The Jackson argus. (Jackson, Ga.) 189?-1915, June 14, 1894, Image 1
Aid. HOME PRINT. VOL XXII GwIUS l Y D\ uEClUKY. Uiiiui.ll3 —J. I*. Carmichael. tS.ieiill— 1, f). lit auchhiup. Depu y \V . CiawturU. tsarv* \t*r — ti. -J. Jinks. 1 rt-a-uiei —i. L. Williams. 1 ax. CoUt-cioi —T. j. Cole, lax Beet ivei--u. h Carter. Cormier —feiuitjn llaruy. G.tik Superior Court—Joe Jolly ; court 3rd Moudaya ju Feoruaiy ano August. ltoau Coiuinubioners —615 G. M. J. L, liaikley, H. G. As iury, T. U, VV oouwaru ; 013 G. M ,J, M. Ball. J, E. Hale, j. \V Fietciier; 609 G. M., J. VV . Min tei, J. L.. Pye, B. K. >1 ii 1111 j 614 G. M., J. W. Holoway, J. 11. Vyoie, J. vau VV right; 552 G. M., I J. ii. Mi-hi Tm. K. M, 11 at per, t*. M. Maddox; 612 G. M , W. G. ClaWiey, tuMitiiiua Mcoiuare, 1. 11. Auiah; 610 i. M,, T # I*. Belt, li. M. lleiouri, J. G. Com Well J 616 G. M., J. H. Maddox, J. J. VV iuou. J. C. liai ues. Board ol Education-*W. M. Mai let, A G Hitchens, J. 1. Goodman, D. ft. Carmichael, J. M. McMichael. E. E. Pound C, . C. Office in court house. Jury Commissioners—H. N. By ars, T. L. Williams, VV. B. Dozier, E. J. Ball, T. P. Bsll, A lex Atkin son. Justices Court—6ls Dist., R. A, Woodward, J. P.: J. G, Kimbell. M. P. 613 Dist. H. L. Brown, j, P.; H. C. 1 haXtoli, ft. P, 6U9 lhsi., 'V. A. Waldrop, J. P.; Steve Moo t. M. P. 552 Hist, 'auies Jolly, J # P. ; J M. Mauuol i>, P. 612 Lhsi., Howard Ham, J. P.; F. Z. Cutry, ft. P. 610 Hist, 1\ J. Collins, J. P.; T. P. Dell, A. P. 616 Diet., c. li. Knowies, J, P.; J . 1.. Dari.et, IS P. till Hint., A 11. Ogleiree, J. P.; VV . *. Hougiap IS P. CITY lit RECTORY. Aiayor E. E. Found. Couiici 1 men—T. J. Lane, J. VV. Car* nin luicl, l. I*, liudey, i'. Al. Fur low. CHUIICUES. Methodist—liev. i. W. Bell, pastor. Sei vices every onnilav at 11 am., 7 pm. l’ray er meeting every VVcdiics (1 l \ II lull 1. lki|>ti>t —Kt'V G. VV. Gardner, pas tor. oei v n-.es 'Vt\ Sunday al 11 .1 m. <tmi 7 |>. hi i’iayi i 1 nee lug evei v Turn mi ay 11 i'i mm iv i iuu—ilev. \lr. Pua.r, par* tor. Services i-,v>v 1 —•* - ‘ bull lay .ii I u.m -sKCHEI SOCIETIB" 4 - 10 XA. and. -GU-tpie. meet-2nd am. 4,U - miU) lU,e 1,1 1 Al ‘“‘‘‘a 4tli Tuesday lvru men—2nd ana nignis m eacli mouth* PIiOFiSSStOMAI. CAHBB* WW.Andebson. Frank / - . M<rjtCX( JL • ANDE :SOW& C n A 1 rou> \-eai estate. Offici Negotiates l° ana jilow store, Jackßou. op stairs over tb' Georgia. . a ~~Z. M MILLS, ATTORNEY ATLAW. yfflce iu court house, Jackson, Georgia. M. V. IMIBBEN, Attorney at Law, JACKSON, GEORGIA. Dr.Q H. Cantrell. DENTIST, Jackson, Georgia. CLEVELAND HOUSE. JACKSON, - - - • GJ. The only hr* k Hotel between Atlan ta and Mat - on. Bo,ml$? 00 pei day. Mt**! Jen MR Wallace Pi op. deeH 12 m DEMPSEY HOUSE. SOUTHEAST CORNER PUB Lit sQUARE, J \CKS(>N, GA. Mrict y fitst-flns< in all respect*. Give it a Jr al \v ,en you e me to taek son.' Terms tit* derate Satisfaction • gua aateed. Hits. A. .11. JESTER, Prop. >lecl4-3m STOP AT THE i Morrison House. Le ver ything jvew mjfixst- class. Wbnveniently Located. Free Sack to Depot. ■fr Giegham, Pi pnet t IHfi JACftS lJ IS AM&I3S® ASOTIS TO INQUIRIES Given by the Georgia Department of Agricnltnre FOR THE MONTH OF APRIL. Some Nwi Riutlni to Forming, Gar* riming, Dairying, Stock Raising, Kta., Which Will Bo Interest ing to lb* Farmers. Department of Agriculture, Atlanta, April 1, 1894. WIND BROKEN. Will you give me a remedy for heaves in horses? 1 have a mule that 1 think hae heaves. Only 10 days ago I noticed her breathing rather hard in plowing. I have been feeding her on forage corn and it la a little dirty. I think perhaps this is the cause aa she has never been driven hard and it only came on her in the last few days. What is the cause of the heaves? W. J. C. t Social Circle. The heaves or broken wind consist in the entrance of the air into her natural or dilated cells of the lungs from which it cannot be expelled without calling into play the muscles of the chest. Th* unchanged air in the lungs being a con stant source of irritation there is a de sire to get rid of the surplus causing two acts of respiration. It is produced by a severe gallop after a full meal suddenly or is of slow growth in conse quence of a neglected chronic cough. Only as an irritant to a cough could the forage have aided the development of the disease. There is no cure for fhe disease and the treatment can only be paliative. The animal should be carefully dieted and confined t) slow work. BLeding has been louud beneficial. PE at BLIGHT. Recently the pear trees of Liberty county, hitherto free from all charac teristics of blight, were suddenly strick en with the disease. In order to secure accurate information on tho various dis eases known as blight, and to have a competent horticulturist visit the sec tion, we requested the opinion of Mr. 11. A. Starnes, horticulturist of the Lx periment station, ou an inquiry on this subject. We give a portion of bis re ply, as it is of general interest to all fruit growers: •blight’ of some kind. His description is meager, however, and it is impossi ble without either a personal examina tion or a fuller description, to pronounce with any certainty. j „y(vi know there are three kinds of * blii’M affecting pears,—Leaf, Twig and fymotic. 'j e first (leaf blight) is caused by the purn ure of the byllopyri—an in sect. The ;ond (twig blight) is also caused by -n insect—oxylobokus pyri and, like twig blight, is not usually fa tal. There ie little, however, in the way of remedy for either, except annual trimming and destruction of twigs so pruned. The third kind (zymotic blight) is much more serious, and is produced by a bacterium —micrococens amylo voius—and being a germ disease is much more insidious and fatal than either of the other kinds. I “lam rather of the opinion that the 1 Liberty county trees are affected by twig blight—zymotic blight rarely at* tacking LeContes.” FUNGICIDES. The destruction of fruit and fruit trees by fungi and other parasites has not in our state received the attention it merits. The resultant disease and the cause where trees are attacked or affect ed is usually by spraying. To call the attention of our farmers to this subject in a recent number of the reports, we dealt with the subject gently,but as now is the proper time to use many of the recipes given, we give the most valua ble, as found in the handbook of the ex periment station. The various preparations used in the the treatment of fungous diseases of plants are as a rule preventive remedies, and their successful use depends very largely on early and repeated applica tions. No fixed rule can be laid down as to when and how often fungicides should be used. Many diseases are greatly checked by drenching and washing the trees, shrubs or vines before the buds begin to show, with a mixture of greater strength than that given in ordinary formulas For this purpose formula one and twc given below may be used in double or tripple strength. In some cases a second spray ing should follow the falling of flowers Rain falling soon after application of fungicides is likely tc wash them off In such cases spray again as soon as possible after the rain. Care mnst be exercised not to use fungicide solution* which will injure foliage. In prepar ng fungicides it must be re membered that ordinary commercial chemicals vary in strength. For veg etables and animal plants in general the first spraying should be done after the plant is well up and in vigorous growth The succeeding sprayings should be made at intervals of about two weeks throughout the season. Particular courses of treatment are re quired for -Jtne diseases. The spraying should be thoroughly done so as to reach the whole plant, but care should be I taken not to use too much of the fungi cide. A small quantity thrown over a JACKSON. GA. THURSDAY, JUNE 14.1894. plant in the form of a 1 pry fine spray will do more good than a much greater amount imperfectly ap .lie 1. A gallon or a gallon and a half should spray a tree of average size. The disease must first be determined and the treatment fitted to the disease. The indiscriminate use of fungicides may do more harm than good. Experience shows that fcordeaux mixture or ammonical carbonate of copper solution may be properly used for numerous diseases. An objection to bordeaux mixture, especially on fruits, is that it leaves quite a deposit of solid material. This may, however, be easily washed off trom the fruit with a solu tion of vinegar, 3 quarts to 10 gallons of water. AU fungicides should be kept in wooden, glass, or earthenware, never in iron vessels. Formulas for more common fungicides with brief directions for their preparations and use are given below: 1. Simple Solution of Copper Sulphate: Copper sulphate (blue vitriol or blue atone) 1 pound, water (solt) 22 gallons. Dissolve the copper in the water. This solution will keep indefinitely. It will cost about one-fourth of a cent per gallon. Paris green or London purple (2 ounces to 22 gallons) may be added and the mixture may be used as a com bined insecticide and fungicide. 2. Simple Iron Sulphate Solution: Iron sulphate (copperas) 5 pounds, sort water 22 gallons. Dissolve the copperas and use at once. It costs about oue-half cent per gallon. Insecticides may be com bined with this fungicide. 8. Bordeaux Mixture: Copper sulphate (blue vitrol), 6 pounds; unslaked lime, 4 pounds; water. 22 gallons. Dissolve the copper in 16 gallons of water And slack tne lime in the other 6. Stir the lime well and strain the thin whitewash into copper solution, stirring it well. Always observe this order or prepara tion, as it is said to spoil the nnxaire if the copper be poured into the lime. Keep well stirred and use at once. The tendency this mixture has to fill up the nozzle of the sprayer is its greatest drawback. Paris green or London pur ple (2 ounces to 22 gallons) may be com bined with this fungicide. It costs about 1 1-3 cents per gallon. In another ior inula 4 instead of 6 pounds ol copper sulpuate is used with about as good re sults. 4. Eau Celeste: Copper sulphate, 1 pound; ammonia (22 w ) 1 1-2 pints; water, 4*322 galio :s7 This costs about 1 cent p*r gallon. In secticides cannot be used with th.s. 7. Ammonical Copper Carbonate Compound: Copper carbonate, a ounces; ammonia carbonate, 1 pound; water 50 gallons. Dissolve copper and ammonia carbonate in a half gallon of hot water. Dilute to 50 gallons and use at once. Insecticides cannot be used with this. Cost of this mixture about 1-2 cent per gallon. Another formula for this solution is as follows: Copper carbonate, 3 ounces; ammonia (22°), 1 quart; water, 22 gxl lons. Dissolve copper in the water, add ammonia and use at once. A third formula is copper carbonate, 1 ounce ammonia, carbo late 6 ounces. Powder and mix thoroughly. This may be kept in a dry state in airtight vessels for any length of time. When needed for use dissolve in 10 gallons of water ami u<*e at once. A fourth formula which is said to be equal to any of the others and a little cheaper, but which has not been tested as much as the others is copper sul phate one-half pound, ammonia car bonate l pound, water 62 gallons. The ammonia carbonate should be hard and transparent, otherwise 1 and a quarter pounds will be needed. Dissolve it in a pail of hot water. When foaming ceases add copper and stir as long as there is any foaming. Dilute to 62 gallons and use at once. These four formulas are practically the aame. or nearly so. and the solution formed is one of the most valuable w ; h which to combat plant diseases. With out the objectionable feature of the bor deaux mixture it probably ranks next to that inefficiency. However, insecticides cannot be used with any of these as they can with the bordeaux mixture. In none of the solutions containing ammonia or carbonates in any form should Paris green or London purple ever be used, unless a quantity of lime is added as the chemical compounds then formed are injurious to foliage. COTTON PLANTING. Please give me some of your ideas as to cotton planting. How to prepare, how tc cultivate, whether shallow or deep when to plant, etc. I. B. N.. Bolinghroke. Deep and thorough prep irat on o:’ the soil and a thorough pulveriz tion are the first essentials to successful cotton planting. Next in order is putting in the seed. This should be done with a cotton planter to secure uniformity to facilitate subsequent chopping. It also ■area waste of seed, the value of which as a fertilizer and a food cannot be too highly appreciated. The first plowing may he as deep and thorough as possi ble, but all subsequent workings should be aa shallow aa the character of the land will permit. The implements I ordinarily need are the scooter, scrape, the solid and buzzard wing sweeps, the side harrow and numerous cultivators. After heavy rains the toil should be stirred and during a drought a shallow imple- ment run just deep enongh to break the community of the pores of the soil and to form an upper layer. Grass should never be permitted, if possible to pre vent.to take possession of the field. The us a of the hoe is expensive and in cotton culture, as well as in other crops, it should be used as little as possible. The root system of the cotton plant, as well as experience, testifies that shallow cul tivation should be the rule with this plant, and through a large series of ex periments conducteed at the various experiment farms, only on exceptional occasions was deep cultivation given as good results as shallow culture. The time to plant will depend somewhat on the character of the soil, which should be warm enongh to germinate the seed usually in April. When late planting is necessary the seed should be covered rather deeply and lig nlv rolled to se cure more rapid germination. DISTANCE TO GIVI. COTTON. What is the proper distance to give cotton? H. A. M., Tricku n. Mr. David Dickson, Georgia’s great cotton planter, was of the opinion that cotton needed distance oily one way. If the rows were wide, it ould be crowded in the drill and vice versa. No uni versal rule, however, can be given and much depends upon the fertility of the soil and the rain supply. Thin planting can better withstand a drought. On fairly rich land properly fertilized rows four feet apart with plants from one to two feet is about the proper distance. When great distance is given early planting is desirable, as the crop on ac count of the large weed w.ll fruit later in the season and therefore be more sub ject to damage from frost. The distance Will also on this account be found to govern largely the yield from different pickings. When the planting is thick the yitld from the first pickings will 09 heavy and the late while the re verse is true when the planting is thin. MUCK. What does mu k or swamp litter con tain ? How should it be used ? J. A. 8., Monroe. Muck contains small percentages of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash. It varies very greatly, but always contains a large per cent of organic matter. It does well composted and alone is a benefit to land. ALFALFA. Please tell me how to plant alfalfa, or lucerne. Wnat k.nd of soil is best, etc. Is it a legumini? , N. G. F..' ii.e clover ana peas, the power of collecting nitrogen from the air. It has the power of withstanding the drou’hs much better than common clover, and for that reason is especially adapted to dry climates. It flourishes best on a light sandy or loamy soil, with a subsoil through which its long taproot can pen etrate. Once a stand is secured the character of the subsoil is of more im portance than the surface soil. Thorough preparation should precede sowing. We pre er sowing in the drill, which requires about 15 pounds of seed; sown broadcast, twenty pounds is nec (ss try. While in the north spring seed ing is advisable, in our climate the fill is preferable, though spring sown will, under favorable circumstances, do well. BURR CLOVER. What is your opinion of burr clover and what is the proper time to plant? H. T. L , Hampton. Individually we have had no experi ence sufficient to form an accurate judg ment of the merits of the plant. Tne following from The Southern Cultivator gives the esteem in which it is held by others: Burr clover is a native of the Medi terranean region, which has been natu ralized in most warm climates. Lis widely distributed in California, where it is considered of great value. It was first introduced into the southern states by the late Bishop George F. Pierce in 1867, and planted at his home in Han- cock county, Ga. In Mississippi it has been grown by Mr Edwin C. Reed, of Meridian, who states that it is all that could be desired as a Winter an 1 spring pasture. With stock it is an acquired taste, and they will not eat it when more palatable plants am offered. It is a good renovator, and while an annual, r seeds itself, if not pastured too late and too close. The burs make it very objectionable as a pasture for sheep. To sow, prepare as for common clover, and 6ow 20 pounds of clover seed to the acre early in the autumn. GRASS FOR SOMMER PASTURE. Wiiat grasses do you consider best for summer pasture: 1 L. I. N., Hamilton county. We consider B rmuda and crab grass the best for summer pasture. The for mer makes an excellent, pi rmanent sum mer pasture. It has been treated by many as a pest, but sho il l not be so re garded, and none should be debarred from plant ng it for this reason. In the Commissioner’s report for last month an easy method of destroying it is given. POTASH FOR COTTON. What is the best form of potash to use for cotton? A. L R.. Franklm. The work of the Experiment Station and experience shows no superiority for either of the three forms of potash used, sulphate, muriate and kainit, and there fore the matter of price should he the governing factor. There are those who contend, not without reason, that where a email per cent of potash is to he used, kainit is the best form, as-It conserves moisture and can be more easily dia tributed. FARMERS’ COLUMNS. GEORGIA EXPERIMENT STATION, EX PE Rill ENT, GA. The station publishes a bulletin ol results once a quarter and sometime* oftener. These bulletins w.ll be sent free to any farmer in Georgia actively engaged in farming (wh.ch include* gardening, fruit culture, dairying, etc.) who will request them. Drop a postal card to the director, giving your name, postolfice and county, plainly written. A Little More About Cow peas. (By Director, R. J. Redding.) In Pres* Bulletin No 7. published in April, a typo >Taphical error made me say. “It is "ffecidedly the most profi table disposition of the crop to gath er the ripe peas.” It should have been ‘‘lt is decidedly the most profitable to convert the pea vines into hay; and that the next most profitable disposition oi the crop is to gatuer the ripe peas.” The context, however, agrees with this correction, and I would hardly notice it but for the fact that it was intended to refer to the subject in this bulletin in order to still further impress the re sults of the experiments in Bulletin No 24. The conclusions reached aa the result of that experiment are here re peated: 1. That the best disposition of a crop of field peas is to convert the vines into hay. 2. The next best is to permit the peas to ripen and gather them (Or pas ture them). 3. Mowing the vines and permitting them to lie on the surfa e until No vember Ist, and then plowing them un der, was decidedly belter than turning under the vines in August. 4. Turning the vines under green gave the poorest economic results. (On request, copies of Bulletin No. 24, which contains the full details of the experiment, will be sent free, to any farmer.) As the season is at hand for sowing cowpeas, especially after small grain, I wish to press the sub ject still farther. The following ex tracts are from Farmer’s Bulletin No. 16, United States Department of Agri culture: •‘lt wi’l thus be seen that by green manuring w:t ■ 1 "t miaous cro"S It is possible toman ir the so.l wil l nit.o ten from tie air a uei and inexuaustable so ree, and thus avoid buying for tiiizcrs contairiig muc ini ro e.i. This ~reatl y lessens the expe se for ,o nmerclal fertili zers. for nitrogen is tta -most expensive e'emen! t ie farmer as to buy. A stated a ove, it ,osts from 1 1 to .0 ents a pound w i e potash and p ospnerie acid iost only sto 7 emts on even less. Although grains grasses, oorn cotton, root crops, tobacco, etr. . can not us .t the nitro gen of t.ie air. green manuring enables them to beneiit by it indirectly * * * * Experiments have shown that cowneas re spond readily to applications of po ash and phosphates and are ale to derive the .r nitro tgen very largely from the air. Inasmuch as cowpeas are large gat.oerers of nitrogen, and al iso secure considerable amounts of potash and ' phosphoric acid through their extensive root ;system wnich readies down to the subsoil, ' tliey have a nigh fertilizing valne. How ,og)t tt ie gve -.lest benefit from the fertilizing c„n st.tuents of cowpeas 's one of the problems on w .kh the eeperim- m stations are working. If the cowpeas are nl >wed in ler in the fail and t o grounu left oare until s n-ing a large s.iare af nitro . en will te leac, eia-a •. By sow ring the wiatnr tne nitrogen is mpmijrioscl mane pu-imentat the station in Alabama it was o .ud vines pataered in October had from 1.45 to 20: p;rc -nt. gf nltrogrn, while if loft on * 'e gro nd until January they had only abo.u 007 percent., i. e , thoy lost two-thirds of their most valuaole fertilizing ingredient. Exoeriments at the Louisiana station show that one acre of cow/ieas, yielding 3,879.38 of organic matter, turned under, gave to tne soil 64.05 pounds of nitrogen, 20.39 pounds of paosphris acid and 110 v 6 pounds of po asa. of wnion at least 6.01 pounds of nitrogen. 4.43 pounds of phosphoric a. id. and 18.1 pounds of potasa were furaisued by the roots. Analysis made at tns beat a Caro ina statioh show that cowpea nay contains 14: per cent, of potash, 0..6 p' r cent of phosp ions acid, and 171 per cent o. nitrogen. Cowpea roots contained riS per cent, of potash. 0.28 p r cent ef potash, 021 per cent, of puosphoric acid and 0.04 per cent, of nitrogen; tne roots and stubble, two months after me crop was ..arvested, eootained 0.3 per cent, of potash, .2£ per cent, of phosp uric acid, and 1.38 per cent of nitro ;en. Exper. mints e.sewhere s towed tuat tue vines from a given area weighed six times as m :ch as tne roots, and were 8% times as vaiaac-e Cor manure. Cowpeas and melilotus hare given good re sults as green manure on the canebra.ee lands oi Alabama. • Before the land was sowed in meli lotus and cowpeas it was! not considered worth cultivating. T.ns season (18J)> it produced as fine a crop as tne be9t lands of tne station highly fertilized.” I wish to urge-upon every farmer to sow cowpeas in every cornfield, and on all land that may be available between this date and July 1, and which is to be planted in corn, cotton or small grain. In the North and in England the prac tice is to sow wheat and other small grain on a “clover sod,” as many ex press it; that is, after a crop of clover. In the south we may just as well sow small grain after a crop of cow peas. In this case it is advisable to sow peas in corn at the last plowing, pasture them off when ripe (or gather the peas; turn under the stubble. in September and sow the small grain in October and November. Where the peas are sown in oat or wheat stubble, and it is not desired to sow in wheat or oats again, but rather to plant in cotton next season, a good practice is to convert the peavines into hay, immediately turn under the stubble and harrow In two to four pecks of Georgia rye per acre. The rye will et once commence to feed on the decaying peavines and other plant food left in the soil, and will hold it until January or February when the rye may be turned under in preparation for corn or cotton. , NOTES On the Great Freeze of March 86th, 1894. (By Hrg’i N. Starnes, Horticulturist.) A great deal of unnecessary anxiety and disquietude has been occasioned by the unprecedented cold snap of March 26th and 27th last, by reason of the fact that there were no recorded data of any similar previous catastrophe which could be used as a basis for comparison. Only our older citizens can recall the great freeze of April 16-20, 1849, which is said to have approximated, in its general features, the late blizzard; and, furthermore, such recollections, except in rare instances, are extremely vatrue and unsatisfactory. Therefore a few notes now, that may be placed permanently on record, in view of any future recurrence of the recent phenomenon, may not prove amiss. PREVIOUS WEATHER. The winter had been unusually mild —so open, in fact, that certain peach trees (Japan Blood) had bloomed in January, and were even in leaf as early as February 20th. All vegetation had started; leaves on poplars as large as squirrel ears; oaks in full bloom and leafing out nicely. Fruit trees -that is, peaqhes and peara principally Ori ental varieties of the latter, a? Garber.. Keiffer and LeConte -were in leaf and flower. Figs had set both young fruit and leaves. Apples had not blossomed: strawberries, however, were in full bloom: but blackberries and raspber ries had only started buds. Grapes were putting out freely, a large crop bavin? set. Peaches were ae targe as buckshot or sparrow -gfH _ THE BLIZZARD. On Sunday. March 25th, the weathei was warm minimum temperature 43 degrees —culminating in a shower (.48 inch) in afternoon. After the shower it became perceptibly eolder, the wind rising at the same time (N. W.); but not until 9 p. m. was there any indica tion of the terrible freeze that followed. Monday morning everything was frozen hard and fast; ice in shallow vessels several inches thick—one inch on barrels; mercury 21 degs. During the day a maximum of 8 7 deg. was reached, but did not thaw in shade. Next da3 T ANARUS, Tuesday, mercury fell to 19 deg. with a maximum of 44 deg. Wed nesday, mercury 29 deg.; maximum 57 deg. Light rain of .02 inch. Thursday minimum was 36 deg. and thaw com plete. This ended the blizzard. EFFECTS. At first these were terrible to con template; hope sank oj even a partial realization of the apparent damage. Everything in the way of vegetation appeared utterly destroyed. Leaves hung wilted like wet rags from every limb, and recuperation seemed impossi ble. After the first few days things ap peared even worse, if possible, than at the first examination, and the damage was apparently much more disastrous than originally apprehended. This state of affairs lasted well into April. Day after day passed, and no recupera tion was visible. Of course the fruit crop was at once given up as lost, and the public would have gladly compro mised on a guaranty that the trees themselves were intact. Grave fcai - s were eutertained for the very existence of the forests, and dismay reigned everywhere for weeks. Gradually, however, a change became apparent, more and more manifest as the time passed, and courage again re vived. Rains occurred on the 4th, 10th, and 19th, of April, followed by heavy fales of wind, especially after the rain all of the 19th, (.84 inch) after which no rain fell until May 14th, the severe winds and protracted drouth greatly retarding the advancement of vegeta tion, and exaggerating the adverse con ditions to the utmost. Nevertheless revival was steady and progressive. Separate notes are appended on the different divisions of vegetation as changes became apparent from the first disaster to the middle of May, by which time the full effects of the freeze were judged to be manifest. FORESTS. March 27th, every leaf parched as a sirocco. Catkins and the pendent blossoms of the different oaks remained stiff ar.d stark, blown like tresses to wards the southeast, while soft and pliable, and frozen in thi3 position For weeks, until they dropped off, they they remained pointing stiffly south east. By the middle of April no change was observable in any trees that had leafed before the freeze: late leafing varieties puttingout feeblj 7 meanwhile. By May Ist, many had recovered, but certain post oaks, red oaks and black ogliks were still unresnonsive. By May with here and there a post oak, appear to have been seriously cheeked. Many of these have been permanently crip pled, but none killed outright, unless they succumb later in the season. Certain hickories and persimmons have been also hurt, and black gums slightly so. Damage to forests is there fore practically very slight. Another year will probably hide it all, although considerable topping and cutting in may prove advisable in groves. ORNAMENTAL TREES AND 9IIRUBS. These naturally suffered more than their more hardy brethren of the for est. A fine avenue of Balm of Gilead, averaging eight feut, set out in January and in full leaf, was either killed outright or so badly injured as to necessitate removal. So with an avenue of Lombardy Pop lars—the latter not hurt so badly, per haps, though equally as tlvanced. An aveuue of young European White Birch, though in nearly full leaf, was not materially hurt. Young Sycamores badly hurt; Weeping Willows killed to the root; Weeping Birch (Betula alba laoiniata) also seriously, if not per manently injured. Maples of all vari eties unhurt. Umbrella Chinas killed back to the main trunk, necessitating topping and close trimming. Prunus Pissaraii (red leafed Japan plum) shows the most remarkable recovery; these were in full leaf and apparently killed to the roots. The alburnum perfectly black and recovery apparently an im possibility. Yet in three weeks they were looking as well as ever. Th:s shows that the commonly received im pression that the tree is doomed when the alburnum turns black, is a popular fallacy. Privet hedges appeared killed to the main trunk, but after trimming put out again, and now seem little the worse. So also with Marianna plum hedges. Euonjmus, however, has been very seriously injured; probably cut ting it down to the root will still prove the wisest treatment. Roses at first appeared gone, but their recovery is almost complete. Lit tle damage appears done them except the loss of this spring's flowers. They are now (May Jsth) looking quite nice ly- FRUIT TREES. Peaches—No old trees, except those budded on Marianna stock have been permanently injured. Many young trees just planted have been killed or injured. For instance, Lady Ingol 1 was killed outright; Spottswood badly injured; Elberta and Pineapple less so, and Oldmixon Free not at all. Among the old trees Reeves’ Favorite seems to be the tenderest, and the slowest to re cover. But one peach in the entire or chard of the Experiment Station sur vived the cold a Crawford’s Early. Pears —Oriental varieties suffered most—Kieffer worst of all. an entire avenue being so badly injured as to neessitate removal. Garber followed, then LeConte. All looked at first as though recovery was impossible; al burnum black almost to the ground; but on May loth the loss looks as if it would be confined to the removal next fall of very few if any in the plat, out side of Kieffers, and the injury to the remainder will be less than half a sea son's growth. Apples -At first these appeared un injured, not having bloomed, and af terwards set a normal crop of fruit which, however, commenced to droj about May Ist, and now the prospect ire that a verv small fraction of tht crop will be saved, probably not 10 pe; cent. Trees themselves uninjured. Plums and Cherries —Uninjured ex ;ept fruit, which is all killed sav Wild Goose. This appears to have s, about 50 per cent, of a erop, but tow dropping badly and seems ui usually affected by curculio. Quin ; ; sa -Their recovery is notice ablai At first looked as if killed to the OFFICIAL ORGAN. NO 24 root, but soon revived, and will not lose half a season's growth, if so much. Figs—Also appeared killed to tint root, and in many cases are so. Ex traordinary recovery, however, ia manifested by some varieties, notably Brown Turkey and Celestial, which ara budding out again clear to the top. The old wood, nevertheless, had bel ter be cut away, and will never pay for itself if allowed to remain, whereas a clean, vigorous growth will result from the use of the saw. GRArKS. Appeared at first to be permanently injured, and their condition and ap pearauee probably created more dis may thau did the damage to any othei crop. And not without reason, foi they are indeed seriously hurt, the loss amounting to an entire year's rowtb in many cases. The crop from the new shoots putting out since the freeze will probably average 20 per cent in this vicinity some reporting as high as 51 per cent, others as low as 10 per cent-. All varieties of Aestivalis were injures much less than other species, except Rotundifoliae, of which class old Scup pernongs, in full leaf at the time of the freeze, appear to have escaped almost intaet, though younger vines suffered in proportion to their age. Labrusca.' and their hybrids were the worst suf ferers. Young vineyards were badly killed; probably 10 per cent a total loss, and the damage in growth for this season 50 per cent. STRAWBERRIES Had set tlieir crop and were in line condition. Ail of t e first erop was of course killed, but ths plants recovered beautifully and set probably Oo per cent of a full crop. This was reduced to about 15 per cent by the unprecedentedly dry season following. BLACKBERRIES at first appeared badly injured. Earliei sorts, as Early Ha-vest, were proba bly 50 per cent. Later varieties not in jured so badly, though setting a light crop. FARM CROPS. Spring oats damaged 50 per cant: Fall oats, almost in the boot at time oi freeze, damaged 75 per cent; large areas, in places where most rank, wer killed to the ground. Rye (some five feet high, and heading) was killed out right and plowed under. Corn, coming up, was mostly killed and had to be re J planted. , VEGETABLES. Tomatoes killed outright, also beans. English peas badly damaged, but ii undisturbed produced a fourth of h crop. Cabbage (Burpee's World Beat er) were so damaged (apparently) that the entire plat except five plants, was replanted. These plants recovered and are by far the finest in the row; all would probably have done equally at; well if allowed to remain. This is quite a test of the hardihood of the cabbage. Salsify was badly killed. Onions had tops killed, but otherwise unhurt, and have sinee entirely recov ered and are now doing finely. the freeze beinginterpreted, is “keep a stiff liD.” First impressions will always be found worse than tne reality in pheno mena of this kind. Hereafter we can regard such an occurrence with much more equanimity than we at first did .the big blizzard of March 26th, 1894. ' Answers to Inquiries. [Under this head short inquiries from farmers on practical farm topic* .will be answed by one of the station staff and published, if of general in terest, otherwise the answers will be sent by mail. Make your inquiries 6hort and to the point, always give your name and postoffice, and addressed to the “Director Georgia Experiment Station, Experiment, Ga.’’J C. G. N., Augusta. Ga.; I am satisfied that many farmers, including myself, would like to knoww 'at crops are produced on the Experi ment Farm how much to the acre, eto. You will please oblige me and others by answering the followin r questions; 1. Waat were tne leading crops grown on thl farm last year, the area in each, and the yield per acre? > 2. Also state the kind and cost of the fertlllx ers used to make the crops? 3. W.iatkindof farming implements are used on the farm? 4. What is done with the proceeds of ths crops? 5. Do the station officers get the benefit of ths fruits vegetables, dairy products, etc., pro duced cn t,.e farm? Answer by Director Redding : lam glad you ask the above questions, as it might appeir boastful to volunteer the information. < I.)The following is taken from the Director's quarterly report to t Hoard of Directors, at their mast ing November last. Acres. 'a^? 3 * Total Yield, Corn 19 27.3 bush. Sl* bush. Cotton 10 14-5 bales 14 bales. Oats 10 50 busn. 500 buata. Rye 1 (seedj 11 bush. 11 bush S. potatoes... 11-5 2 0 ush. S6i bush. Sunflower seed 1 5 35 bush. 7 hush. Cowpsas iseed) ... 60 bush. Tobacco .8 500 lbs. 4 000 lbs. Fnsilage fsilo) 5 1,500 lbs. 75 no lbs. Corn fodder 11 00) lbs. Hav (pea aud. crab grass) 26.7 H lbs. (T .ere v ere also produced small quantities oi peanuts, ehufas, ri.e, etc.) Acres Y Acre rer Total. Blackberries M 2 B.oro qts. 2 r oqts. Straw erries V% 1 o>o qts. 50 qts. Turnips >4 100 cusb. 60 bush, There were also produced a good crop ol graces. The peach and aop.e crop was a .a 1 ire. [B 3„ause of the long illness and death of Hor ticulturist Speth which covered the planting seasoi in the spring, and the late date on which the p risen: horticulturist tookchar fe %, no spring vegetable crops were planted. 1 2. We buy the -‘raw material''—acid phos phate, lainit. muriate of potash, nitrate ol soda, cotton seed meal, ete., and compound our fertili. ers according to our own formulas, ap plying from 4 .0 to ■">< 0 pounds ner acre on cotton, oats and vegetables, costing 84 to Id per acre. Cotton seed meal, acid phosphate and stabls manure compost are use J on corn. Acid phoa phate and potash are applied to peas, about 2 6 pounds of the former and 25 pounds of murate of potash, per acre, costing about 82. No ma niou a’ed brands, whatever, are used. 3 One and two horse plows, sutsoilers; cuta way, spading and smoothing harrows; 'aid rollers aLd clod crus ers: several different kin Is of cultivators, m in y the P a et, Jr. 4. Tne si rp us r.-ot required for the use of the farm is solu in market and the proceeds are used for expenses, repairs ad improvements. 5 The station o“flcers oay .or all vegetables, fruits, dairy products and fuel consumed by them at fixed j ri-.es ana for horse board. H. N. C.. Augusta, Ga ; -I received a few copies of bulletins from you about a year ago and they have been v orta a creat deal to me. I planted twoacreof Pumpkin yam potatoes according to the su_'gestio s in one of tne bulletins and 1 made 300 busaeis o: potatoes to the acre wneie I had made only 75 ous.iels before with stable manure, and tney were nicet potatoes and cost me less. The mulberry is cultivated by cut tings of the mature wood or the roots, by root and crow grafting and by bud ding with dormant buds in the spring. The advantages and resources of the south are attracting the attention of the world at present. The number of inquir es is increasing daily, and with out question the influx of settlers here will be largely augmented within the next few days.