Aid. HOME PRINT.
GwIUS l Y D\ uEClUKY.
Uiiiui.ll3 —J. I*. Carmichael.
tS.ieiill— 1, f). lit auchhiup.
Depu y \V . CiawturU.
tsarv* \t*r — ti. -J. Jinks.
1 rt-a-uiei —i. L. Williams.
1 ax. CoUt-cioi —T. j. Cole,
lax Beet ivei--u. h Carter.
Cormier —feiuitjn llaruy.
G.tik Superior Court—Joe Jolly ;
court 3rd Moudaya ju Feoruaiy
ltoau Coiuinubioners —615 G. M.
J. L, liaikley, H. G. As iury, T. U,
VV oouwaru ; 013 G. M ,J, M. Ball.
J, E. Hale, j. \V Fietciier; 609 G.
M., J. VV . Min tei, J. L.. Pye, B. K.
>1 ii 1111 j 614 G. M., J. W. Holoway,
J. 11. Vyoie, J. vau VV right; 552 G.
M., I J. ii. Mi-hi Tm. K. M, 11 at per, t*.
M. Maddox; 612 G. M , W. G.
ClaWiey, tuMitiiiua Mcoiuare, 1.
11. Auiah; 610 i. M,, T # I*. Belt,
li. M. lleiouri, J. G. Com Well J 616
G. M., J. H. Maddox, J. J. VV iuou.
J. C. liai ues.
Board ol Education-*W. M. Mai
let, A G Hitchens, J. 1. Goodman,
D. ft. Carmichael, J. M. McMichael.
E. E. Pound C, . C. Office in
Jury Commissioners—H. N. By
ars, T. L. Williams, VV. B. Dozier,
E. J. Ball, T. P. Bsll, A lex Atkin
Justices Court—6ls Dist., R. A,
Woodward, J. P.: J. G, Kimbell.
613 Dist. H. L. Brown, j, P.; H.
C. 1 haXtoli, ft. P,
6U9 lhsi., 'V. A. Waldrop, J. P.;
Steve Moo t. M. P.
552 Hist, 'auies Jolly, J # P. ; J
M. Mauuol i>, P.
612 Lhsi., Howard Ham, J. P.; F.
Z. Cutry, ft. P.
610 Hist, 1\ J. Collins, J. P.; T.
P. Dell, A. P.
616 Diet., c. li. Knowies, J, P.;
J . 1.. Dari.et, IS P.
till Hint., A 11. Ogleiree, J. P.;
VV . *. Hougiap IS P.
CITY lit RECTORY.
Aiayor E. E. Found.
Couiici 1 men—T. J. Lane, J. VV. Car*
nin luicl, l. I*, liudey, i'. Al. Fur low.
Methodist—liev. i. W. Bell, pastor.
Sei vices every onnilav at 11 am., 7
pm. l’ray er meeting every VVcdiics
(1 l \ II lull 1.
lki|>ti>t —Kt'V G. VV. Gardner, pas
tor. oei v n-.es 'Vt\ Sunday al 11 .1
m. <tmi 7 |>. hi i’iayi i 1 nee lug evei v
Turn mi ay 11
i'i mm iv i iuu—ilev. \lr. Pua.r, par*
tor. Services i-,v>v 1 —•* - ‘
bull lay .ii I u.m
-sKCHEI SOCIETIB" 4 -
10 XA. and. -GU-tpie. meet-2nd am.
4,U - miU) lU,e 1,1
1 Al ‘“‘‘‘a 4tli Tuesday
lvru men—2nd ana
nignis m eacli mouth*
WW.Andebson. Frank /
- . M<rjtCX( JL •
ANDE :SOW& C n
A 1 rou> \-eai estate. Offici
Negotiates l° ana jilow store, Jackßou.
op stairs over tb'
Georgia. . a
~~Z. M MILLS,
yfflce iu court house, Jackson, Georgia.
M. V. IMIBBEN,
Attorney at Law,
Dr.Q H. Cantrell.
JACKSON, - - - • GJ.
The only hr* k Hotel between Atlan
ta and Mat - on. Bo,ml$? 00 pei day.
Mt**! Jen MR Wallace Pi op.
deeH 12 m
SOUTHEAST CORNER PUB Lit
sQUARE, J \CKS(>N, GA.
Mrict y fitst-flns< in all respect*.
Give it a Jr al \v ,en you e me to taek
son.' Terms tit* derate Satisfaction
• gua aateed.
Hits. A. .11. JESTER, Prop.
STOP AT THE
i Morrison House.
Le ver ything jvew
Free Sack to Depot.
■fr Giegham, Pi pnet t
IHfi JACftS lJ IS AM&I3S®
ASOTIS TO INQUIRIES
Given by the Georgia Department
FOR THE MONTH OF APRIL.
Some Nwi Riutlni to Forming, Gar*
riming, Dairying, Stock Raising,
Kta., Which Will Bo Interest
ing to lb* Farmers.
Department of Agriculture,
Atlanta, April 1, 1894.
Will you give me a remedy for heaves
in horses? 1 have a mule that 1 think
hae heaves. Only 10 days ago I noticed
her breathing rather hard in plowing.
I have been feeding her on forage corn
and it la a little dirty. I think perhaps
this is the cause aa she has never been
driven hard and it only came on her in
the last few days. What is the cause
of the heaves? W. J. C. t
The heaves or broken wind consist in
the entrance of the air into her natural
or dilated cells of the lungs from which
it cannot be expelled without calling
into play the muscles of the chest. Th*
unchanged air in the lungs being a con
stant source of irritation there is a de
sire to get rid of the surplus causing
two acts of respiration. It is produced
by a severe gallop after a full meal
suddenly or is of slow growth in conse
quence of a neglected chronic cough.
Only as an irritant to a cough could
the forage have aided the development
of the disease.
There is no cure for fhe disease and
the treatment can only be paliative.
The animal should be carefully dieted
and confined t) slow work. BLeding
has been louud beneficial.
PE at BLIGHT.
Recently the pear trees of Liberty
county, hitherto free from all charac
teristics of blight, were suddenly strick
en with the disease. In order to secure
accurate information on tho various dis
eases known as blight, and to have a
competent horticulturist visit the sec
tion, we requested the opinion of Mr.
11. A. Starnes, horticulturist of the Lx
periment station, ou an inquiry on this
subject. We give a portion of bis re
ply, as it is of general interest to all
•blight’ of some kind. His description
is meager, however, and it is impossi
ble without either a personal examina
tion or a fuller description, to pronounce
with any certainty.
j „y(vi know there are three kinds of
* blii’M affecting pears,—Leaf, Twig and
fymotic. 'j e first (leaf blight) is caused
by the purn ure of the byllopyri—an in
sect. The ;ond (twig blight) is also
caused by -n insect—oxylobokus pyri
and, like twig blight, is not usually fa
tal. There ie little, however, in the
way of remedy for either, except annual
trimming and destruction of twigs so
pruned. The third kind (zymotic blight)
is much more serious, and is produced
by a bacterium —micrococens amylo
voius—and being a germ disease is much
more insidious and fatal than either of
the other kinds.
I “lam rather of the opinion that the
1 Liberty county trees are affected by
twig blight—zymotic blight rarely at*
The destruction of fruit and fruit
trees by fungi and other parasites has not
in our state received the attention it
merits. The resultant disease and the
cause where trees are attacked or affect
ed is usually by spraying. To call the
attention of our farmers to this subject
in a recent number of the reports, we
dealt with the subject gently,but as now
is the proper time to use many of the
recipes given, we give the most valua
ble, as found in the handbook of the ex
The various preparations used in the
the treatment of fungous diseases of
plants are as a rule preventive remedies,
and their successful use depends very
largely on early and repeated applica
tions. No fixed rule can be laid down
as to when and how often fungicides
should be used. Many diseases are
greatly checked by drenching and
washing the trees, shrubs or vines
before the buds begin to show,
with a mixture of greater strength than
that given in ordinary formulas For
this purpose formula one and twc given
below may be used in double or tripple
strength. In some cases a second spray
ing should follow the falling of flowers
Rain falling soon after application of
fungicides is likely tc wash them off
In such cases spray again as soon as
possible after the rain. Care mnst be
exercised not to use fungicide solution*
which will injure foliage.
In prepar ng fungicides it must be re
membered that ordinary commercial
chemicals vary in strength. For veg
etables and animal plants in general the
first spraying should be done after the
plant is well up and in vigorous growth
The succeeding sprayings should be
made at intervals of about two weeks
throughout the season.
Particular courses of treatment are re
quired for -Jtne diseases. The spraying
should be thoroughly done so as to reach
the whole plant, but care should be
I taken not to use too much of the fungi
cide. A small quantity thrown over a
JACKSON. GA. THURSDAY, JUNE 14.1894.
plant in the form of a 1 pry fine spray
will do more good than a much greater
amount imperfectly ap .lie 1. A gallon
or a gallon and a half should spray a
tree of average size. The disease must
first be determined and the treatment
fitted to the disease. The indiscriminate
use of fungicides may do more harm
Experience shows that fcordeaux
mixture or ammonical carbonate of
copper solution may be properly used
for numerous diseases. An objection to
bordeaux mixture, especially on fruits,
is that it leaves quite a deposit of solid
material. This may, however, be easily
washed off trom the fruit with a solu
tion of vinegar, 3 quarts to 10 gallons of
water. AU fungicides should be kept
in wooden, glass, or earthenware, never
in iron vessels. Formulas for more
common fungicides with brief directions
for their preparations and use are given
1. Simple Solution of Copper Sulphate:
Copper sulphate (blue vitriol or blue
atone) 1 pound, water (solt) 22 gallons.
Dissolve the copper in the water. This
solution will keep indefinitely. It will
cost about one-fourth of a cent per
gallon. Paris green or London purple
(2 ounces to 22 gallons) may be added
and the mixture may be used as a com
bined insecticide and fungicide.
2. Simple Iron Sulphate Solution: Iron
sulphate (copperas) 5 pounds, sort water
22 gallons. Dissolve the copperas and
use at once. It costs about oue-half cent
per gallon. Insecticides may be com
bined with this fungicide.
8. Bordeaux Mixture: Copper sulphate
(blue vitrol), 6 pounds; unslaked lime, 4
pounds; water. 22 gallons. Dissolve
the copper in 16 gallons of water And
slack tne lime in the other 6. Stir the
lime well and strain the thin whitewash
into copper solution, stirring it well.
Always observe this order or prepara
tion, as it is said to spoil the nnxaire if
the copper be poured into the lime.
Keep well stirred and use at once. The
tendency this mixture has to fill up the
nozzle of the sprayer is its greatest
drawback. Paris green or London pur
ple (2 ounces to 22 gallons) may be com
bined with this fungicide. It costs about
1 1-3 cents per gallon. In another ior
inula 4 instead of 6 pounds ol copper
sulpuate is used with about as good re
4. Eau Celeste: Copper sulphate, 1
pound; ammonia (22 w ) 1 1-2 pints; water,
4*322 galio :s7
This costs about 1 cent p*r gallon. In
secticides cannot be used with th.s.
7. Ammonical Copper Carbonate
Compound: Copper carbonate, a
ounces; ammonia carbonate, 1 pound;
water 50 gallons. Dissolve copper and
ammonia carbonate in a half gallon of
hot water. Dilute to 50 gallons and use
at once. Insecticides cannot be used
with this. Cost of this mixture about
1-2 cent per gallon.
Another formula for this solution is
as follows: Copper carbonate, 3 ounces;
ammonia (22°), 1 quart; water, 22 gxl
lons. Dissolve copper in the water, add
ammonia and use at once.
A third formula is copper carbonate,
1 ounce ammonia, carbo late 6 ounces.
Powder and mix thoroughly. This may
be kept in a dry state in airtight vessels
for any length of time. When needed
for use dissolve in 10 gallons of water
ami u<*e at once.
A fourth formula which is said to be
equal to any of the others and a little
cheaper, but which has not been tested
as much as the others is copper sul
phate one-half pound, ammonia car
bonate l pound, water 62 gallons. The
ammonia carbonate should be hard and
transparent, otherwise 1 and a quarter
pounds will be needed. Dissolve it in a
pail of hot water. When foaming ceases
add copper and stir as long as there is
any foaming. Dilute to 62 gallons and
use at once.
These four formulas are practically
the aame. or nearly so. and the solution
formed is one of the most valuable w ; h
which to combat plant diseases. With
out the objectionable feature of the bor
deaux mixture it probably ranks next to
that inefficiency. However, insecticides
cannot be used with any of these as they
can with the bordeaux mixture.
In none of the solutions containing
ammonia or carbonates in any form
should Paris green or London purple
ever be used, unless a quantity of lime
is added as the chemical compounds
then formed are injurious to foliage.
Please give me some of your ideas as
to cotton planting. How to prepare,
how tc cultivate, whether shallow or
deep when to plant, etc.
I. B. N.. Bolinghroke.
Deep and thorough prep irat on o:’ the
soil and a thorough pulveriz tion are
the first essentials to successful cotton
planting. Next in order is putting in
the seed. This should be done with a
cotton planter to secure uniformity to
facilitate subsequent chopping. It also
■area waste of seed, the value of which
as a fertilizer and a food cannot be too
highly appreciated. The first plowing
may he as deep and thorough as possi
ble, but all subsequent workings should
be aa shallow aa the character of the
land will permit. The implements
I ordinarily need are the scooter,
scrape, the solid and buzzard
wing sweeps, the side harrow
and numerous cultivators. After
heavy rains the toil should be stirred
and during a drought a shallow imple-
ment run just deep enongh to break the
community of the pores of the soil and
to form an upper layer. Grass should
never be permitted, if possible to pre
vent.to take possession of the field. The
us a of the hoe is expensive and in cotton
culture, as well as in other crops, it
should be used as little as possible. The
root system of the cotton plant, as well
as experience, testifies that shallow cul
tivation should be the rule with this
plant, and through a large series of ex
periments conducteed at the various
experiment farms, only on exceptional
occasions was deep cultivation given as
good results as shallow culture. The
time to plant will depend somewhat on
the character of the soil, which should
be warm enongh to germinate the seed
usually in April. When late planting
is necessary the seed should be covered
rather deeply and lig nlv rolled to se
cure more rapid germination.
DISTANCE TO GIVI. COTTON.
What is the proper distance to give
cotton? H. A. M., Tricku n.
Mr. David Dickson, Georgia’s great
cotton planter, was of the opinion that
cotton needed distance oily one way. If
the rows were wide, it ould be crowded
in the drill and vice versa. No uni
versal rule, however, can be given and
much depends upon the fertility of the
soil and the rain supply. Thin planting
can better withstand a drought. On
fairly rich land properly fertilized rows
four feet apart with plants from one to
two feet is about the proper distance.
When great distance is given early
planting is desirable, as the crop on ac
count of the large weed w.ll fruit later
in the season and therefore be more sub
ject to damage from frost. The distance
Will also on this account be found to
govern largely the yield from different
pickings. When the planting is thick
the yitld from the first pickings will 09
heavy and the late while the re
verse is true when the planting is thin.
What does mu k or swamp litter con
tain ? How should it be used ?
J. A. 8., Monroe.
Muck contains small percentages of
nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash. It
varies very greatly, but always contains
a large per cent of organic matter. It
does well composted and alone is a
benefit to land.
Please tell me how to plant alfalfa, or
lucerne. Wnat k.nd of soil is best, etc.
Is it a legumini? , N. G. F..'
ii.e clover ana peas, the power of
collecting nitrogen from the air. It has
the power of withstanding the drou’hs
much better than common clover, and
for that reason is especially adapted to
dry climates. It flourishes best on a
light sandy or loamy soil, with a subsoil
through which its long taproot can pen
etrate. Once a stand is secured the
character of the subsoil is of more im
portance than the surface soil.
Thorough preparation should precede
sowing. We pre er sowing in the drill,
which requires about 15 pounds of seed;
sown broadcast, twenty pounds is nec
(ss try. While in the north spring seed
ing is advisable, in our climate the fill
is preferable, though spring sown will,
under favorable circumstances, do well.
What is your opinion of burr clover
and what is the proper time to plant?
H. T. L , Hampton.
Individually we have had no experi
ence sufficient to form an accurate judg
ment of the merits of the plant. Tne
following from The Southern Cultivator
gives the esteem in which it is held by
Burr clover is a native of the Medi
terranean region, which has been natu
ralized in most warm climates. Lis
widely distributed in California, where
it is considered of great value. It was
first introduced into the southern states
by the late Bishop George F. Pierce in
1867, and planted at his home in Han-
cock county, Ga. In Mississippi it has
been grown by Mr Edwin C. Reed, of
Meridian, who states that it is all that
could be desired as a Winter an 1 spring
pasture. With stock it is an acquired
taste, and they will not eat it when
more palatable plants am offered. It is
a good renovator, and while an annual,
r seeds itself, if not pastured too late
and too close. The burs make it very
objectionable as a pasture for sheep. To
sow, prepare as for common clover, and
6ow 20 pounds of clover seed to the acre
early in the autumn.
GRASS FOR SOMMER PASTURE.
Wiiat grasses do you consider best for
summer pasture: 1
L. I. N., Hamilton county.
We consider B rmuda and crab grass
the best for summer pasture. The for
mer makes an excellent, pi rmanent sum
mer pasture. It has been treated by
many as a pest, but sho il l not be so re
garded, and none should be debarred
from plant ng it for this reason. In the
Commissioner’s report for last month an
easy method of destroying it is given.
POTASH FOR COTTON.
What is the best form of potash to
use for cotton? A. L R.. Franklm.
The work of the Experiment Station
and experience shows no superiority for
either of the three forms of potash used,
sulphate, muriate and kainit, and there
fore the matter of price should he the
governing factor. There are those who
contend, not without reason, that where
a email per cent of potash is to he used,
kainit is the best form, as-It conserves
moisture and can be more easily dia
GEORGIA EXPERIMENT STATION, EX
PE Rill ENT, GA.
The station publishes a bulletin ol
results once a quarter and sometime*
oftener. These bulletins w.ll be sent
free to any farmer in Georgia actively
engaged in farming (wh.ch include*
gardening, fruit culture, dairying, etc.)
who will request them. Drop a postal
card to the director, giving your name,
postolfice and county, plainly written.
A Little More About Cow peas.
(By Director, R. J. Redding.)
In Pres* Bulletin No 7. published in
April, a typo >Taphical error made me
say. “It is "ffecidedly the most profi
table disposition of the crop to gath
er the ripe peas.” It should have been
‘‘lt is decidedly the most profitable to
convert the pea vines into hay; and that
the next most profitable disposition oi
the crop is to gatuer the ripe peas.”
The context, however, agrees with this
correction, and I would hardly notice
it but for the fact that it was intended
to refer to the subject in this bulletin
in order to still further impress the re
sults of the experiments in Bulletin
No 24. The conclusions reached aa the
result of that experiment are here re
1. That the best disposition of a crop
of field peas is to convert the vines into
2. The next best is to permit the
peas to ripen and gather them (Or pas
3. Mowing the vines and permitting
them to lie on the surfa e until No
vember Ist, and then plowing them un
der, was decidedly belter than turning
under the vines in August.
4. Turning the vines under green
gave the poorest economic results.
(On request, copies of Bulletin
No. 24, which contains the full details
of the experiment, will be sent free, to
any farmer.) As the season is at hand
for sowing cowpeas, especially after
small grain, I wish to press the sub
ject still farther. The following ex
tracts are from Farmer’s Bulletin No.
16, United States Department of Agri
•‘lt wi’l thus be seen that by green manuring
w:t ■ 1 "t miaous cro"S It is possible toman ir
the so.l wil l nit.o ten from tie air a uei and
inexuaustable so ree, and thus avoid buying for
tiiizcrs contairiig muc ini ro e.i. This ~reatl
y lessens the expe se for ,o nmerclal fertili
zers. for nitrogen is tta -most expensive e'emen!
t ie farmer as to buy. A stated a ove, it ,osts
from 1 1 to .0 ents a pound w i e potash and
p ospnerie acid iost only sto 7 emts on even
less. Although grains grasses, oorn cotton,
root crops, tobacco, etr. . can not us .t the nitro
gen of t.ie air. green manuring enables them to
beneiit by it indirectly * * * *
Experiments have shown that cowneas re
spond readily to applications of po ash and
phosphates and are ale to derive the .r nitro
tgen very largely from the air. Inasmuch as
cowpeas are large gat.oerers of nitrogen, and al
iso secure considerable amounts of potash and
' phosphoric acid through their extensive root
;system wnich readies down to the subsoil,
' tliey have a nigh fertilizing valne. How ,og)t
tt ie gve -.lest benefit from the fertilizing c„n
st.tuents of cowpeas 's one of the problems on
w .kh the eeperim- m stations are working.
If the cowpeas are nl >wed in ler in the fail and
t o grounu left oare until s n-ing a large s.iare
af nitro . en will te leac, eia-a •. By sow
ring the wiatnr tne nitrogen is mpmijrioscl
mane pu-imentat the station in Alabama it
was o .ud vines pataered in October had
from 1.45 to 20: p;rc -nt. gf nltrogrn, while if
loft on * 'e gro nd until January they had only
abo.u 007 percent., i. e , thoy lost two-thirds of
their most valuaole fertilizing ingredient.
Exoeriments at the Louisiana station show
that one acre of cow/ieas, yielding 3,879.38
of organic matter, turned under, gave to tne
soil 64.05 pounds of nitrogen, 20.39 pounds of
paosphris acid and 110 v 6 pounds of po asa. of
wnion at least 6.01 pounds of nitrogen. 4.43
pounds of phosphoric a. id. and 18.1 pounds of
potasa were furaisued by the roots. Analysis
made at tns beat a Caro ina statioh show that
cowpea nay contains 14: per cent, of potash,
0..6 p' r cent of phosp ions acid, and 171 per
cent o. nitrogen. Cowpea roots contained riS
per cent, of potash. 0.28 p r cent ef potash, 021
per cent, of puosphoric acid and 0.04 per cent,
of nitrogen; tne roots and stubble, two months
after me crop was ..arvested, eootained 0.3 per
cent, of potash, .2£ per cent, of phosp uric acid,
and 1.38 per cent of nitro ;en. Exper. mints
e.sewhere s towed tuat tue vines from a given
area weighed six times as m :ch as tne roots,
and were 8% times as vaiaac-e Cor manure.
Cowpeas and melilotus hare given good re
sults as green manure on the canebra.ee lands oi
Alabama. • Before the land was sowed in meli
lotus and cowpeas it was! not considered worth
cultivating. T.ns season (18J)> it produced as
fine a crop as tne be9t lands of tne station
I wish to urge-upon every farmer to
sow cowpeas in every cornfield, and on
all land that may be available between
this date and July 1, and which is to be
planted in corn, cotton or small grain.
In the North and in England the prac
tice is to sow wheat and other small
grain on a “clover sod,” as many ex
press it; that is, after a crop of clover.
In the south we may just as well sow
small grain after a crop of cow peas.
In this case it is advisable to sow peas
in corn at the last plowing, pasture
them off when ripe (or gather the peas;
turn under the stubble. in September
and sow the small grain in October and
November. Where the peas are sown
in oat or wheat stubble, and it is not
desired to sow in wheat or oats again,
but rather to plant in cotton next
season, a good practice is to convert
the peavines into hay, immediately
turn under the stubble and harrow In
two to four pecks of Georgia rye per
acre. The rye will et once commence
to feed on the decaying peavines and
other plant food left in the soil, and
will hold it until January or February
when the rye may be turned under in
preparation for corn or cotton. ,
On the Great Freeze of March 86th, 1894.
(By Hrg’i N. Starnes, Horticulturist.)
A great deal of unnecessary anxiety
and disquietude has been occasioned by
the unprecedented cold snap of March
26th and 27th last, by reason of the fact
that there were no recorded data of
any similar previous catastrophe which
could be used as a basis for comparison.
Only our older citizens can recall the
great freeze of April 16-20, 1849, which
is said to have approximated, in its
general features, the late blizzard;
and, furthermore, such recollections,
except in rare instances, are extremely
vatrue and unsatisfactory.
Therefore a few notes now, that may
be placed permanently on record, in
view of any future recurrence of the
recent phenomenon, may not prove
The winter had been unusually mild
—so open, in fact, that certain peach
trees (Japan Blood) had bloomed in
January, and were even in leaf as early
as February 20th. All vegetation had
started; leaves on poplars as large as
squirrel ears; oaks in full bloom and
leafing out nicely. Fruit trees -that
is, peaqhes and peara principally Ori
ental varieties of the latter, a? Garber..
Keiffer and LeConte -were in leaf and
flower. Figs had set both young fruit
and leaves. Apples had not blossomed:
strawberries, however, were in full
bloom: but blackberries and raspber
ries had only started buds. Grapes
were putting out freely, a large crop
bavin? set. Peaches were ae targe as
buckshot or sparrow -gfH _
On Sunday. March 25th, the weathei
was warm minimum temperature 43
degrees —culminating in a shower (.48
inch) in afternoon. After the shower
it became perceptibly eolder, the wind
rising at the same time (N. W.); but
not until 9 p. m. was there any indica
tion of the terrible freeze that followed.
Monday morning everything was
frozen hard and fast; ice in shallow
vessels several inches thick—one inch
on barrels; mercury 21 degs. During
the day a maximum of 8 7 deg. was
reached, but did not thaw in shade.
Next da3 T ANARUS, Tuesday, mercury fell to 19
deg. with a maximum of 44 deg. Wed
nesday, mercury 29 deg.; maximum 57
deg. Light rain of .02 inch. Thursday
minimum was 36 deg. and thaw com
plete. This ended the blizzard.
At first these were terrible to con
template; hope sank oj even a partial
realization of the apparent damage.
Everything in the way of vegetation
appeared utterly destroyed. Leaves
hung wilted like wet rags from every
limb, and recuperation seemed impossi
After the first few days things ap
peared even worse, if possible, than at
the first examination, and the damage
was apparently much more disastrous
than originally apprehended. This
state of affairs lasted well into April.
Day after day passed, and no recupera
tion was visible. Of course the fruit
crop was at once given up as lost, and
the public would have gladly compro
mised on a guaranty that the trees
themselves were intact. Grave fcai - s
were eutertained for the very existence
of the forests, and dismay reigned
everywhere for weeks.
Gradually, however, a change became
apparent, more and more manifest as
the time passed, and courage again re
vived. Rains occurred on the 4th, 10th,
and 19th, of April, followed by heavy
fales of wind, especially after the rain
all of the 19th, (.84 inch) after which
no rain fell until May 14th, the severe
winds and protracted drouth greatly
retarding the advancement of vegeta
tion, and exaggerating the adverse con
ditions to the utmost. Nevertheless
revival was steady and progressive.
Separate notes are appended on the
different divisions of vegetation as
changes became apparent from the
first disaster to the middle of May, by
which time the full effects of the freeze
were judged to be manifest.
March 27th, every leaf parched as
a sirocco. Catkins and the pendent
blossoms of the different oaks remained
stiff ar.d stark, blown like tresses to
wards the southeast, while soft and
pliable, and frozen in thi3 position
For weeks, until they dropped off, they
they remained pointing stiffly south
By the middle of April no change
was observable in any trees that had
leafed before the freeze: late leafing
varieties puttingout feeblj 7 meanwhile.
By May Ist, many had recovered, but
certain post oaks, red oaks and black
ogliks were still unresnonsive. By May
with here and there a post oak, appear
to have been seriously cheeked. Many
of these have been permanently crip
pled, but none killed outright, unless
they succumb later in the season.
Certain hickories and persimmons
have been also hurt, and black gums
slightly so. Damage to forests is there
fore practically very slight. Another
year will probably hide it all, although
considerable topping and cutting in
may prove advisable in groves.
ORNAMENTAL TREES AND 9IIRUBS.
These naturally suffered more than
their more hardy brethren of the for
est. A fine avenue of Balm of
Gilead, averaging eight feut, set
out in January and in full leaf,
was either killed outright or so badly
injured as to necessitate removal.
So with an avenue of Lombardy Pop
lars—the latter not hurt so badly, per
haps, though equally as tlvanced. An
aveuue of young European White
Birch, though in nearly full leaf, was
not materially hurt. Young Sycamores
badly hurt; Weeping Willows killed to
the root; Weeping Birch (Betula alba
laoiniata) also seriously, if not per
manently injured. Maples of all vari
eties unhurt. Umbrella Chinas killed
back to the main trunk, necessitating
topping and close trimming. Prunus
Pissaraii (red leafed Japan plum) shows
the most remarkable recovery; these
were in full leaf and apparently killed
to the roots. The alburnum perfectly
black and recovery apparently an im
possibility. Yet in three weeks they
were looking as well as ever. Th:s
shows that the commonly received im
pression that the tree is doomed when
the alburnum turns black, is a popular
Privet hedges appeared killed to the
main trunk, but after trimming put
out again, and now seem little the
worse. So also with Marianna plum
hedges. Euonjmus, however, has been
very seriously injured; probably cut
ting it down to the root will still prove
the wisest treatment.
Roses at first appeared gone, but
their recovery is almost complete. Lit
tle damage appears done them except
the loss of this spring's flowers. They
are now (May Jsth) looking quite nice
Peaches—No old trees, except those
budded on Marianna stock have been
permanently injured. Many young
trees just planted have been killed or
injured. For instance, Lady Ingol 1
was killed outright; Spottswood badly
injured; Elberta and Pineapple less so,
and Oldmixon Free not at all. Among
the old trees Reeves’ Favorite seems to
be the tenderest, and the slowest to re
cover. But one peach in the entire or
chard of the Experiment Station sur
vived the cold a Crawford’s Early.
Pears —Oriental varieties suffered
most—Kieffer worst of all. an entire
avenue being so badly injured as to
neessitate removal. Garber followed,
then LeConte. All looked at first as
though recovery was impossible; al
burnum black almost to the ground;
but on May loth the loss looks as if it
would be confined to the removal next
fall of very few if any in the plat, out
side of Kieffers, and the injury to the
remainder will be less than half a sea
Apples -At first these appeared un
injured, not having bloomed, and af
terwards set a normal crop of fruit
which, however, commenced to droj
about May Ist, and now the prospect
ire that a verv small fraction of tht
crop will be saved, probably not 10 pe;
cent. Trees themselves uninjured.
Plums and Cherries —Uninjured ex
;ept fruit, which is all killed sav
Wild Goose. This appears to have s,
about 50 per cent, of a erop, but
tow dropping badly and seems ui
usually affected by curculio.
Quin ; ; sa -Their recovery is notice
ablai At first looked as if killed to the
root, but soon revived, and will not
lose half a season's growth, if so much.
Figs—Also appeared killed to tint
root, and in many cases are so. Ex
traordinary recovery, however, ia
manifested by some varieties, notably
Brown Turkey and Celestial, which ara
budding out again clear to the top.
The old wood, nevertheless, had bel
ter be cut away, and will never pay
for itself if allowed to remain, whereas
a clean, vigorous growth will result
from the use of the saw.
Appeared at first to be permanently
injured, and their condition and ap
pearauee probably created more dis
may thau did the damage to any othei
crop. And not without reason, foi
they are indeed seriously hurt, the loss
amounting to an entire year's rowtb
in many cases. The crop from the new
shoots putting out since the freeze will
probably average 20 per cent in this
vicinity some reporting as high as 51
per cent, others as low as 10 per cent-.
All varieties of Aestivalis were injures
much less than other species, except
Rotundifoliae, of which class old Scup
pernongs, in full leaf at the time of the
freeze, appear to have escaped almost
intaet, though younger vines suffered
in proportion to their age. Labrusca.'
and their hybrids were the worst suf
Young vineyards were badly killed;
probably 10 per cent a total loss, and
the damage in growth for this season
50 per cent.
Had set tlieir crop and were in
line condition. Ail of t e first
erop was of course killed, but ths
plants recovered beautifully and set
probably Oo per cent of a full crop.
This was reduced to about 15 per cent
by the unprecedentedly dry season
at first appeared badly injured. Earliei
sorts, as Early Ha-vest, were proba
bly 50 per cent. Later varieties not in
jured so badly, though setting a light
Spring oats damaged 50 per cant:
Fall oats, almost in the boot at time oi
freeze, damaged 75 per cent; large
areas, in places where most rank, wer
killed to the ground. Rye (some five
feet high, and heading) was killed out
right and plowed under. Corn, coming
up, was mostly killed and had to be re J
Tomatoes killed outright, also beans.
English peas badly damaged, but ii
undisturbed produced a fourth of h
crop. Cabbage (Burpee's World Beat
er) were so damaged (apparently) that
the entire plat except five plants, was
replanted. These plants recovered and
are by far the finest in the row; all
would probably have done equally at;
well if allowed to remain. This is
quite a test of the hardihood of the
cabbage. Salsify was badly killed.
Onions had tops killed, but otherwise
unhurt, and have sinee entirely recov
ered and are now doing finely.
beinginterpreted, is “keep a stiff
liD.” First impressions will always be
found worse than tne reality in pheno
mena of this kind. Hereafter we can
regard such an occurrence with much
more equanimity than we at first did
.the big blizzard of March 26th, 1894.
' Answers to Inquiries.
[Under this head short inquiries
from farmers on practical farm topic*
.will be answed by one of the station
staff and published, if of general in
terest, otherwise the answers will be
sent by mail. Make your inquiries
6hort and to the point, always give
your name and postoffice, and addressed
to the “Director Georgia Experiment
Station, Experiment, Ga.’’J
C. G. N., Augusta. Ga.; I am satisfied that
many farmers, including myself, would like to
knoww 'at crops are produced on the Experi
ment Farm how much to the acre, eto. You
will please oblige me and others by answering
the followin r questions;
1. Waat were tne leading crops grown on thl
farm last year, the area in each, and the yield
> 2. Also state the kind and cost of the fertlllx
ers used to make the crops?
3. W.iatkindof farming implements are used
on the farm?
4. What is done with the proceeds of ths
5. Do the station officers get the benefit of ths
fruits vegetables, dairy products, etc., pro
duced cn t,.e farm?
Answer by Director Redding : lam
glad you ask the above questions, as it
might appeir boastful to volunteer the
information. < I.)The following is taken
from the Director's quarterly report to
t Hoard of Directors, at their mast
ing November last.
Acres. 'a^? 3 * Total Yield,
Corn 19 27.3 bush. Sl* bush.
Cotton 10 14-5 bales 14 bales.
Oats 10 50 busn. 500 buata.
Rye 1 (seedj 11 bush. 11 bush
S. potatoes... 11-5 2 0 ush. S6i bush.
Sunflower seed 1 5 35 bush. 7 hush.
Cowpsas iseed) ... 60 bush.
Tobacco .8 500 lbs. 4 000 lbs.
Fnsilage fsilo) 5 1,500 lbs. 75 no lbs.
Corn fodder 11 00) lbs.
Hav (pea aud. crab grass) 26.7 H lbs.
(T .ere v ere also produced small quantities oi
peanuts, ehufas, ri.e, etc.)
Acres Y Acre rer Total.
Blackberries M 2 B.oro qts. 2 r oqts.
Straw erries V% 1 o>o qts. 50 qts.
Turnips >4 100 cusb. 60 bush,
There were also produced a good crop ol
graces. The peach and aop.e crop was a .a 1 ire.
[B 3„ause of the long illness and death of Hor
ticulturist Speth which covered the planting
seasoi in the spring, and the late date on which
the p risen: horticulturist tookchar fe %, no spring
vegetable crops were planted. 1
2. We buy the -‘raw material''—acid phos
phate, lainit. muriate of potash, nitrate ol
soda, cotton seed meal, ete., and compound our
fertili. ers according to our own formulas, ap
plying from 4 .0 to ■">< 0 pounds ner acre on cotton,
oats and vegetables, costing 84 to Id per acre.
Cotton seed meal, acid phosphate and stabls
manure compost are use J on corn. Acid phoa
phate and potash are applied to peas, about 2 6
pounds of the former and 25 pounds of murate
of potash, per acre, costing about 82. No ma
niou a’ed brands, whatever, are used.
3 One and two horse plows, sutsoilers; cuta
way, spading and smoothing harrows; 'aid
rollers aLd clod crus ers: several different
kin Is of cultivators, m in y the P a et, Jr.
4. Tne si rp us r.-ot required for the use of the
farm is solu in market and the proceeds are
used for expenses, repairs ad improvements.
5 The station o“flcers oay .or all vegetables,
fruits, dairy products and fuel consumed by
them at fixed j ri-.es ana for horse board.
H. N. C.. Augusta, Ga ; -I received a few copies
of bulletins from you about a year ago and they
have been v orta a creat deal to me. I planted
twoacreof Pumpkin yam potatoes according
to the su_'gestio s in one of tne bulletins and 1
made 300 busaeis o: potatoes to the acre wneie
I had made only 75 ous.iels before with stable
manure, and tney were nicet potatoes and cost
The mulberry is cultivated by cut
tings of the mature wood or the roots,
by root and crow grafting and by bud
ding with dormant buds in the spring.
The advantages and resources of the
south are attracting the attention of
the world at present. The number of
inquir es is increasing daily, and with
out question the influx of settlers here
will be largely augmented within the
next few days.