OFFICIAL ORGAN OF TOE CITY.
VOL XXII- .
Ordinary—J. F. Carmichael.
Sherifl —J, O. Beauchamp,
Deputy —J. W. Crawford.
►Surveyor —B. J. Jinks.
Treasurer —T. L. Williams.
Tax Collector —T. J. Cole.
Tax Receiver —C. R. Carter.
Coroner —Simon Hardy.
Clerk Superior Court—Joe Jolly ;
court 3rd Mondays in February
Roau Commissioners—6ls G. M.,
J. L, Barkley, H. G. Asbury, T. O.
Woodward ; 613 G, M., J, Al. Ball,
J. E. Hale, J. W. Fletcher; 609 G.
M ,J. W. Winter, J. L. Pye, S. K.
Smith; 014 G. Al , J. W. Holoway,
J. 11. Cole, J. Van Wright; 552 G. i
Al., D. B, Moore. R. Al. Harper, F.
Al. Maddox; 012 G. Al., W. O. 1
Crawley, Cornelius AlcCluare, T.
H. Nolan; 010 G, Al., T. P. Bell,
R. Al. Fletcher, J. G. Coldwell; 616
G. Al., J. 11. Aladdox, J. J. Wilion,
J. C. Barnes.
Board of Education--W. Al. Mal
let, A G Hitchens, J. T. Goodman,
D. N. Carmichael, J. M. AlcMichael.
E E. Pound C, S. C. Olhca in
Jury Commissioners—H. N. By
at', T L. Williams, W. B. Dozier,
L. .1. Balt, i P. Ball, AlexAtkm
Woodward, J. P.; J G, Kuubeli
N i >
(>l3 iLa 11 L. Brown, J. P.; H.
I , 1 UrtXl Ul, i\ , P.
609 Di*> , W. A W a idrup, J P ;
Bl***- Al- re. .V P.
552 Dom., aamt-s Jolly, J # P. ;
Al Al ,ou- x, iN. P.
012 uipi., Howard Ham, J P.; r
Z. t ory.N.P.
Old Dust, T. J. Coiin.s, J P.; 1.
P. Bell, \. P.
0)10 Dim , <B. KiiOWleS, J, P.;
J i. I>.w et, N P.
oi lDi , A H. Ogle.ree, J. P.;
-V :■ Dou.l.ts/iN P
ci i v directory.
Major E. E. Pound
( oinn ilmen—'l'. J. Lane, J. W. Car
michael, B. I'. Bailey, i’. Al. Eurlovv.
►vleilmditil—Rev. t. W. Bell, pastor.
Bervices ever.* Sunday at 11 a.i., 7
pm. l’i as er meeting every Wednes
Baptist -Uev G. W. Gardner, pas
tor. Services every e*miday-ai li a
m. .tud 7 p.m. Prayer inee'iug every
I’i‘esb) lerian—Rev. Mr. Pha.r, pas
•.- Sui-vieet* every 3rd Buiiday at
II a.rn. and 7 u.m .
Shn.L, - - v
SECRET SOCIETIES. .
F & A. Al. —Chapter meets 2nd and
4tli Monday nights. Blue Lodge, Ist
and 3rd M mday nights
Itedmen— 2nd and 4tli Tuesday
nights in each month.
M. V. McKIBBEN,
Attorney at Law,
M. M. MILLS,
ATTORNEY AT LAW•
Office iu court kouse, Jackson, Georgia.
W. W. Anderson. Frank Z. Curry.
ANDERSON & CURRY,
ATTOKKKYS AT LAW
Negotiates loans on real estate. Office
up stairs over the Yellow store, Jackson,
Dr.T. K. Tharpe,
FLOTILLA, - - GEORG Li.
Crown and bridge work and all the
latest methods of dentistry. Teeth ex*
tracted without pain. Prices moderate.
Dr. O. H. Cantrell
JACKSON, - - - ' G^.
The only brick Hotel between Atlan
ta and Macon. Board $2 00 per day.
Miss Jennie JVallace. Prop.
STOP AT THE
£ VER YTHING NE W
Free Eack to Depot,
C. R. Gresham, Propriet r
SOUTHEAST CORNER PUBLIC
SQUARE, JACKSON, GA.
Ghep’.f, first-class i n all respects.
•. -on 1 T na * when you come to Jack
/IW&rantee’d 118 moderate - Satisfaction
118 ’ A * M mTER ) *rp.
THE JACKSOH ARGUS.
Sill, mm REPORT.
What the Commissioner Has to
Say to Georgia Farmers for the
Month of February, 1894
PLANS FOR THE COMING YEAR.
Experiments in Farming, Renova
tion and Rotation, Success in
Cottou Planting, Fertilizers.
Orchard and Garden.
Department of Agriculture,
Atlanta, Feb. 1, 1594.
In January the careful farmer has
carefully mapped out his plans for the
ensuing year, and having begun prompt
ly to execute them, the present month
should find him well advanced in his
preparations for planting. The excep
tionally dry fall and early part of the
winter have been favorable to the deep
plowing so important at this season.
Where the stubble from peas, roots and
stems, grass sod, clover, or the natural
growth on the land has been turned un
der, a supply of available plant food is
now, by natural processes, being manu
factured for the coming year’s crops—
more or less valuable as the growth
turned under is rich in the necessary el
ements and easy of decomposition.
Let it be borne in mind that the peas
and clover are the only agents among
those mentioiu 1 which have the power
of appropriating and depositing the free
nitrogen of the atmosphere, which fact
should be remembered in selecting sup
plementary fertilizers for each crop.
THE NEEDS OF EACH CROP
should also hear an important place in
our calculations. We know that certain
plants do well on certain kinds of soil,
and that on special artificial foods they
also thrive; and that on others they do
not reach the lull measure of their pow
ers of growth or yield. The soil, if defi
cient must therefore he prepared for their
growth by supplying what is lacking.
We also know that judicious and abun
dant manuring will enable the soil to
grow almost any crop, and that this soil
will, in succession, yield fuller .crops if
these crops he so varied as to extract
from the soil, one after another, the sev
eral different elements it is known to
the land grows sick .
... wo nands of the
skillful farmer it can be made to yield
successive crops, and, at the same time,
it's deficiencies he so supplied that it will
he kept up to a high degree of product
iveness. In establishing
AN ARTIFICIAL ROTATION
of crops. We but the precedent,
which nature has set for us. How often
do we notice that whore an oak forest
once stood the pine saplings take it plac...
All over Georgia the “pine thickets” a*
test the localities where maj Stic oa
once reared ther heads. By following
these signs, which nature sets up ior us,
we may, in
MANURING FOR SPECIAL CROPS,
attain a certain degree o s with
out the aid of science, but .. \vj woul 1
learn the shortest, most simple, nu -
economical, and at the same ;ime, tu
moat perfect processes, we um w
the help, which scientific print- o
us. With this end in view w .mu
lose no opportuity of studying tin agriqni
tural laws of cause and effect, and of ma >-
fng practical application of the knowi
edge thus gained. The experiments a 1 :
the various experiment stations bear di*
rectly on these problems, and are of in
estimable value to the thinking farmer.
They throw light on questions as to feec
lng. fertilization, composting, rotation,
renovation, which he being often ham
pered by unfavorable surronn tings, has
not the time or the means to investi :a e
for himself. For instance, c.-ireful e •
periment has demonstrated ibat in s x
months, hors manure. thrown into a
loose p le, an . exposed to ra we t lie*
will loseone-nah its fcrt 1 ?. ugqu ill si* s.
Cow manure thus expos- lost two
thirds; mix * with other ngredients. oi
which muck was the. lea ling con-ti
uent. the loss was not q l te one third,
refer to tie s-! facts again because the
presen 1 : imperative nee : on most farms
is more care in gathering and con
serving these precious eleti- nts of iert 1-
itv, which, through carclessnt sand im
proper methods, are allowed to waste.
Experiment has also shown that the
value of barn yard manure depends not
so much upon its actual elements of
plant food, these having in shown by
analysis to be comparatively small, as
upon its effect upon t:.e physical
condition of the soil. It improves
the mechanical condition of soils
both light and heavy, and induces fer
nientive changes, by which latent plant
food is utilized. It also draws the water
in the soil toward the surface, thus ad
ding to the supply both of water and
food for the growing plants.
At the New Hampshire station the
following experiment was tried: Three
acres were s°t aside. On one the lot
manure was spread and plowed under in
the fall. On another it was spread in
the fall and allowed to lie on the surface
Undisturbed. On the third it was spread
In the spring. In summing up results.
It was found that the largest yield was
from the acre on which the manure was
allowed to remain on the surface during
the winter. Again, some interesting ex
periments at our Georgia Experiment
Station go to prove, that the time and
labor expended in mixing and fennent
lug cotton seed and other be
fore applying to the soil, could be better
employed, as this plan causes no increase
Meld oVer that in which cotton seed
anaother materials were applied to the
vary, and while these
experiments are valuable in a general
sense, their promulgation should not
prevent individual experiment, where
inch experiment is possible. •.
these experiment stations to be consul-
C toftaund rule., but as (umisbmg
lata aa It ware by and Iron* which each
man can work out his own conclusions.
As evidence of what pluck and energy
combined with careful observation and
experimentation can accomplish, the
success of Mr George W. Truitt, of La
Grange, furnishes an illustrious exam
ple. He has been phenominally and pre
eminently successful. He says, “I have
raised 100 bushels oats on one acre; 128
bushels corn on one acre: four bales cot
ton, 450 pounds each, on one acre.” In
regard to his methods he says: “There
are many, who believe that in clay there
is no fertility, I would ask them, why
such luxuriant vegetation on railro .and
embankments, from dirt originally
twenty feet under the surface? My con
viction is ‘lucerne rooted,’ that just as
deep as you turn land, just that deep
will your land grow rich.”
Surely, if one man can by industry
and system bring up one run down Geor
gia farm to this high degree of product
iveness. others seeing his success can
grasp the same means, and push forward
One advantage the farmer has the
present season, of which he has been de
prived for several years, is more easily
obtained and more steadily settled labor.
This is one result of the general hard
times, high mo-'t and low cotton.
Where indiffere. _e as to airing once
reigned, wo now find anxiety, even
eagerness for employment, Tiiis is no
small advantage, for with our class of
field laborers it is not an unusual occur
rence for the Christmas jollifications to
extend far into January, and to obtain
regular or steady work becomes a uiffi
cult undertaking until the last of the
month or the first of February. I be
lieve it is my first experience since the
war in which the plows were all ready,
man, mule, and implements for a
start the first day of January. Since
that time we have had much bad weath
TOO WET too plow.
Plowing when ihe land is too wet is a
mistake to he carefully guarded against.
One error in ju Igment tiere will cause
trouble through the entire crop season.
A rule, familiar to most experienced
farmers, is not to plow land when a
handful of tiie soil pressed t< Tier re
mains a compart mass. Wh< oo wet
for the plow to be at work there is
always something to be done in the way
of lepairs—fences, ditches, terraces,
fence corners, and spots overgrown
with briars and bushes, all to he put in
order, compost to he hauled and spread,
and, when the rains are too heavy for
out oor work, tools to he overhauled
and put in working order, plows made
ready, in order that no time may he
lost, when the sun is shining and work,
in preparation or cultivation, is pressing.
In this matter of farm implements,
farmers should be on the alert, and as
far as able, invest in well tested and im
proved plows, harrows and necessary
farm machinery. In the one item of
feeding, a good feed cutter will more
than pay for its price in one season, and
by its use much valuable material which
is otherwise watec u canape +v £
fSliabln cutaway harrow, besides put
ting the land iu better order for the
plow, is the agent by which every par
ticle of vegetable matter left in the soil
can he made to do duty in producing
another crop. It is these lessons of
economy in small things, in learning to
judiciously invest in order to reap larger
profits, that we all need to study. On
the subject of economy our farmers
could learn a most valuable lesson from
our fertilizer industries. On almost all
ordinary farms the most valuable ma
nurial elements are allowed to waste.
Much that could be saved and applied
with profit, becomes valueless from neg
lect. On the other hand, the fertilizer
factory gathers refuse, apparently
worthless material, and converts it into
valuable manurial agents.
OATS AND GRASS AND CLOVER.
Now is the time for sowing the spring
oats, better than in January, as there is
less risk of killing. The land should he
well prepared and liberally manured.
Sow an early variety of seed and don’t
stint the quantity. Remember that the
spring crop has only a short time to ma
ture. and should be given every oppor
tunity, in preparation, manuring, in
quality and quantity of seed, to produce
a heavy crop.
Grass seed and clover also should be
sown now. Orchard, tall oat, rescue,
red top and Bermuda, all suit our cli
mate and soil. Plow and harrow, then
sow the seed and roll, do not plow or
harrow after the seed are sown, simply
pass a heavy roller over the surface. It
is best to prepare the land for this pur
pose, but if preferred the seed can be
sown on growing grain crops. If the
latter plan is chosen, run a light harrow
over the grain, sow the clover or grass
seed, and roll. Where the seed is sown
with a grain crop, the better plan, how
ever, is to sow m the fall after the oats
or wheat is put in, sow the grass seed on
the freshly harrowed surface. By this
plan, with favorable seasons the .oat
crop, and two heavy cuttings of native
grasses have been taken from the land
during the summer or fall, before leav
ing it in permanent possession of the
IN THE GARDEN.*
Seeds of nearly every plant grown in
our climate may be sown this month,
either in the open ground or in cold
frames; but it is not desirable that tne
more tender varieties should be sown,
unless one has well constructed cold
frames or other ample means of protec
tion in case of sudden cold. In the lati
tude of middle Georgia, Irish potatoes,
beets, cabbage, lettuce, carrots, leeks,
unions, English peas, turnips, spinach,
salsify, and corn can all be planted.
In selecting your seed potatoes, get
the very best, and use only those which
you have found adapted to your soil. If
your own sf and, from the fall crop do
well, use them of course, otherwise the
eastern seed cire the best. In closing I
wish to meL'jion, that among the hun
dreds (of letters received at the depart
ment, the most cheerful and hopeful are
those written by farmers who raise their
own supplies, and diversify their crops.
The tone of these letters is in marked
contrast to others, breathing dissatisfac
tion and distrust, because of the high
price of provisions, and the general un
profitableness of farming. In both I find
strong proof of my oft repeated asser
tion, that the bed-rock of successful
farming is, raising home supplies and
rotating and therefore diversifying
crops. R. T. Nesbitt.
The French farmer has learned that
raising sugar beets increases the yield of
the land. The process is an indirect one.
The refuse from the beet roots enables
him to keep more stock, and their ma
nure improves the soil.
JACKSON, GA., MARCH 1 , 1894.
Which Are Answered by Some of Oar
The following inquiries and answers
are taken from the Southern Cultivator
and Dixie Farmer:
I have a barrel of ground peas, left
over from last year’s seed. Would they
do well for planting this year ? Will be
thankful for an answer as soon as pos
It is not likely that the peas are suit
able for planting this year. They easily
become rancid, which condition can only
be detected by inspeceion. If not rancid,
they will answer.
1. Please tell me all about burr clo
ver, when and how to plant it. I want
it for grazing. My soil is shallow with
stiff clay subsoil.
2. What grasses would you sow for a
general pasture? How would the clover
do to mix with some of the grasses in
1. Burr clover (medicago denhculata
ta —medicago maculata) is a native of
the Mediterranean region, which has
been naturalized in most warm climates.
It is widely distributed in California,
where it is considered of great value.
It was first introduced into the southern
states by the late Bishop George F.
Pierce in 1867, and planted at his home
in Hancock county, Georgia. In Mis
sissippi it has been grown by Mr. Ed
win C. Reed, of Meridian, who states
that it is all that could he desired as a
winter and spring pasture. With stock
it is an acquired taste, and they will not
eat it when more palatable plants are
offered. It is a good renovator, and
while an annual, reseeds itself, if not
pastured too late and too close. The
burs make it very objectionable as a
pasture for sheep. To sow, prepare as
for common clover, and sow 20 pounds
of clover seed to the acre early in the
2. It will be difficult to get a pasture
that will answer for both winter and
summer. For summer pasture, Bermuda
and crab grass are the best. Red clover
is valuable in early spring and autumn.
On northern hillsides herds’ grass will
give a fine summer pasture. White
clover is exceedingly valuable for cer
tain kinds of stock, but like red clover,
after the maturity of the seed it sali
For winter pasture, meadow oat grass,
orchard, blue and fenell gras’s, or wild
riro end white clover. One
bushel of orchara, moauuw oat anawna
rye each; four quarts of blue grass, red
and white clover. This is the com
pound given by Howard in his Manual
of Grasses. Meadow oat and orchard
thus will do well. In latitude of Panola
county is high enough, but we are not
familiar enough with the soil to say
whether clover will do well or not.
Please let me know how corn stalks
compare with pine straw for a stable;
also which will be the better fertilizer.
I can fill my stable with corn stalks
about as quickly as straw, and it makes
a good bed after a few days. lam after
something to improve the land.
The value of either pine straw or corn
stalks as a fertilizer is more in bettering
the mechanical condition of the soil by
the organic matter supplied, than as a
direct source of the elements of plant
food. Where used in the stable, the
readiness with which they absorb the
liquid manure must be considered.
While not making so good a bed, the
stalks decompose more rapidly, and
therefore produce a better mechanical
effect, and we regard them as a better
absorbent, and for this reason would
improve your land more rapidly.
HOW TO COMPOST.
Kindly answer the following in your
1. Don’t you thing the following form
ula a good fertilizer for cotton, when
composted in the order named: 900
pounds of stable manure or 900 pounds
of swamp litter, 200 pounds acid phos
phate, 100 pounds kainit, 900 pounds
green cotton seed 200 pounds acid phos
phate, 100 pounds kainit?
2. Don’t you think there is too much
potash and not enough nitrogen ? How
may I lessen amount of potash and in
crease nitrogen? *
3. Is 500 pounds to the acre on poor
land the first year a sufficient amount ?
4. Can you give me the chemical ele
ments in well rotted swamp litter ?
1. If we are to understand that the
applications of material are to be made
in bulk in the order named, we do not con -
aider it a proper method of composting.
In making a compost, the material
should be distributed in layers through
the pile. Asa compost, your
on this formula does not contain a suffi
cient amount of phosphoric acid, and the
amount of this element should be in
creased by an additional amount of acid
phosphate. For ordinary worn land we
do not consider that the formula gives
an extra amount of potash. The amount
of nitrogen, if you wish to increase it, is
added by putting in more cotton seed or
cotton seed meal,
2. To reduce the potash, use less kai
3. We consider 500 pounds a sufficient
quantity on poor land; much more fer
tilizer can be successfully used on poor
land than on rich land.
4. Swamp litter contains phosphoric
acid, nitrogen and potash in small per
centages, with a large per cent of or
ganic matter. All analyses vary very
The French wine crop the past year
was better than it has been in many
years. The yield the present year is es
timated at 1,225,000,000 gallons, against
•50,000,000 last year.
ANSWERS TO INQUIRIES
BY THE GEORGIA DEPARTMENT
Relating to the Farm, Garden, Dairy,
Stock Raising, Etc.
While I know that this is hardly a
proper time "or the question, still I de
sire to know what you regard as the
proper time to harvest peas, and whether
any analysis of their food value at dif
ferent times of growth has ever been
made. P. C., Lee County.
We have previously stated in these re
ports that as soon as the peas came to
maturity was the proper time. This is
when the harvesting includes vines,
leaves and pods. Analysis of the whip
poorwill cow pea at five different stages
of growth verifies the correctness. As
illustrative of practical and scientific
study it will be noted that our farmers,
have almost been universally correct in
their idea as to the proper time to har
What is a good fertilizer for peas ?
W. A. D.
The pea is a legumine, and therefore
does not require a nitrogenous fertilizer.
The mineral elements of plant food
should be supplied. These consist of
phosphoric acid and potash, all other
mineral elements being found in suffi
cient quantities in ordinary soil. On
most soils acid phosphate should be the
dominant, only a small quantity of kai
nit being required.
What kind of soil is required for red
top? Will it grow on land too wet for
corn ? When is the proper time to sow ?
T. A. B.
Red top is especially adapted to low
bottoms and will thrive where the land
is much too wet for corn. In seeding
use two bushels to the acre. It is not
too late for you to sow now for spring
sowing; that is you can sow in February
fir March. When sown in the fall Sep
tember or October are the proper
How would crab apple roots do for
grafting apples and pears? Would
quinces grow and do well on them?
H. I. L., Handcock county.
If the crab apples have sufficient suit
able roots, they could be used. We
would advise you to obtain seedlings for
grafting, as they are ot more ’ alue and
answer the purpose much better. A
quince and apple graft will unite, hut it
is not permanent, as when growth pro
gresses it will come apart.
Please furnish me a formula for a
sweet potato fertilizer.
P. A. J., Burke county.
The following would make a good
fertilizer for sweet potatoes: Two hun
dred pounds of, acid phosphate. 200
pounds of cocton seed meal, and 50 of
muriate of potash, with the usual per
centages which these ingredients run.
This would give you a fertilizer running
4 per cent ammonia, 7 per cent phospho
ric acid and 10 per cent potash. Like
the Irish potato, the sweet potato re
quires a great deal of potash.
Can you tell me anything in regard to
lutgrus sylvistris? J. C. M.,
Sylvistris is a perennial forage plant,
the value of which was first ascertained
in Germany. It is a legumin that sends
its roots deep down into the earth, and
it is said will enrich land more than any
other crop. It has great ability to with
stand severe drougths. The growth is
slow for the first two years, but after
ward it has produced as high as eig't
tons of good hay to the acre in a single
season. If it is all that is claimed for it,
it will be found of the greatest value in
reclaiming worn lands in the south, an l
at the same time providing permanent
meadow and pasture.
HOLLOW HEARTED POTATOES.
What is the cause of hollow hearted
A. S. Y., Talbotton, Ga.
The cause of hollow hearted potatoes
is rich, moist ground. When soil of this
character is dry early in the season and
later abundant rains cause it to produce
a very rapid growth of the potato, re
sulting in its being hollow.
What do you regard as the best time
to sow spring oats?
B. C. L., Baldwin county.
The spring oat crop is very uncertain,
and fall is by far the best time to sow in
the south. ,
We regard the middle of February as
the best time to sow spring oats.
Which will generally yield the most
forage per acre Millo maize or Kaffir
corn? H. M. T.
While we have made no accurate ex
periments on this subject, yet the expe
rience of others is that Millo maize will
make about double the quantity of Kaffir
corn. At the state experiment station
the yield of Millo maize of dry hay was
14.092 pounds, that of Kaffir corn 6,864.
These figures may be regarded as large
and above an average yield per acre.
PRUNING PEACH TREES.
In my peach orchard I have frequent
ly suffered great loss by overbearing,
and would be glad if you* would suggest
a remedy. If I can prevent this by
proper pruning please give me the best
method. L. J. TANARUS,
To prevent overbearing by pruning
peach trees, the cardinal principle to be j
remembered is that the tree bears its
fruit on the wood of the preceding sum
mer’s growth. In addition, a compact
round head is desired as giving symetry
to the tree, strength for the future, and
therefore more fruit-bearing capacity
without danger. To secure this result
the young wood should be evenly dis
teneded, for if the ends of the branches
contain all the bearing wood, the weight
of the fruit has a great leverage and
either breaks the tree down or necessi
tates the propping up of the limbs. Ev
ery winter one-third to one-half of the
young growth on the long and stronger
branches should be removed and the
shoots through the tree thinned, so as
not to interfere with each other. If this
method is pursued in there is little
danger of the trees breaking with an
over load of fruit.
ROTATION OF CROPS.
The value of the rotation of crops I
emphatically recognize but would like
to know the general rules or principal
upon which rotation rests.
H. A. P., Sumter county.
Nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash
are the important element of plant food.
They are all taken from the soil in varied
quantities and proportions. One crop
will demand large qualities of nitrogen,
of another phosphoric ac® is the domi
nant, while a third demands more
potash. Again there are crops such
as the legumine which restore nitrogen
while supplying the soil with organic
matter so necessary to a high state of
fertility and fertilization. While the
general rule is applicable, that crops de
manding the same plant food should not
follow, still other considerations enter
into the rotation.
We find, for example, that parisites
living on certain plants will be increased
by a rotation of these crops necessitating
a change to such a crop as upon which
they will not feed. Again thc-consider
ation of a clean culture crop as prevent
ing the land from becoming foul with
grass seed and rendering proper cultiva
tion more difficult must be borne in
mind. The method by which the roots
feed also has an important bearing upon
all questions ot rotation.
From the varied matters presenting
themselves it is easily seen that even
general principals may be varied such as
while one crop many consume the
same elements in about the same pro
portion it may be in such less quantity
and by roots of so different a character
as lo rentier tlie rotation eminently
piupci. A. sluglo system of rotation io
not adapted to, or the best for every lo
cality and experiment should demon
strate the most successful in this impor
tant study as well as in other questions
which present themselves to the farmer.
In planning judicious rotation it is
well to follow or alternate broad leave
plants, sucl as clover, and peas with
narrow leaved cereals, such as wheat,
rye and oats. To let perpendicular root
ptants and horizontal root plants suc
ceed each other. To follow exhaustive
plants with those that are least exhaust
ive. A good three years’ rotation is corn,
wheat, clover, or with cotton, clover
or peas. Cotton, wheat. Wheat will,
however, make an excellent crop after
clover or peas.
Please inform me how to rid my peach
trees of borers. I am aware of the
method of removing them with the knife,
but want to know if there is any appli
cation I can apply this spring and when
to apply it?
L. N. TANARUS., Fort Valley.
The winged insect that deposits the
eggs from which the borer comes usually
appear in the orchard soon after the
leaves begin to put forth. The female
deposits from 50 too 100 eggs. One or
two on each tree on the base of the trunk
and as the grub of last year is the moth
of this the borers rappidly increase.
The following liquid preperations have
been found very effective. They should
be applied with a stiff brush thorughly
from 18 inches above the ground to four
below the surface: Soft soap, 10 gal
lons; corosive sublimate, 1 1-14 ounces,
alcohol, 1 pint. Disolve the
sublimate in the alcohol and mix
thoroughly with the soap. The
sublimate should not be used in
a quantity large enough to injure the
tree. It is very poisonous and care
should be teken in having it in the
house. The mixture should be applied
immediately after tae first fly appears
and every two weeks thereafter until
they disappear. The weak grub is
killed at the first mou.hful of the mix
tuse by the sublimate and the remedy is
The other application is to mix 10 gal
lons of sour milk and 10 pounds of Port
land cement. The cement forms a coat
ing through which the grubs cannot
penetrate. It should be applied every
two or three weeks, otherwise it will
crack from the growth of the tree and
the grubs may enter.
formula for compost.
When is a good time to compost?
Please give me a formula for corn and
cotton. A. L. C., Warren county.
December and January are good
months to compost, though you can com
post later. The following formula will
answer for both com and cotton: Stable
manure, 650 pounds; cotton seed, 650
pounds; acid phosphate 700 pounds.
In mixing I have the ingredients well
watered and worked with hoes in small
piles and then thrown on the main pile,
which I fix up in conical shape and
then put on a layer of dirt from four to
six inches, completing the work.
I thank you for the valued informa-
OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE COUNIY.
tion so kindly given, permit me to tfbu
ble you this once more, for it is a ques
tion in which lam vitally interested. I
have about 1,500 bushels of cotton seed
and some good stable manure which I
am anxious to so mix with acid phos
phate a-' to get the best possible results.
I was anxious to mix at the proper time
to allow sufficient decomposition, but I
see from your advice that I am a little
late for January is gone, so I will go at
the work immediately. Now I would
like to know whether the heap should
have water poured in when the heat
caused by decomposition and fermenta
tion becomes too great, and how am I to
judge when heat is great enough to pro
duce injury or fire fang. Some say in
sert a rod andby drawing it out judge by
the heat of the rod,but how warm should
it be to water.
A. L. C., Warrenton.
We do not thin 1 ' that you will be too
late with your compost and that suffi
cient decomposition will take place to
obtain good results. Fire fang only re
sults when the heap or any part of it be
comes perfectly dry. Its effect is to per
mit the escape of the ammonia and
while we are unable to give you any
certain rule as to the temperature can
safely say that moist heat will not have
an injurious effect, and if the
pile is kept damp no ammonia will
escape. A simple chemical test to ascer
tain whether any loss is taking place is
to hold near the manure a small rod
that has been touched or dipped in nitrate
acid. If a white vapor arises the am
monia is escaping. No loss of other ele
ments of plant food takes place except
I note in report of United States de
partment of agriculture Vol. V. No. 2,
pages 228 and 22‘J, a method for the re
duction of phosphates and for the prepa
ration of commercial fertilizers from the
same which is represented as being sim
ple and cheaper than by the plan now in
use of reduction of sulphuric acid.
This new reduction is by carbonic acid.
I am not able to under stand how the
carbonic acid is generated and controlled,
neither do I understand the characters
used in showing what it produced in the
different stages of reduction.
This process seems to be applicable to
phosphates rich in lime or corbonate of
lime, you are aware that southwest
Georgia contains a great deal of this
lime phosphate rock. Here on my farm
are large quantities, also on adjoining
farms. This new method is also recom
mended for the preparation of nitrogen
ous fertilizers such as hair, hoofs, horns,
leather, wood, slaughter house, etc.
Now this strikes me as being something
of vast importance to farmers; a plan
perhaps that they can put into opera
tion, have a mill, or buy the floats, and
a plant with but little cost in every
Oi? oouww at firut a /Vllftin
ist would have to be employed until a
foreman of. the works becomes posted.
I would be glad of any information
from you on the subject at any time.
J. W. B. Leslie, Ga.
The department is now investigating
the process named and we would prefer
to give no positive informntion on its
merits without thorough study. Our
casual opinion is that it will prove of
great economic value and especially so
to southern Georgia, where such large
deposits of carbonate of lime are to be
We have about 12 acres of new land
being planted to grape vines and other
fruit at Tallapoosa. We are thinking of
a spring crop to plant between the rows;
perhaps potatoes. Will you please in
form us as to the variety, mode of ship
ping, market, prospect of profits, etc. ?
And can you let us know where we can
get bags or sacks suitable to ship pota
toes in, etc.?
We would suggest early rose and beau
ty of Hebron. Your location is such
that you will not be able to secure the
large profits of the early market gar
dener, and you would be compelled to rely
largely on home consumption and the
Atlanta and Birmingham markets. Ship
ments can be made in bags or barrels.
You can purchase them in Atlanta.
POLICY OF SOUTHERN FARMERS.
The business policy of southern farm
ers is changing, according to a large
number of letters from bankers in all
parts of the south, recently published in
The Manufacturers’ Record. The farm
ers are growing more diversified crops,
producing more of the needed and here
tofore largely purchased food supplies,
thus saving some of the money formerly
paid for the latter. These letters also
show that farmers are doing more of a
cash and less of a credit business. The
farmers are paying off their debts and
spending at home the money that for
merly went to the north and west to
buy provisions. These letters say that
south is less in debt than at any other
time since the war.
Agricultural News and Notes.
The poultry buildings on the farm of
Honorable Levi P. Morton recently
burned dawn are almost rebuilt, and it
is estimated will cost about SIO,OOO. The
incubators and brooders will be run by
electricity, while a number of other fea
tures will be introduced which have
heretofore been unknown in poultry fix
For the best show pea English gar
deners recommend President Garfield.
We want a good table pea and as early
as it can be had. Sow any of the first
earlies as early as you can prepare the
ground in spring on heavily manured
land, and you will get peas good enough
and early enough.
The London Times estimates the wheat
area in Urreat Britain at 1,798,869 acres
and the crop at 46,429,407 bushels. More
land is devoted to barley than to wheat,
or 2,257,293 acres, and still more to oats,
The peanut crop is reported light.