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ROSE Hl; CEMETERY BANKS OF OCMULSEE 1
At quiet re J ought thy murmuring tide, ,
«« A s " » hifion from the haunts of men,
liV.e not < f Autunm bird ami humming
I vied .
I In vaiio rul< the silence of that glen.
It. « <
1 he settii min, in l»e:uns of golden hue.
Bathedir and earth and tree and flower
And U'atc gUmiing bright as silver dew,
r ** Halloed Memories" nf that pensive hour. <
Near bye, t e h dished marble marks the spot.
Where lit « tombed the purest of her race,
Undying hi . (g vain would cheer her lot, <
AS ith Idotd ng rose and shrub to hedge the 1
There others 4]]! the heaving earth around, (
Alone al es the mouldering ones unseen, i
Sweet Natrcm her richest love has crowned. 1
1 heir grave.* i ith velvet sod of venhire green.
livre men—vhose schomeing brain sought ;
’round the world—
To add toliolir—wealth untold before—
Sleep gently n<»v —as rests the rustic down. I
hose wantsne'vr wandered from his co - ’
Aoung maidens *:4r, with hearts by sin un
Have faded her a buried ami «con no more.
They lived and yetMj aped a life of pain.
lheir barks wcrlfrvighted for a brighter
Ih r* prattling hildbil from play
It's toys unused—lAiotheA fondling lu re
No soothing s».:ig to the weary day
But silent sleeps iq n its infant bier.
livre weary age with i-Arnbling footsteps tind>
Sure refuge from tin id- ami pains of life.
And active manhood ’!•«( d in all its prime,
Succumbs—ami buwu to death s unequal
No public plaudits shall <• |itv bis heart.
< >r rouse thedulncx of tyti sleeping ear.
N<» more >hall martial thrill impart.
Or sorrow claim from hii the manly tear.
No more shall maiden bow atiFashioifs shrine.
Or weave fair garlands for jer waving hair.
Or turn in giddy dance—ordain her thine—
For death now claimsits lovely victim there.
Thus youth, and manhood, age, ami maiden
Sleep quiet here—alone—unbroke their rest—
Though storms may wildly howl in midnight
Or evening sunsets sink in glowing west.
A. M. S.
* The beautiful marble shaft erected to the memo
ry of Mi*s Kate Seymour, on the banks of the river.
i« here alluded to.
From the Virginia Sentinel.
A REMINISENCE CLAY AND CALHOUN.
Dm Henry Clay Swear? —A New V»rk
jrorrespondent of the Charleston Mercury.
V} making of Harper'* Magazine for April, says:
“I note in the Editor's Drawer, among a
variety of interesting anecdotes, one of a pas
sage between Mr. Clay and Calhoun, in which
a little verbal inaccuracy occurs, which some
what lessens thd effect of the latter's retort. —
When Mr. Clay said, ‘‘The gentleman has
Fine over to the enemy." he continued ; “ and
leave it to time to diecloee hi* motifs. ’ the
-answer of Mr. Calhoun, as we remembered it.
wis •• Unfortunately lor the Senator of Ken
tucky. when he went over to the enemy, he
<&] f,ff t leave it to time t«» disclose Aia mo
1“ l*he impulsive speech of Mr. Clay, on re
ceiving this retort, has been omitted by the
aditor. lie said. *otto rose. but sufficiently
loud fur those iinjitedlnudy af>oui him, striking
his bosom at the same time. “ A clear hit. by
—lt was, indeed one of the most exquisite
<>f retorts—the more happy, as so prompt, so
(Wan. so entirely w ithin the parliinenury pro
prieties—nothing coarse, rude, vulgar—-but a
SefuHka ust of his polished rapier, casting oil
“nemy's foil, and following up the advan
by a direci trust into the boiom.
io writer of these lines, then a youth, had
privilege of hearing, in 17 : <7, ,the debate
rred to in the abuve;—and it has ever
since been one of the most vivid recollection.".
Toi ardent and inexperivncc<l tbm to realize
how men could hold opinions contrary to those
liv had been taught to consider as orthodox,
Henry Clay was to him the impels»nati<»n of
evil. And John C, Calhauq. jusf then coining
Again to the Democratic party, on the sub
treasury question, he had long since seen pin
canted in Blair's paja-r, the Washington Glol*.
la which all goo<l Democrats wepe then ex
i r ted to square their f#i<b as John Cataline
Calhoun. Such were the preconceived prviu
d’K'-s with which the writer listened to that
r-i arkable debate between these two orator
At t« exclusion his prejudices were l ronc
th. winds, and he ti |t a thrill of pride that the
. acils of his country wvre }U ‘‘
r od by such brilliant gemases and mug’- 1
: men. ,
he struggle tietween the two champion
.no holyday pantime. '1 he blows .rhnr-j
wer» Hiich a* » % •
content w:w like Hint <le«el-il>e<l by Milton Ik
twwn the siqierhiinian spirits, who plucked np
hills for missiles, but found even such weapons
unavailing. Mr. Clay left otf, in a speech we
thought must inevitably crush Mr. Calhoun.—
He spoke of the contest which for years, Mr.
Calhoun and himself had side by side been
waging against the “usurpation.'’ of that ex
traordinary num General Jackson. He told
how the “boding fancies,” of my ‘quondam
friend' could, in the various stages of that
struggle, see nothing but gloom in the future —
nothing but tremendous and fastcoming disas
ters to the country. The blows which lie
struck weri in consequence, given with the
energy of dispair. rather than the animation of
ho|>e. ile, Mr. Clay, had preferred to look
upon the brightest side ot things. He had
even sorfidit in their many interviews and con- ‘
saltations, to administer comfort to his gallant
comrade in arms—but like Rachael of old. he
refused to be comforted. Kind fortunes, how
ever. had smiled upon their good cause. The
battle was bravely fought, victory was already
won. and was in their grasp. The patriotic
heart was lieating high: rejoicing began to
swell np all over the land. The consumma
tion long labored for had been almost readied.
Executive usurpation was under the frown of
an indignant people—and the country was al
Where now was his gallant friend from
South Carolina ? Where was he in this mo
ment of triumph, when a few more brave ef
forts would have finished the work in which
for years he had lieen toiling t Was he ex
changing congratulations with his comrades?
Was he cheering on his followers ( Alas! no.
Instead of the proud battlecry which he was
wont to utter suddenly he sounded a retreat! .
In that suspicious, that long prayed for, that
critical moment, he called to his legions, and
hade them retreat from the field I Aye, more;
—he hade them to follow him to the enemy !
He, Mr. Clay, heard the news with deep
alarm. He knew the commanding and the
deserved infiueiiceof tliegentlcinan. He knew
the multitudes that followed him as faithfully,
ns clan ever followed cheittain, and he trem
bled lest the weakened ranks of the Whig ar
my. should no longer lie aide to cope with the
disciplined am! streiigthed forces of the Ad
ministration. He had waited therefore with
much anxiety to see the extent of the defection.
The rolling of the retreat-drum finally ceased; '
—the dust raised by the retiring squadrons
cleared away—the company led otf by the
gentleman from South Carolina. liecame visi
ble. *’ He himself, sir, constituted horse, foot,
and dragoon! In the language of bis late
principal opponent but now bis most distin
gnisheil idly, (Col. Henton) “he went over
and alone!” Ile went over. sir.
and left it to posterity to discover his motives.”
Mr. ( lay then took up Mr. Calhoun's Edge-
Rill letter, wherein he assigned the reason tor
change of party relations; one of which was
that none of the advantages of victory to the
Whigs, would insure to the benefit of (In
states Rights wing of the alliance. Mr. Clay
ha-1 thought, he said, that the senator had
been actuated by a pure patriotism, that look
ed only to the averting of great evils to the
country, and not to the of e-rtg'-r-r /
th "fruits of victor? ' " It bad ben !e!i to
tla : gentleman in the face of all his loftiy pro
testations to proclaim a motive of which oth
erwise he would never have dared to suspect
Mr. Clay spoke at so much length, am] with
great lieliberation throughout. His deep sono
rous voice rang thorough the Senate chamber;
not a whisper was lost. Minh of the time
w hile speaking h.< leaned against the partition
the Hall from the lobby—ami often
he would walk some distance from his desk to
help himself to a pinch of snulf from some sen
ator’s box. When he introduced any printed
extracts into his remarks, he would call upon
his colleague Mr. Crittenden, to relieve him by
reading it. Commamling in his appearance
Throughout, bis dignity approached the sublime
vhcii describing the warfare which had been
raged u|H>n himself. After giving a narative
>f the earlier differences, and their adjustment,
etween Gen. Jackson and himself, he told of
-.lie last final dislike w hich Gen. Jackson bad
I meeived of him, growing chiefly out of the
discovery that he, Mr. Clay, could not be ca
j -lk-d or used for J.'spurposes. "Then it w as,”
s.id Mr. Clay, that they let loose their d-o-g-s
ram me! But though for twenty years the
rar has been unceasing I yet stand here this
.hr, wnawud, valient, unUrrijitd As he
p-ononneed the last three words, it is inipos
<blc to conceive a nobler figure or prouder
Irtring than that presented by his tall, manly
ti rm. erect even beyond the perpendicular;
a d his lofty, defiant crest.
While Mr. Clay was speaking. Mr. Calhoun
w generally in motion —walking much of
tie time in the lobby in the rear of the pre
siding officer's chair. lie listened attentively,
Ist did not interrupt the speaker. When Mr.
Cisy concluded the Senate ad journed.
Tw o weeks afterwards Mr. Calhoun replied.
Hi had studied and arranged bis argument;
an! his pathway was a stream of light. He
review ed bis political career: showed how
the charges of inconsistency—brought against
liini by weak minds, grew in fact, out of his
very incoi sisteney—a consistency w hich would
abatdon party before principle. He said he
1,111 always lieen ready to eo-operatc with
th'-e w ho would act with him. in achieving a
pthik- good: that such an object was only
biri of party union which he recognized;
tier with this view he had co-o|>erated w ith ;
the whigs. the majority of whom he disagrees!
on (Biport.-mt politii-al questions for tl.e pur
pi>s-of breaking down the dangerous usurpa
tion of executive power. That object was
nov accomplished, and the alliance ended with
its arposc. Further co-o|<erations w ith the
U’l g'. would by placing them in power, in
sta!frineiplus to which he had ever bun op
po.« for the State Rights portion of the Whigs,
bei< the we- ker wing, could not expect the
ad iotages of victory to inure to the benefit of
tint principles. This was w hat he meant by
tlu reinark in which the Senator, prompted
frul within sees a longing after the vile spoils
of iftii-e, instead of laudable patriotic senti
>r. Calhonn next explained his connection
win the sub-trea“'iry system. He showed that
he ad always favored it as the true, eonstitu-
■ lioiJ expedient; that when Gen. Jackson had
reci»mended the system of deposits in the
<-u0 Banka, lie. with alsmt thirty other Con
i' gre«B>eii. bad advia-aUsl the bmb-treaatiry in
■ prefefeuee. The State‘Banks bad sima- lieen
trick «'>■! the result was such, that the very
pai'v which then advocated that system, and
deiouneed him for opposing it, now renounce
it tiemaelves and recommend the suli-yeasury
. „ h-mc as a substitute, Was he therefore to
alundon a muaaiire whieli he had always ad
visrfed ? Was he to rejec t the aid now protfer
,d/ Ua> he to quit his own g.oiim} because
, tin-*- who had opposed him have found out
tlu-r mistake and came to his side ? "as he
thm to make war against a correct principle ?
such a Cour*.- might suit the mere unsenmnlons
pare man, but it did not liecome an honest
statesman. It might comport with Mr. Clays
Jus. of public chits. but it did not suit him.
|| ; ,Tin i . concluded his defence. In- pointcsl it
. pm- --Si-irthe arrow of calumny which
111 cam- refur-w ■— maiMniHi —.
JIACifN. (i.L, Till IMIAY. OCTOBER 22. 1857.
the Senator lias hurled at me. falls harmless at
my feet. I it in the dust with s-r-o-r-n-.' i
I do more. I pick it up. I hurl it Imrk!—'
What the Senator charges me with, he himself
has been guilty of. //< once “went over" on a
memorable occasion—but did not leave it to
posterity to discover his motives."
Mr. Calhoun, w hile speaking maintained a
! stem attitude, and stood in the aisle by the
side of his desk. His gesture was short and
nervous, and chiefly w ith the right hand. His
articulation was rapid, but not so much so as
to be at all indistinct, as we bad been led to
expect. His pronunciation of some w ords was
faulty; •‘point," for example, he pronounced
“pint.” His keen eye was unwaveringly fast
ened upon Mr. Clay, w ho sat on the opposite
side of the Chamber, and to him rather than to
’ the Speaker of the Senate he addressed all his
Between Mr. Caihoun's nervous flashing,
eleetric oratory, and the ealm magnificence of
Mr. Clay's elocution, the difference was as
great as that between the flow of Niagara and
that of the Amazon; but each had its power
ful charm, and no listener could wish that
either was other than what it was. To Mr.
Clay one listened with loss fatigue ; —lie would
be delighted indeed w ith magnificent bursts,
and charmed with the witchery of voice and
action, but never taxed above his strength.—
He was conducted by a path which led to pleas
ant prospects, and wound amid shades and
water falls. Mr. Calhoun's hearers was com
pelled to share Ids excitement —to get so to
>peak. into the same electrical state. And the
path which the orator marked out. though
bright w ith a singularly lucid logic, yet led di
rectly on. and was so rapidly traversed that
who would accompany him had not the time,
any more than the inclination, to loiter, and
would not be conscious until the close, how his
power- w ould have been tasked. Listening to
Mr. Calhonn was quick step marching, to the
music of the bugle and drum.
While Mr. Calhoun w as delivering his speech
Mr. ( lay sat at bi< desk, mid wore an easy,
careless air ; occasionally conversing with those
around him, and listening w ithvut seeming to
'listen. But it was plain to a careful observer
that unconcern was only assumed and profes
sional ; for w hen some shaft was hurled, keen
er than the rest, of that unceasing volley sped
against him by the unerring and giant arm of
his antagonist, the veil of diflerence was too
thin to eonecal the sensibility which showed
that it found its mark.
When Mr. Calhoun uttered the retort above
quoted his attitude and bearing were a study
lor an artist. The curling ,lip and the scowl
ing countenance gave expression to a contempt
uous disdain which he could not utter nor we
describe a> he stamped "into the dust with
x-r-o-r-u" the imaginary arrow of calumny
which Mr. Clay had shot at him, but which
had spent itself in its flight. And as he suit
; ed the action to the word the dust rose from
the floor, ami the Senate chamber rang beneath
the fierce energy of his tread. Thenw henhe
“ picked it up" and " hurled it back” with a
gesture equally vigorous and appropriate to
that action, one could almost see the poisoned
niissle as it flew back to its source. If Mr.
Clay had been clothed in armor of Arab, the
shaft w ould Lave found a joint through w If i li
to enter. He quivered as he felt the -mart mid
the shock; but we do no not think he made
the exclamation attributable to him in the para
graph quoted at the head of this sketch. We
nt lea-t heard and saw nothing of it. He seiz
ed his pen—a pi n w ith a long and apparently
untrinied top —and commenced writing us if
This was perhaps an artifice—if so. it was
not skillfully, because too, suddenly, done.—
Perhaps it was an unconscious act. As he
wrote, the large play of the upper end of his
quill indieatiil that he might be loosely scrib
bling so to speak, rather than noting down the
words which were burning into his fle-h. and
which no note w as necessary to fa-ten for ever
in his memory.
When Mr. Calhoun concluded. Mr. Clay im
mediately rejoined, ile rose under an excite
ment. such as hi- had at no time manifested in
his first speech, like a stalwart warrior not
weakened or dismayed, but goaded ami smart
ing from wounds, which he has now permitted
to avenge. He commenced by «aying that
when he was assailed—when his career was
called under review—it did not take, him two
or three w eeks, of long searches and midnight
toil to prepare his defence. He stood ever
ready, arrayed as he w as in the panoply of con
scious integrity, to vindicate his fair name
against all assault from whatever quarter. He
I continued in a speech, the conclusion of which
we were not privileged to hear, but w hicli gave
great satisfaction to his admirers.
JEFFERSON'S PORTRAIT OF WASHINGTON.
The subjoined -ketch of tin- life, character
and services of Washington, is from the pen of
Mr. Jefferson, and is to be found in a letter of
his to I>r. Walter Sones, dated at Monticello,
Jan. 2. 1814. It is a powerfully drawn picture,
ami being entirely free from fulsome jieuegyric.
or attempt at exaggeration, we commend it to
the careful attention of our readers, as embod
ying in a short space all that need be said of
that great and good man. It is written in the
concise and vigorous style for wliicli its illustri
ous author was so remarkable, and is worthy of
la-ing treasured in the memory of every admi
rer ot the "Father of his country,” or the im
mortal writer and signer of the ileclaration of
"I think I knew G-n. Washington intimately
and thoroughly ; and were 1 called on to delin
eate his character, it should be in terms like
| t hese :
“Hi-mind was great and powerful, w ithout
being of the very first order; his penetration
strong, though not so acute us that of a New
ton. Bacon or Locke ; and. as far as he saw. no
judgment was ever sounder. It was slow in
operation, living little aided by invention or im
agination. but sun- in conclusion.
Hem e the I’ommiin.remark of his officers, of
the advantage he derived from councils of war,
where, hearing all suggestions, he selected
w hatever wa- bi-t, and certainly no General
ever planned hi- battles more judiciously. But
if deranged during the course of the action, if
any member of hi-plan was distracted by sud
den c-rcuni-tances. he was slow' in a re-adju.-t
--’ ment. The consequence was that he often tail
ed in the field, and rarely- against an enemy in
-tatinn. as at Boston and New York. He was
incapable of fear, meeting personal flangers
with the calmest unconcern.
Perhaps the strongest feature in his charac
ter was prudence, never acting untill every
circumstance, every consideration, was maturely
weighed ; refraining if he saw a doubt, but w hen
once decided, going through with hiapurpose,
w hatever obstacles iqiposed. His integrity was
most pure, his justice the most inflexible I have
ever known; no motives of interest or consan
guinity. of friendship or hatred being able to bias
his decision. He w as. indeed, in every sense
of the word, a wise.agood. and a great man.
His temper was naturally irritable and high- <
toned: but reflection and resolution had ob
tained a firm and habitual ascendancy over it.
If ever, however, it broke its bounds, he was
most tremendous in his wrath.
In his exjienscs he w as honorable, but exact;
liberal in contributions promised
utility, but frowning and unyielding on all vis
: ionary projects, andall unworthy calls for chari
ty. His heart was not warm in his affections,
but be exactly calculated every man's value,
and gave hima solid esteem projxirtioned to it.
His jierson, yea kiiow. was fine, his statute ex
actly w hat one w ould wish, his deportment ea
sy. erect and noble; the best horseman of bi
age. and the most graceful figure that could be
seen on borseliack. Although in the in thecir
| cle of his friends, win-re he might lie unreserv
ed w ith safety, he took a free -hare in conver
sation; his colloquial talents were not above
In public, when called on for a dozen opin
ions. he wns unready, short and embarrassed.
Yet he wrote readily, rather diffusely, in an ea
sy and correct style. This he had acquired by
’ conversation with the world, for his education
was merely reading, writing, and common
arithmetic, to w hich be added surveying at n
His time was employed in action chiefly, rea
ding little, and tl at only in agriculture and Eng
lish history. His corresponilence beeamc ne
cessarily extensive, and, with journaliz.ng his
agricultural proceedings, occupied most of his
leisure hours in doors. On the whole, his char
acter v. as ia it- mass, perfect—in nothing, bad;
in few points indiflerent ; and it may truly be
-aid. that never did nature and fortute com
bine more perfectly to make a num great and
to place him in the same constellation with
whatever worthies have merited from man an
everlasting remembrance ; for his was the sin
gular destiny and merit of leading the armies
of his country through an arduous w ar. for es
tablishment of its independence, of conducting
its its eouneils through the birth of a Govern
ment, new in its formsand principles, until it
had settled dow n into a quiet ami orderly train;
and of scrupulously obeying the laws through
the w hole of his career, civil and military ; of
which the history of the w orld furnishe- no
other example. I felt on his death, with my
country men, that "verily a great num hath this
day fallen ft Israel,”
CLAY ON AGITATION AND NEGRG EQUALITY
WITH THE WHITES.
Mr. Clay's famous letter to his biographer,
Colton, is so pertinent to the present condition
ot public iitfair-. that w o publi-h it. The old line
Whigs, who now co-operate w ith the Demo
crats. will find their old leader’s platform as
useful now as it was 14 y ears ago :
Ashland, Sept, 2. 1843.
"My Dear Sir: Allow me to select n subject
for one of your tracts, which treated in your
popular mid condensed way. I think would be
attended with great and good etlo t. I mean
It is manifest that the ultras of that party
are extremely mischievious, and arc hurry ing
on the country to fearful eonsequetn-es. They
are not to lie conciliated by the Whigs. En
grossed w ith a single idea, they care for noth
ing else. They would see the Administration
of the Government precipitate the Nation into
absolute ruin before they would lend a helping
hand to arrest its career. They treat worst,
denounce mo t. those w ho treat them best, who
so far agree with tbem as to admit slavery to
be an evil. Witness their conduct towards
Mr. Bi i.y-nud Mr. .WmwS, In Massai husetu,
and towards me.
"1 will give you an outline of the manner in
whk-h 1 would handle it. Show the origin of
s-avery. Tran- its introduction to the Bristish
Government. Show how it is disposed of hy
tin- l-'eilend Constitution ; that it is left exclu
sively to the States, except in regard to fugi
tives, direct taxes a.id r< pn-i-ntatives. Show
that the agitation of the question in free States
will tr-t di.-troy all harmony, and finally lead
to disunion—perpetual war—the extermina
tion of tne African race—ultimate military des
"But the great aim and object of your tract,
should be to arouse the laboring classes of the
free States against Abolition. Depict the eon- '
-eqileliees to them of immediate .U>olition.—-
Ihe slaves being free, would be dis|»-rse<l
throughout the I nion ; they would enter into
competition witli the free laborer—with the
American, the Irish, the German—reduce bis
wages, lie confounded with him. and effect his
moral and -oeial standing. And as the ultras
go both for Abolitionism and amalgamation,
show that their object is to unite in marriage
the laboring white man and the laboring w bite
woman, to reduce the white laboring man to
the despised and degraded condition of the
"1 w ould show their opposition to coloniza
tion. Show its humane, religious and patriot
ic aim. That they are those w hom God has
separated. Why do Abolitionists oppose co
lonization ? To keep raid amalgamate togeth
er the two races, in violation of God's will, and
to keep the blacks here, that they may inter
fere with, debase and degrade the laboring
w hites, show that the British Government is
co-opcrating w ith the Abolitionists, tor the pur
pose of dissolving the I'nion, Ac. You can
make a pow erful article that w ill be felt in ev
ery extremity of the Union. I am [arfectlv
satisfies! it will do great good. Let me hear
from you on this subject. Henry Clay.”
AMERICAN EXPERTNESS IN THE USE OF FIRE
ARMS ITS IMPORTANCE.
From the Paris Correspondence of the London Times.
An article in one of our cotemporaries, sug.
getting the formation of corps of volunteers as
protection against possible invasion of England,
is noticed by one or two of to-day's Paris journ
als. which evidently think the cry of alarm un
called for. ami w hicli describe as " very curious"
the means of <k-fi-i*ce advised. But there is no
harm, w hen we are compelled to send away the
bulk of our army, in raising the question as to
how far an invasion could be successfully re
sisted by a turn out of the population, by the
rush that w ould, no doubt, be inatartly made
by men of all clas.-< s to repel the assailants or
lose their live- in the attempt. England, with
its small fields and innumerable bodges and
ditches, would be u splendid country for the
operation- of riflemen, but these advantages
would be of little avail, utiles- they were skill
ful with their w eapon- to a greater extent than
mere fowling-piece practice can possibly make
The subject reminds me of a conversation
withan American now holding a bright posi
tion at a European Court, who was "reared”
2000 miles up the Mississippi, spent many years
in the Western Provinces, has travelled much
in his own country, and is high authority con
cerning it. Bis opinion was that the gnat
wcurity of America, that which makes her of
all countries in the w orld the one that has lea-t
to ftiar from invasion, is the familiarity and skill
of her citizens with rifle and pistol. With this
K> Ml back upon she has no need of an army.
There every man is expert with rifle and re
volver; those who are not are exceptions, and
are remarked as such, and a very large propor
tion are not only expert but of first rate and
This accomplishment, combined with that
> Anglo-Saxon pluck and daring comnum to
English and Americana, ha- enabled the volun
teer- of the United States to do wonders on
various occasions against superior numbers and
regular troops. The cotton bags of New Or
leans would hardly have protected any but first
rate mark-men from the bayonet- ofPacken-
■T’M 'JI. ICK errs.’—rYTr n ll —ww i n—grwMi
11 ll U U i
bam's gailant soldiers; when marched on many
occasions, in Mexico and Texas, against an in
ferior foe. w e have seen mere handfulls of silf
ri-lyii.g Yankees scatter their oppom nt- w hen
the odds were 20 to 1; recently in Cuba, al
though the little band of I-'iUibusters under Lo
pez was ultimately overwhelmed by an im
mensely superior force of the b< st troops in
Spain, it was not until they had shot down
more than their ow n number. An economical
an<l nnmilitary (although not an unw nrlike) na
tion. the English, like the Americans, will
neither pay for the support of a numerous army
nor submit to be taxed in kind by a conscrip
tion. probably the only means by which it
would be practicable for Great Britain to keep
up a large, permanent mid effective army. No
body but an alarmist will pretend that there
is the remotest chance of any I’ow er taking ad
vantage of England's having sent so large a
part of her army to India to pick a quarrel with
her. But nobody can answer for the future;
and it certainly could be no disadvantage to
to the young men of England to apply them
-ilve- to become good rifle shots, to practice
skirmishing, and even to familiarize themselves
with forming square and a few of the com
monest inano'uvres of infantry in the field.
WHY EPIDEMICS RAGE AT NIGHT.
It wits in one night that four thousand per- '
sons perished of the plague in London. It was
by night that the army of Sennacharib was
destroyed. Both in England aud on the Con
tinent a large portion of cholera cases in its
several forms have been observed to have oc- |
curred between one and two o’clock in the
morning. The danger of exposure to the night
air has been a theme of physicians from time
immemorial, but it is remarkable that, they
m ver yet called in the aid of chemistry to ac
count for the fact.
It is nt night that tiie stratum of air nearcsf
the ground must always be the most charged
with tffe particles of animalized matter given
out from the skin and deleterious gases, such
as carbonic acid gas. the product of respira
tion, and sulphurated hydrogen, the product of
the sewirs. In the day gasses and various
substances of all kinds rise in the air by the
rarefaction of the heat. At night, when this
rarefaction leaves, they full by an increase of
gravity if imperfectly mixed with the atmos
phere; while the gases involved during the
night, instead of ascending, remain at nearly
the same level. It is known that carbonic
acid gas at a low temperature partakes so
nearly of the nature of a fluid that it may be
poured out of one vessel into another. It ri-es
at the tnn[KTature at which it is exhaled from
the lungs, but its tendency is towards the floor
or the la d of the sleeper in cold and imventila
At Hamburg, the alarm of cholera at night
in sonic parts of the city was so great that
many refused to go to bed. lest they should be
attacked unawares in their sleep. Sitting up
they probaldy kept their stoves or open fire
burning for the sake of warmth, and that !
warmth gives the expansion to any deleterious
gases present, w liich would promote their es- ‘
cape and promote the dilution in the atmos
phere. Tiie means of safety were then uncon
sciously assured. At Sierra Leone the natives
have a practice in tin sickly season, of keeping
fire- constantly burning in their huts at night. ;
assigning that the tires keep away the evil
spirits, to which, in their ignorance, they at
tribute the fever and ague. Latterly, Euro- .
pe.-in- have begun to adopt the same practice,
and those w ho have tried it assert that they
nave now entire immunity from the tropical
livers to which they were formerly subjected.
In the epidemics of the middle ages fires
used to be lighted in the streets for the puri
fication of the air, and in the plague of Lou
don in 1685, fires in the streets were at one
time kept burning incessantly, till extinguished
by a violent storm of rain. Latterly trains of
. gunpowder have been tired and cannon dis
charged for the same object; but it is obvious
that these measures, although sound in prin
ciple. must necessarily, out of doors, be on too
small a scale, as measured against an ocean of
atmospheric air, to produce any sensible efli-ct.
M ithin doors, however, the case is different.
It is quite [Hissible to heat a room siitfii-iently
to produce a rarefaction and consequent dilu
tion ot any malignant gases it may contain, and
it is of course the air of the room, and that
alone, at night, which comes in contact with
the lung- of the jierson sleeping.— ll’eatmiuu
PHYSICAL PAIN OF DEATH.
A paragraph is going the rounds of the pa- '
per-, giving the opinion of Lord Bacon and
other-, that the pain ofhangiiig is inconsidera
ble. It is asserted, for example, that after a
momentary feeling of suffocation, bright colors !
dance before the eyes and stretch away into I
vistas of indiscribable loveliness. There is no
reason to doubt the truth of this declaration,
because numerous instances have occurred of
persons being cut down before life was extinct:
and it was on the authority of well authentica
ted examples of this character, that Lord Ba
con ami others founded their opinions. More
over, hanging, in its effects upon the human or
ganism. produces results very similar to those
produt-eil by some natural disease, so that this
also aft’ords a criterion for judging. In cases
of drowning, likewise, the testimony is univer
sal that the physical pain, up to the moment of
consciousness being lost, is quite inconsiderable.
The same phenomena of niori-s, stars and
beautiful lights dancing before the eyes, has
lieen mentioned by persons restored after ap
parent death by drowning.
It is nearly certain—indeeiL as certain as any
thing chiefly- s|ieculative can lie—that in all
deaths the physical sutl'i-ring is small. Even
where invalids experience the most excrucia
ting agony during the progress of the disease,
nature comes to their relief at the last hour,
am! life goes out gently like a candle in its
socket. Those who have witnessed death
beds most frequently, es|»ecially if they have
been intelligent persons, and then fore capable
of judging, agree generally in considering the ■
phy.-i.-al pain of death as inconsiderable. They '
say that the convulsive motions which fre
quently attend the parting breath, are not evi
dences of suffering, for that the invalid is in
sensible. They say also, that when the senses
are retained, there is usually no such spasms.
A leading medical authority states that
scarcely one person in fifty is sensible at the
|M>iiit of death, and some physicians assert that
they have never seen a death-bed in which the
pathnt was sensible. As life fails, nature, it
would seem, beneficently interposes, deaden
ing the si-nsibility of the nerves, and otherwise
preparing the individual for the great and in
These facts should teach all men, while yet
in health, ‘to put their house in order.’ Many
a father, by iii-glecting to make a will, or keep
his business arranged, has left his family an in- ;
heritanee of litigation, or entailed on them the
severest losses. Few of those, comparatively
who, on a sick bed. having sufficient clearness
of intellect left to adjust tangled affairs, provide
for contingencies of trade, or even to direct
wisely the distribution of their estates. Death
usually conies rapidly in the shape of u short
diseaae, leaving time for nothing but a w ild and
hopless struggle with the enemy. Or it conies
so insidiously a-to beguile the victim mid his
friends, up to the last hour, w ith the hope of
recovery. or ut least of months of prolonged
life. Men dread sudden death, and pray to be
delivered from it forgetting that to most of us,
death is always sudden, coming as the Scrip
tures truly say, “like a thief in the night.” It
is not for its physical pain that men should fear
death, but lest it should overtakethemercthey
have "set their house in order.” Tobe leav
ing a family unprovided for, or to have put off
irrrangements tor sitting up one’safl'airs, is the
real pang of the dyiny hour.
NEVER WHITEWASH TREES.
The orchardist should set hi* face like a
flint against all sorts of compositions that leave
n courting upon the bark, no matter what they
are nor w hat iselaimeu for them by charlatans :
or empirics. The arboricitlrWist of Boston '
Common made a sad mistake in coating those
trees with some sort of composition, of the
consistency of paint. The objection to this
treatment is, that it interferes with the func
tions of the epidermis. But, say the users of
these compositions, they are necessary for the i
destruction of insect-. As well might they i
advocate the whitewaslilngof men, women and
i children, when infested w ith insects of the ge
nus l‘erticahi», in order to get rid of them, as
. that of painting or w hitew ashing fruit or orna- !
■ ni< ut.-il tree- to rid them of aphidc*, habitants
l of ther bark or outer covering. The trees
! grow mid st em to flourish, notwithstanding the
mistaken treatment, not because of it. —it is no
more evidence in favor of it—than the fact that
I some persons, who seldom or never bathe, yet
enjoy good health, is, against bathing and sur
face cleanliness in general. There is no danger
of keeping fruit trees too clean, and this can
be done w ith pure soft w ater, or if a little soap
be mixed with it, it may cause no harm. A
good ami the safest wash for trees, is pure
The tree or plant is enveloped w ith an epi
dermis like an animal; and for any one to say
that this has no function to perform beyond
that of covering the organism animated with
life, as the envelope does the letter, is to pub
lish his ignorance of vegetable physiology.—
The condition of the covering of the animal is
deemed somwhnt essential to the state or condi
tion of rhe animal —so ot the tree, its bark or
covering i s indicative of the healthful vigor of
the tree, or of its opposite condition. Any one
nt all acquainted with fruit trees, w hether
from a knowledge of long cultivation or of ob
servation, is prepared to judge of tee condition
of an orchard, or garden of fruit trees, by look
ing nt the condition of the bark.— Seic England
We extract the follow ing interesting partic
ulars from the recent message of Goveror
Johnson of Tennessee, to the Legislature of
that State :
“ It was made the duty of the Governor, by
an Act entitled “An act to purchase for the
State of Tennessee five hundred acres of the
bite residence of Andrew Jackson deceased, in
i eluding the mansion, tomb, and other improve
ments known as the Hermitage; and said Act
authorized him to issue six per cent, coupon
bonds to the amount of forty-eight thoiisaml
dollars (148.000) in pay mi nt of the same.
“Incompliance with this law-, the purchase
ha« been made, the five hundred acres, includ
ing the mansion, tomb, and other improve
ments known as the Hermitage, have been
i run out ami platted by a competent and skilful
surveyor, and a title unencumbered hits lieen
made to the Slate, which title Ims been regis
tered in the Register's otliee of Davidson coun
ty, and is now on file in the otliee of the Seen
tary of State. It was also made, by -aid Act.
the duty of the Governor to tender the said
property to th.> General Government of tl.e
I'nited States, u|sm the express condition that
it be used as a site for a brunch of the Military
Academy at \\ est Point. This tender has been
made by the Governor in person to the Feder
al Government, through the President of the
I'nited States; the President transmitted the
tender as made to both branches of Congress.
The subject was there tak.m up and referred
to the appropriate Committees. In tl.e Senate
it wns referred to the Committee on Military
Affairs, which Committee, after consideration
made a favorable report, accompanied with abill
accepting oftliefi ve liuiidri <1 acres,uponthe terms
mid conditions uutiiorizing the ti nder to be made.
The proposition at the time, so far as it could
be ascertained, seemed to bo favorably enter
tained by both Houses of Congress. But it
being the short session, aud mucli important
business remaining to be disposed of. Congress
I adjourml on the 4th of March w ithout having
any definite action upon the proposition, and
, it is pending before the Federal Government
for its final determination on."
NEW ENGLAND AND THE SOUTH
A new spaper story is going the rounds how
I in a New England parish, a difficulty arose
about the location of the new church building
and the church was rent with n division upon
the subject, mid the congregation was dissolved
in tears, The next morning. Deacon Jones
went over to see his opponent, Deacou Shaw,
to make an earnest for peace, and the follow -
ing ensued: Deacon J.—“ Deacon Shaw, I
bavn't slept n wink last night; and I've come
over to see if wecant't have peace on the sub
ject of the church building. We must settle
the difficulty." Deacon S.—“ I'm very happy
to hear you talk so, for, to tell the truth, 1
have alway s thought you a little set in your
: way.” Deacon J.—Not at all; and as a proof
! that I am not. I've come this morning on pur
pose to see you. Now. Deacon Shaw, w e must
settle the-difficulty, and there is but one way
to do it: you must give it up, for I can't,"
This “ accommodating spirit” of Deacon Jones, 1
it occurs to us, is fairly exemplified in the con
duct of New England tow ards the South which
demanded that Slaves States must give up all
i their rights and their compromised guarantees
of the Constitution, because it can't or won't.
I‘hil. Penney Iranian,
lie was a man ! Well do I remember the day
I waited upon him. He sat there in his arm
« hair—l can see the ohl warrior's face w ith his
snow white hair, even now. We told him of
the public distress—the manufacturers ruined—
the eagles shrouded in the crape, which were
borne at the head of twenty thousand men in
to Imlependence Square. We begged him to
leave the detyosita w here they were—to uphold
the great Bank of Philadelphia. Still he did
not say a word. At last one of our number,
more fiery than the rest, intimated that if the
Bank was crushed a rebellion might follow.—
Then the old man—l can see him yet.
“ Come be shouted in a voice of thunder,
as his clenched fist was raise<l above his white
hairs, “come with bayouetts in your hands in
stead of petitions—l am ready for you all! By
the Eternal! with the people at my back,
whom your gold can neither buy nor aw e, 1
will swing you up around the Capital, each
reltel of you, on a gibbet as high llaiiian's!'’
When I think of that one man standing there
at Washington, battling with all the powers of
bank and panic combined, betrayed by those
in wlioui he had trusted, assailed by all that
(he snake of malice could hiss, or the fiend of
falsehood could how l, w hen I think of that one
man placing his hack against the rock, ami fold-
ing his arms for the blow, while he uttered his
awful vow, “By the Eternal! I will not
swerve from the path I have chosen 1 must
confess that, the record of Greece and Rome—
nay, the proudest days of Cromwell and Na
poleon—cannot furnish an instance of a will like
that of Andrew Jackson's when he placed his
life, soul and fame on the hazard of a die, for
the people’s welfare. — Lippard.
A House Pcmpixg Water.—One of our
friends in Ridley, has two horses, which go to
the pump in his barn-yanl almost daily, and
pump water for their own use. One of these
animals commenced this singular feat last sum
mer, and since that time has taught his fellow'
to to go through the same operation. It is re
ally amusing to set* one of these horses put his
mouth to the muzzle of the pump, while the
other is drawing water. The handle of the
pump is of wood, and the end used by the hor
ses has been greatly gnaw ed off. The above
statement may be relied on. — Delaware Ke
SuPimiOß COURT CALENDAR.
Appling 'Moudny after 4th Monday Ap’l and Oct.
Baker J:id Monday May and Nov.
Baldwin |4th “ . Feb. and Aug.
Bibb '-’d “ May and Nov.
u . ( Thursday after 3d Monday April, aud
unan - \j OlU j n y a f| er 4th Monday Nov.
Berrien Ist Monday May and Nov.
Burk 4th “ “ “
T> .. . C Fridav after 3d Monday March and Fn-
BuHoch ■ day ~he r4th Monday Oct
Butts Ist Monday June and Dec.
(’otcosa <4th “ April and Oct.
Charlton last “ March and Nov.
<'hattahoochec 4th “ May and Nov.
Campbell Ith “ March aud Sept.
Camden Ist “ April and Dec.
(!ass |-2d “ March and Sept.
Carroll list “ April and Oct.
Chatham 2d “ Jan. and Mav
Chattooga Ist “ March and Sept.
Cherokee Ist “ “ “
Clarke Ist “ Feb. and 2d Monday Aug.
Cobb •‘■d “ March and Sept.
Clinch Tlh “ Jun? and Dec.
Columbia 2d “ March and Sept.
Coweta Ist “ “ “
Crawford jlat “ u u
Calhoun 4th “ May and Nov.
Clav 4th “ Marell and Sept.
Cott’ce Monday after Appling, April and Oct.
Cobjuitt '.last Monday May and Nov.
Dade J2d “ May and Nov.
Decatur Ith “ April and Oct.
DeKalb Ith “ “ “
Dooly 11st “ M
Dougherty Monday after 4th Mon. May and Nov.
,1 » Ith Monday March and Monday after
Idhngham - <th ()ct
Emanuel Ist Monday April and Oct.
Elbert 2d “ March and Sept.
Early 3d “ “ “
Fayette 3d “ “ “
Floyd Ist “ Feb. and Aug.
Fannin 2d “ May and Nov.
Forsyth 3d “ Feb. and Aug.
Ftanklin 3d “ April and Oct.
Fulton Ist “ “ u
Gilmer Ist “ May and Nov.
Glynn 2d “ April and Dec.
Gordon Ith “ March and Sept.
Gr« •■!!<• M “ “ “
Gwinnett ;2d ** “ “
Habersham 2d “ April and Oct.
Hall Id “ March and Sept.
Harris 2d “ April and Oct.
Hancock |3d “ February and Aug.
Hart 3d “ March and Sept.
Heard »4tl» “ Feb. and Aug.
Henry 3<l “ April and Oct.
Houston Ith “ “ “•
Hai raison |.?d “ “ “
Irwin ‘ith “ “ **
Jackson j4th “ Feb. and Aug.
Jasper Ith Monday April and Oct. ,
Jeflerooii 2d “ June and Dec.
Jones Hd “ April and Oct.
Laurens |2d “ “ “
lx*e Ith “ March and Sept.
Liberty ;.:d Mon. Ap‘l and Mon. after 4 Mon. Nov
Lincoln Ith Monday April and October.
Lowndes id “ June and December.
Lumpkin ’lst “ January and August.
Macon |3d “ March and September.
Madison Ist “ “ “
\l,.jntosh ' Thursday after 2d Monday April and.
'( M “ 4tb “
Marion Ist Monday March and Sept.
Monroe <ith “ ’ Feb. and Aug.
Morgan iist “ March and Sept
Muscogee list “ Muy and Nov.
Miller ith “ June and Dex*.
.Mcrriwetber <1 “ Feb. and Aug.
\f ..»< ... .rv Thursday after 2d Monday March and
Montgomery Thn ,. S(|av ttfter 8(J Mnnday Oct
Murray Ist Monday April and Oct.
Newton ;<t “ March and Sept.
Oglethorpe 3d “ April and Oct.
Paulding Ist “ “ “
Pike ut Mon. Ap’l A Thurs. after 1 Mon Oct
Polk Ith Monday April and Oct.
Pulaski 3d “ “ “
Putnam 3d “ March and Sept.
Pickens ith “ Feb. and Aug.
Randolph Ist “ May and Noy.
Rabun I Mon. Ap’l A Wydnes. after 1 Mun. Oct
Richmond 3d Monday April and Oct.
Striven 4th ** “ “
Spalding id “ May and Nov.
Stewart 3d “ April and Oct.
Sumter *d “ March and Sept.
Talbot d ** •* **
Tatnall - <1 ’♦ March and 4»h Mon. Oct.
I Terrell Ist “ March and Sept.
Tat lor Ist “ Anri I and Oct.
Teifuir Thurs. after 4tn Monday April and Oct.
Thomas Ist “ June and Dec.
Taliaferro 4th “ Feb. and Aug.
Towns Uh “ April and Oct.
Troup <1 “ .Muy and Nov.
Twiggs 2d “ March and Sept.,
Upson Ist “ May and Nov.
Union id “ “ “•
Walker Ist “ “ u
Walton 3d “ Feb. and \ug.
Warren Ist April and Oct.
Washington 3d “ March and Sept.
Wilkinson Ist “ April and Oct.
Wilkes Uh “ March and Sept.
Webster Ist ** April and Oct
Wayne Friday after Ist Monday April and Dec.
Ware Munday after 4ih Mon. June aud Dec.
Whitfield 2d Munday April and Oct.
Worth Id “ “ “
Kot urn Day Twenty Days before Court.
THE STATE PRESS,
Pl ItLISHED, AT MACON, GA.
I PROPOSE publishing in the city of Macon a
1 newspaper bearing the above title, the first num
ber of which will be issued as early as practicable in
October >. Fur the present it will be a weekly
paper, but will be converted into a daily or tri-week-.
ly at soon as the eneonragement warrants it.
Believing that Macon, m view of its increasing bu-.
sineMs and its central location with Railroads radia
ting in every direction, is a suitable point for estab
lishing a new paper, I embark in this enterprise with
every confidence of success, and will strive by mak
ing “ 7V/< worthy of patronage, to secure
fur it both a local support and a general circulation.
And in order to accomplish this object no effort will
bo spared to render it in all respects a valuable Fami
ly Journal—complete in its news, literary aud politi
cal departments—useful and interesting alike to the
Planter, the Merchant, the Mechanic and all other
classes of our population—a paper thoroughly identi
fied with whatever concerns the weal or woe of Geor
gia, and one which I hope to make acceptable to the
citizens of the State.
I n p< ditics TState will belong to the South
ern Rights Democratic ochbool. Whife I am in fa
vor of the preservation of the Union on the basis of
the Constitution. as a Southerner by birth and edu
cation, 1 naturally consider the rights, the interests,
aud the honor of the South as paramount to all other
considerations. Hence in the management of the
paper mv niuttu will be "Equality in Union or
of it." But, in my humble judg
ment, there is but one effectual means of preserving
the Union consistently with the constitutional rights
of the South, and therefore I will zealously advocate
the policy and principles of that good old Democratip
party which has been our only anchor of safety during
the past, aud now stands oar only hope for the fu
The State Press will be printed with new type on
a large sheet. It will be an excellent medium for ad
vertising. as arrangements have been made to give
it a wide circulation.
Sulwriptioo —Two Dollars per annum in advance,
or Three Dollars at the end of the vear.
E. (’ ROWLAND, Proprietor
Macon, Ga., October. 1857.