were about three inches in the drill. If, from any cause, a farmer has failed to plant an abundance for food supplies, let him supplement his already growing crops with these rapid developing and early maturing varieties just mentioned. Let me urge that closer attention be paid to the details of the farm. It is attention to these ap parent trifles that swells the receipts and adds to the comfort of the farmer and his family. The man who, on each trip to town, carries something from his farm to exchange for needed articles, which cannot be raised at home, is aa a rale out of debt and is getting from his work an enjoyment wholly unknown to his less thrifty neighbor, who depends on one crop for all his needs. If this plan has been productive of good to the individual, why should it not be extended to the masses 7 Let us study the methods of our enterprising neigh bor, and where be has been successful, let us profit .by these methods and adopt them unhesitatingly. These lessons, gained from every day obserYa- tion, are worth all the finely spun theories which could be burled at us for the next six months. JUNE CORN. If you can spare the time and team, and have some land in good tilth, break it up deeply and closely with 2} inch scooter, and then either rebreak directly across the first plowing, or bed out open with a straight Bhovel; fertilize abund antly and plant a crop of June corn. The crop will Tiave ample time to mature, and the seasons being favorable, you will be delighted with the yield of your experiment Continue to plant potatoes. Don’t wait for rain, but go ahead. Open holes about every sixteen inches, pour in water, press the damp earth to the roots of the slip, cover with dry earth and in a short time the young plants will grow off. This should of course be done in the afternoon. I will be pleased to receive questions from farmers at all times and will answer as far as possible. Should any farmer be successful in any particular line, I would be glad to receive bis plans and publish them for the benefit of others not so fortunate. . EMIGRATION. I think it well to call the earnest attention of my fellow farmers to the im portance of using every effort to keep our boys at home wheh they grow up* If wo had in Georgia to-day all the citizens we have lost since the war, by the constant tide of young mon going West, we would have no need to stir our selves on the want of population. And os a rule they are the very best class. The brainiest and most ambitiouB go from us, and give their adopted homes the benefit of their energy and enterprise. Our annual loss through this channel is incalculable. Had we kept them here what a mighty impulse they would have given to every branch of business, especially to improved farming. Thousands of our waste places would be dotted with beautiful and attractive homes. Schools and churches would abound ovor all the country; and tho necessity which is now forcing so many farmers to towns and cities would not be upon us. If half the thought and energy had bceu given to this subject that bos been wasted npon trying to persuade the European emigrants to come among ub, our condition would to-day bo prosperous instead of lan guishing. Thousands of dollars have been spent, and the time and talent of successive legislatures have been exhausted, on wuys and means to induce immigration. Mon have proposed to divide up their thousauds of acres into fifty and one hundred acre lots and give, or sell on cheap and accommodating terms, each alternate section to the foreigner who would come. But when our boys grew up and wanted homes no State appropriation wns found ready to help them buy; no paid agent soliciting them to settle here or there, giving them all desired information as to the special advantages of this or that section. No legislative brain has been taxed in this direction. Often no land could be found for sale by these young men, except for cash and high figures at that. They have not been kindly and generously assisted to got a foothold and a start in their native State. Hence, when they have heard of the wondrouB attractions of the great and growing West, and tho ease with which homes could be secured there, they have picked up bug, baggage and gone. The home instinct is strong in the human heart, and wo should encou rage and foster it in our boys and girls. Encourago them to marry and settle down to manly life in our midst. Help them by dividing our too large estates, and selling or giving them homes on living terms. Cultivate love of home and State pride in them from their infancy. Cease grumbling at our lot; and above all, show them how to make homo happy, by presenting them daily the living type. H you are careless and slipshod in your ways of farming, hard pressed and in debt all your life, your boy will leave the farm as soon as he can. But, if you make your cotton a surplus crop, by learning how to raise it cheaper; if you raise your leading supplies at home; show yourself contented and happy; pursue your calling with leisure and pleasure, your boy will settle by you and do the same. jil If you make yourself a slave and raise your boy a slave, he will be a tree- man when he grows up, and hunt another cdosting place. But if you lead a free and independent life on your farm, and surround home with elegance and comfort, your boy will walk in tho way his father trod, and bless his race and honor his God. IMMIGRATION. i This course pursued will largely solve the immigration question. A happy and contented people, with peaceful and prosperous farms, will be so attrac tive that good people Becking a better land, will freely come and be truly welcome. And this is the kind of immigrants needed here. We need and are ready to welcome home seekers, able and willing to help us build up our country and develop our resources. As a thriftless, homeless class of more workers, it is doubtful if the negro would be improved upon by the scum of Europe. ' SH VLL GEORGIA BE REPRESENTED AT THE WORLD’S COLUM BIAN EXPOSITION AT CHICAGO IN 1893? This is no idle question. It is upon ns and we most meet it. Thu query naturally arises, what good will it do us? Will the good to be derived from such representation justify the outlay of time and money? The object in view will be to let the world know, who we are, where we art, and wh >t w h >ve. Tho average man hns no just conception of who we are. So persist- cut have been the misrepresentations of dur traducers, and so industriously have they been circulated, that wo are largely looked upon by the outside world, as half-civilized ruffians. Tho idea very largely prevails that it is not safe to co>ue among us. We are not known and recognized as a high toned Christian people—civilized, refined and cultured. The world does not know that we dispense a generous hospitality far ahead of other sections of this onr great and growing country. Wo need to meet and mingle with the representatives of all nations and other sections and teach them who we are. That we have no occasion to bow the head in simme in any presence. That we are the equals of God’s people anywliere-ropen hearted, generous, brave, hospitable, honest, industrious and law-abiding. This exposition will offor us a rare opportunity to show these qualities to the world. • _ WHERE WE ARE. There is & prevailing impression that our clime is inhospitable; that'Georgia is largely a sickly marsh; that ininsmas and microbes find here a congenial home—in short, that our climate is too hot for comfort or health. We need to let the world of home-seekers know that this is emphatically a mistake; that wo liuvu a climate peculiarly healthy and pleasant; that our nights are delightful evert during July and August; that we have mountain air and water and sea breezes and baths. WIIAT WE HAVE. Again, we should, by all means, have a fair and complete exhibit of our mineral, manufacturing and agricultural products. EspecUlly.should we show them what a wide range of fruits, vegetables, cereals and textiles we can grow profitably. What a variety of soils and elovations we'have, how cheaply a man can live, and what sources of income be can find here. Wo liuvu never shown the world our agricultural products. Through the alliances, duns and granges, and individually, let us begin in time and get up exhibits from each county, showing its resources and capacities. Forethought and concert of action will enable us thus to set before the world an.exhibit that we would justly feel proud of. Such an exhibit would direct the utlcution of the best class of immigrants to the fact that we havfi one of the best sections of this great country. . If the farmers will take hold of this tiling it will be the pleasure of this De partment to render them every assistance in our power.. We think the time lias come when the farmers should lead off in this matter. The expense would bo so small in comparison with the good to be gained that it should not deter us for a moment in undertaking this great work. This is emphatically the age of advertising. And if we do not advertise we will be left behind in the race of progress. I beg that the farmers will read and consider these suggestions carefully, and act promptly uud energetically. r _ R. T. Nesbitt, , , Commissioner. FOR SQUASHES AND CANTALOUPES. A valuable preparation for gardens and orchards can be made by dissolving one table spoonful of commercial or crude saltpetre in one gallon oi water. Sprinkle this solution on cucumbers, squashes, cantaloupes and all similar vegetables late in the afternoon; and it will prevent ravages of the insects that are so destructive to them- Pour a little around the roots of them,- and also cabbages to keep off cut-worms. This is a fine wash for tho bodies of frqit trees. It is claimed that it will prevent blight if the bodies of the trees are thoroughly cleansed with this solution early in the spring and two or three times afterwards, and a small quantity poured round the roots.