The messenger. (Fort Hawkins, Ga.) 1823-1823, July 28, 1823, Image 2
TUE MESSE,\UEU. JRrcm //;e Charleston Courier. mr. perkins’s steam engine. The following extract of a letter from a gentleman of Boston who is said to be eminent for his scientifi cal attainments and mechanical •kill, now in England, to his friend in that town, gives a more clear and satisfactory account of Mr. Perkins’s in it than we have yet seen published. The letter is dated April 26. As many inquiries were made concerning Mr. Perkins’ new steam engine, before I left Boston, without any satisfactory information being had, I will attempt to give you some account of it. Before I begin, how- ever you must free your mind from all notions of a common engine, and call his what you please after wards. I do not mean that Mr. Perkins’s machine is not a steam engine, but that its operation is so essentially different, in its princi ple, from all other machines under that name heretofore known, that you must prepare for a great novel ty, such an or.e as must, in a short period, throw out of use all the steam engines, on whatever princi ples, hitherto made. I saw it on Monday last, the clay after my ar rival, being the first time he public ly exhibited it. In the common machines, a great mass of water is made to boil vio lently in a strong iron or copper ves sel, called a boiler, upon the surface of which water, thus boiling, is rai ded the steam, heated to a great degree, and conveyed by pipes to the working cylinder, and thrown by open and closing cocks, altern ately upon the upper and lower side of the piston. In Mr. Perkins’s nothing of this kind takes place, nor does the water even boil, nor is any steam produced except the en gine is worked. He confines, in a very strong vessel, a small quantity of water, keeping the vessel con stantly full, which is heated to a ve ry considerable degree. This ves sel, corresponding to the old fash ioned boiler, lie calls the generator and holds about seven gallons in the machine I saw working. It is of cast iron, or rather bell metal, about three inches thick, and is pla ced in another sheet iron vessel or case, which encloses it, leaving a space all round of eight inches.— Within this case the generator -stands on a grating, so as to admit of coal being placed under it and round the sides perhaps two or three inches high. To work his engine all day, about a bushel of coal is ne cessary, and on removing the iron cover from a bole in the top of the enclosing vessel, I perceived no more fire than is often seen in a common parlour grate. The pow er of this engine is ten horses. The cylinder in which the piston works is horizontal : the piston is two inches diameter, having a stroke of 12 inches only. Near this cylinder stands the generator,which •communicate with each other by means of a short stroug pipe, so that the operating valve alternately closing and shutting, this communi cation is brought as near as possi ble to the cylinder. When this valve is opened in common engines, the steam passes from the boiler to the piston; but in Mr. Perkins’s, nothing hut water immensely com pressed by heat, is passed ; and at the moment of passing, the small quantitv which issues bursts into -uteam with great power This ex plosion of water (and I see no rea son why it may not be so termed) immediately tills the space between this piston and one end of the cyl inder ajid drives the piston the whole length of the stroke. On al ternating, the steam is and the same operatitin .then takes place from opposite ends. A small pump is moved, to throw the ex ceedingly small quantity of water, .resulting from the comlenilition of the steam into the condensor, a strong iron vessel standing near the generator, from which it is forced bv the same pump into the genera tor again. Such is the general de scription of Mr. Perkins’s new en gine. It has the power of ten hor ses, and Mr. Perkins offered to bet lie would make it do the work of a fifteen horse power. The whole machinery weighs, probably less than a ton, and he says his machines and whole apparatus for any power, say fifty horses, will weigh only about 3 s much as the water alone m common engines of the same pow er. He is now building a steam boat of 300 tons, to have two en gines of sixty horse power each, the cylinders of which will be only seven inches diameter, with a five foot stroke, and the whole work will he below deck at the bow of the boat. It is strictly true, in principle, that when the engine is once filled, no additional water is required. — But owing to some small quantity inevitably escaping through the joints of the tubes, ike. a small loss is sustained, which must be sup plied by the pump ; for this purpose lie has a bucket of water ready.— From the compact form, simplicity, lightness,and power of his machines, I see no reason why steam cariages should not, especially on good roads in a very few years, supercede all other kinds of land carriages, and a mail coach soon be running between this place and Liverpool, at the rate of 20 or 26 miles an hour. INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT. The great subject of improving by means ol Road and Canals, the ’ natural advantages possessed by L this country has at length attracted : i that attention which its vastimpor itance entitles it to recieve. The ’ state legislatures from Maine to Georgia, are deeply engaged in searching out the peculiar advanta ges of their local situations, and improving them bv all that art, and enterprize and money can effect.— Projects, which a few years ago would have been laughed at as vis ionary- and impracticable, are now gravely examined, and supported by the wisest and ablest men of the nation. Such a spirit is indeed an indication of the approach of a new era in the history of this coun try. Party politics, which has been J justly defiined the labour of the many for the good of the few,” is fast yielding before a spirit of en terprize, which has alone for its object the public good and national prosperity. The vast schemes which have, been accomplished in our own slate, have outstriped the most san guine expectations of the most zeal ous advocates for internal improve ment. The work has grown to i maturity so rapidly, that they are I themselves astonished at its pro gress ; and they actually look back with something like wonder at the work of their own hands —at the mountains which have been pros trated—the valleys Billed up—the rivers and torrents stemmed in their descent to the Ocean, and diverted into a placid ancl gentle channel, bearing upon its bosom all the pro ducts of perhaps the finest country in the limits of the union. After such experience minor difficulties sink into nothing, by the confidence inspired by success:and moral en ergy seems only necessary to sub due almost every physical and nat ural obsticle to the improvement of our internal resources We alluded slightly last week, to a Canal which is about to be open ed bv the State of Maryland, and which will if completed, prove to this section of New-York, and that part of Pennsylvania bordering upon the waters of the Susquehan na, of vast and vital importance.— Having now more leisure, we will furnish our readers with some fur ther particulars relative to this sub ject. The legislature of Maryland du ring the session of last winter, passed a resolution authorising the Gov ernor and council to appoint three commissioners, to survey'and report upon the practicability, expediency, and probable expense cf a canal from the river Susquehanna to the city of Baltimore ; commencing at the Conawago Falls, or such other point on the river as they might think best, and striking across the country to the tide water at Balti more. They were also required to survey the route of a canal from the Conewago Falls along the brink of the river to the tide water. The commissioners appointed by the Governor and Council in pursuance of the resolution, are Judge Blancl and Messrs. Winchester and Patter son, as mentioned in our last.— These gentlemen, with a view to obtain general information, have carfullv inspected the great Wes tern Canal, in this state, and left here on Friday last to decend the river, in order to ascertain the state ot the navigation between this and tide water. They have also, we understand engaged the services of fames Cieddes Esq. of this state as chief Engineer, and that the survey of a route for the canal will be commenced without delay, and completed so as to he laid before the legislature of Maryland at their session next winter. From the lib eral views and enligtened policy which has prompted the commence ment of this great enterprize, there can be no doubt that the state of Maryland will do every thing which can be reasonably expected from her. But lec us not forget, that we too, are most deeply concerned in the success of this great undertak ing ; and that our zeal and our ef forts should be limited only by out means and resources. To tnat part of Pennsylvania connected with the Susquehanna (which by the wav is mere than two thirds of it) this canal is of incalculable value, support and assistance is therefore certain. In one word, Baltimore is the natural market, and therefore the best market for the whole of this country. If we know our own in terest, we must unite cordially in every attempt to improve our way thither. — And when we look back upon the advantages already ex perienced from a trade with tnat citv exposed as it is to difficulties and danger what may we not expect when all these shall be removed, and the voyage rendered safe, cer tain,and expeditious. [Oxvego Gazette. “v “ European Xe\\s. Philadelphia, July 7. We have received by ship Dido, captain Bliss, arrived at this port, in 38 days from Liverpool, our files of London papers to the 23d of May, and Liverpool to the 24th, but they contain very little concern ing the affairs of France and Spain, other than a recapitulation of the news brought by the last arrival at New-York. Intelligence from Bay onne, under date of Mat 15, exhi bits no favorable picture ol the success of the invading armv.— Preparations, it seems, are making for a protracted war, and the opin ion, says the London Courier, we have often expressed,gains grounds —that this war will not commence on the part of the Spaniards, till the invaders are in the capital. Ot Mina, nothing is yet known with certainty, but all the reports respec ting him, come from what quarter they iflav, have a general tendency to represent him as having obtained some success over the enemy. It so, he adds, it must yet be some time before we shall know their na ture and extent, for of course, not a syllable about them will appear in : the Paris papers. Bayonne , Mai/ 15.—Large sup- J p*ies of ammunition continue to ar ! rive here from all quarters, and es- I pecially bv sea, so that it should i seem that the war is expected to be of some duration, as otherwise such extensive preparations to maintain it would not be made. Our army continues to advance, at least on the right wing, since, according to reports circulated yesterday, the van guard of the first corps entered the capital on the 12th —but this news being given by persons who could not certify its authenticity, we must content ourselves with be lieving that hitherto no change has taken place in the course marked out by the Prince. A few days difference can have no effect on the general result. Our army is cer tainly disjointed as it were, the corps which compose it, being so insulated, and not strong enough in point of numbers to hold the im mense lines which they occupy, and consequently they leave inter vals between them which give the Constitutional troops an opportuni ty of taking advantage of them.— Persons who arrived here yester day, give it as their opinion that the Spaniards will really carry into execution the plan they have an nounced, and really begin their war as soon as the French have entered Madrid. From what we can learn, it should seem that Marshal Moncev does not proceed with so much rapiditv and confidence as we have been led to expect. The war in Catalonia seems likely to be protracted, though some persons have affirmed that the sudden retreat of Mina had pacified every thing in that pro vince. There are letters from Va lencia which say that the inhabit ants are determined to resist, if the Fr cncli should :.uvance to tut*-city , as for the partizans of the Faith, they- were not feared, and in l.u t, it should seem that they were dis persed. Letters received to-day from Vittoria speak of the continuance of the blockade of Santona by Za bala. If that place should have the misfortune to fall into the hands of him who is now attacking it, it is to be feared that dreadful atrocities will be committed by this Chief who is well known, and has threatened that he will put the garrison and the inhabitants to the sword, ibv letters received to day from Saia gossa, state that the Royalists Des camisados commit all kinds of acts of vengeance. A traveller just arrived from Pampelona affirms, that the garri son of that place had unexpectedly made a sally with 1,000 men and 4 cannon, had attacked the F’rench troops, and had returned into the place, taking with them a good number of prisoners. Letters from Catalonia, this mo ment received, do not confirm the previous statements of the flight of Mina , but say that, according to his favourite system of tactics, he had taken five or six thousand of his best troops, and entered La Cerdagne, where he inspired gene ral consternation. Marshal Mon cey had been obliged to turn round and accept a battle, for which he was not prepared, in the neighbor hood of F'igueras, into the citadel of which Mina threw some troops to reinforce the garrison. He af terwards crossed the Tor, which was still greatly swelled by the rains ; and which the accounts came awav, he was at Ripol. The same letters say, that Gen. Montor was endeavoring to push forward troops both towards Tarragona and Bai lona. The subscription in aid of the Greeks, at St. Petersburgh, amounts to upwards of one million of rubles, above 45,833/. sterling. The Em press Dowager subscribed 10,000 rubles, This is exclusive of the money raised at Odessa and several other places in Russia. Lord Byron. —The lovers of free dom and of genius, says the Editor of the London Morning Chronicle of April 24, will rejoice to hear that Lord Byron is going to quit the shores of It aly, and take his departure for Greece there to join the. standard of the op pressed, whom with a liberality char acteristic of a noble and elevated mind, his lordship will largely assist with his purse, while he dedicates to them, at the same time his personal services. NEW MEXICAN FLAG. The Constituent Sovereign Con gress of Mexico, in consequence of the deliberation of the govern ment, on the Sth of this month, whether or not, a change should be made in the Coat of Arms and National F'lag, have been pleased to decree. Ist. That the shield must be the Mexican Eagle, standing on the left foot upon a nopal, or coch ineal fig tree, which may* grow from a rock among the waters of the lake, and with the right foot grasp ing a snake and holding it in a posture for tearing it to pieces with the beak ; and that this blazon must be bordered with two branches, the one of laurel and the other of oak, according to the design adopted by the first defenders of the indepen dence. 2d. In respect to the National flag, it is decreed that it shall be the same as heretofore, with the only exception of placing the Eagle without a crown, which is also to be the case in the shield. The executive supreme power, &c. will consider all this as under stood. Pedro Celestino Negrete, Pres. Mexico, 15th April, 1823. M S> m From the J\\ Statesman. THE PRESIDENCY. To those who feel a lively inte rest in this question, the following items respecting the number ol electors, and the mode of chosing them in the several states, may be acceptable : Main 9 electors, by the people in districts—New Hamp shire 8, general ticket by the peo ple —Massachusetts 15, in districts by the people—Rhode Island 4, general ticket——Connecticut 8, by the Legislature Vermont 7, by the legislature—New-York In the legislature —Xci,-jv . 8, general ticket by the peopled Pennsylvania 28, general ticket the people—Delaware 3, by tfi e ) gislature—Maryland 11, i n tricts by the people—Virginia > general ticket by the people—N ory 0 ry Carolina 15, general ticket bv t! people—South Carolina 11, by tii legislature—Georgia 9, by b e j gislature —Kentucky 14, in three districts by the people—Ohio ig general ticket by the people— Indi ’ ana 5, by the legislature—lllinois 3, in districts by the people—Mis. souri 3 in districts by the people Louisiana, 5, by legislature— sissippi 3, general ticket by people—Alabama 5, in districts hv the people. Total, in 24 state; 261. Freanasonnj. —Capt. Harris, late of the brig Reuben and Eliza, cap. tured by the pirates on the southern side of Cuba, has furnished the ed itors of the N. Y. Mercantile Ad vertiser with a narrative of the out rages of these wretched men ; and a note is added stating that “he was indebted for his life to the cir cumstances of his being a freemaso” having met with several masons among the pirates, who interceded for him,” It is strange that fret masons should be found amon f ; pirates ; but how much more strange is it, that men who have abandoned the laws of God and na tions, who shrink not at murder it self, when convenient or though: necessary, should respect the bond; of freemasonry', and succour a brother in distress ? Niles’ Register. Probably, says the Advocate, no thing will give those at a distances more striking idea of the comforts and luxury with which our Liver pool packets abound, than the men tion of a fact which we witnessed ou Saturday, of a most superb and splendid Piano Forte , which ori ginally cost §4OO in the act of being transported from Sage’s Music store, in Broadway, to the new line ship Leeds, from whom the owners of the line had purchased it for the. use of the ladies cabin. Relicks of antiquity. —As some persons were examining the human bones that lay along the banks of the river, they picked up a skull, and under it they found a queu of hair rolled together so as to make a bnlk of three or four inches in circumference, and was wrapt with a buckskin string which had a large quantity of copper rings around it. Several beads were found and conk shells with other ornaments. JVatcli. It would appear by the following ar ticle from the New-York Spectator, that the cultivation of Tobacco has not only been introduced into Upper Can ada, but from some successful experi ments made there, it is calculated that it may become a considerable article of exportation from that quarter. We presume, however, that the quantity raised for many years to come on the * northern side of the shores of the great lakes,’ will not materially affect the price of Virginia or Kentucky tobac co, eithwjin this country or in foreign markets!— -Jlugusta Chron. ‘fobacco of U. Canada —We were informed last winter by a gentleman from Detroit, that the settlers in the upper part of the province of Upper Canada were turning their attention to the cultivation of tobacco, and that they had thus far met with great suc cess. 7’his fact was mentioned by us at the time; and we now find by the Montreal papers, 10 hogsheads of this article advertised for sale. This,says the Courant, “ is the first public notice of so large a quantity of that article, the growth of Canada, being adverti sed ; but now we trust that very lew seasons will pass, before vve shall have not only a sufficient quantity lor out own consumption, but also to be ena bled to export to Great Britain, where we hope encouragement will be given to the produce of her Colonies in pre ference to that of foreign states. The culture of this plant will be of incalcu lable advantage to this country, and it is to be wished that every attention may be paid to the production of an article of such universal consump tion.” It would be passing strange h our Virginia and Kentucky friends were to find successful rivals in their business, on the northern side of the shores of the great lakes. The British Minister's Furnitn was sold at Washington city a fi'’ days since for 8,000 dollars. Mai 1 olthe articles arc said to have brougi more than the original cost.