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Georgia weekly telegraph, journal & messenger. (Macon, Ga.) 1880-188?, December 10, 1880, Image 1

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I JOURNAL AND MESSENGER. CLISBY Sc JONES, PaonuiTOBS. THE FAMILY JOURNAL—NEWS—POLITICS- LITERATURE—AGRICULTURE—DOMESTIC NEWS, Etc—PRICE *2.00 PER ANNUM. GEORGL4 TELEGRAPH BUILDING ESTABLISHED 1826. MACON, FRIDAY. DECEMBER 10, 1880 VOLUME LV-NO. 50 IBS PEE8IDEHT 8 XE88AQB ffiewa in Owtriw B«c<»fc«r fc Fellow-Citizen* of the Senate and House X>f Representatives: I congratulate you on the continued and increasing prosperity of our ccuntrv. By the favor of Divine Providence we bare been blessed, during tbe past year, with health, with abundant harvests, with profitable employment for all our people, and with contentment at at home, and with peace and friendship with other nations. The occurrence of tbe twenty-fourth election of chief magistrate has afforded another opportunity to tbe people of the United States to exhibit to the world a significant example of the peaceful and safe transmission of the power and au thority of government from the public ser vants wheae terms of office are about to expire, to their newly-chosen successors. This example cannot fail to impress, pro foundly thoughtful people of other coun tries witli the advantages which republi can institutions afford. The Immediate, general, and cheerful acquiescence of all good citizens, in the result of the election, gives gratifying assurance to our country, and to its friends throughout tho world, that a government based on the free con sent of an intelligent and patriotic people possesses elements of strength, stability and permanency not found m any other form of government. Continued opposition to the fall and (toe enjoyment of t^e rights of citizenship, conferred upon the colored people by the recent amendments to the constitution, still prevails in several of the late slave- holding States. It has, perliaps, not been manifested in the recent election to an; latge extent in acts of violence or iutimi dation. It lias, however, trt- fraudulent practices in connection with tbe ballots, with tbe regulations as to the places and manuer of voting, and with counting, re turning, and canvassing the voles cast, been successial in defeating the exercise of tbe right preservative of all rights, the right] of suffrage, which the constitu tion expressly confers upon oureafnn cliiscd citizens. It Is the desire of the good people of the whole country that sectionalism as a fac tor in our politics should disappear. They prefer that no section of the country should be united in solid opposition to any other section. The disposition to re fuse a prompt and hearty obedience to the equal-rights amendments to the con stitution, is all that now stands in the way of a complete obliteration of sectional lines in our political contests. As long as either of these amendments is flagrautlv violated or disregarded, it is safe to as sume that tbe people who placed them to tbe constitution, as embodying tbe legiti mate results of tbe war for tbe Union, and who believe them to be wise and neces- ment of the right, by every American citi zen who has the requisite qualifications, to freely cast Ids vote and to have it hon estly counted. With this question rightly settled, tho country will be relieved of tbe contentions of the past; bygones will in deed be bygones; and political and part y issues with respect to economy and effi ciency of administration, internal im provements, tbe tariff, domestic taxation, education, finance, and other important subjects, will then receive their full share of attention; bu'. resistance to and nullifi cation of the results of tbe war will unite together in resolute purpose for their sup port all who maintain the authority of tlie government and the perpetuity of the Union, and who adequately appreciate the value of the victoiy achieved. This de termination proceeds from no hostile sen timent or feeling to any part of the people •of our country, or to any of their inter ests. The inviolability of the amendments rests upon the fundamental principle of onr government. They are the solemn expression of tho will of tbe people ol the United Slates. The sentiment that the constitutional rights of all our citizens must be main tained, docs not grow weaker. It will continue to control the government of the couutry. Happily, the history of tlie late election shows that in many parts of tlie country where opposition to the fitteenth amendment has heretofore prevailed, it is diminishing, and is likely to cease alto gether, if firm and well-considered action is taken by Congress. I trust the Uouse of Representatives and the Senate, which have the right to judge of the elections, re turns, ana qualifications of their own members, will see to it that every case ot violation of the letter or spirit of the fif teenth amendment is thoroughly investi- K teJ, and that no benefit from sucb vio- ion shall accrue to any person or party. It will be the duty of the executive, with sufficient appropriations for the purpose, to prosecute unsparingly ail who nave been engaged in depriving citizens of the rights guaranteed to them by the con stitution. It is not, however, to be forgotten that the best and surest guarantee of the pri- snaiy rights of citizenship is to be found in that capacity for self-protection which can only belong to a people whose right to universal suffrage is supported by univer sal education. The means at tbe com mand of the local and State authorities are, in many cases, wholly inadequate to furnish free instruction to all who need it. This is especially true where, before emancipation, the education ot the people was neglected or prevented In the Interest of slavery. Firmly convinced that the subject of popular education deserves the earnest attention of tho people of tlie whole country, with a view to wise and comprehensive action by the govemmeut or the United States, I respectfully recom mend that Congress, by soluble legisla tion aud with proper safeguards, supple ment the local educational funds In the several States where tlie grave duties and responsibilities of citizenship have been devolved on uneducated people, by devoting to tlie purpose grants of the public lauds, and, if necessary, by appropriations from tlie treasury of the United States. \\ bat- ever government can fairly do to promote free popular education ought to be done. Wherever general educa ion is found, peace, virtue and social order prevail, and civil and religious liberty are secure. Id my former annual messages, I nave asked the attention of Congress to the urgent necessity of a reformation of the civil-service system of the govern menu My views concerning tho dangers of patron- age. or appointments for personal or parti- sau considerations, have been strength ened by my observation «nd oxperionoc In the executive office, and I believe these dangers threaten the stability of the government. Abuses so serions In their nature cannot be per- manenlly toferated. They tend to be come more alarming with the enlarge ment of administrative service, as the growth of the country In population In creases the number of officers and place men employed. The reasons are Imperative for the adoption of fixed rules lor the regulation of appointments, promotions, and re movals, establishing a uniform method, having exclusively in view, in every in stance, UieJaUaiument of the best qualifi cations for the position in question. Such a method alone is consistent with the equal rights of all citizens, and the most economical and efficient administration of 'the public business. Competitive examination, In aid of im- ' partial appointments and promotions, nave been conducted for some years past and by my direction this system lias beenl adopted in the custom houses and post- offices of the larger cities of the country. In the city ot New York over two thousand positions in the civil service have been subject, in their appointments and tenure of place,to tlie operation ofpub- lished rules for this purpose, daring tlie past two years. The results of these prac tical trials have been very satisfactory, and have confirmed ray opinion in favor of this system of selection. All are sub jected to the same tests, and the result is free from prejudice by personal favor or partisan influence. It secures for tbe posi tion applied lor the best qualifications at tainable among the competing applicants. It is an effectual protection from the pressure of importunity which, under any other course pursued, largely exacts the time and alteutionof appointing officers to their great detriment in the discharge of other official duties, preventing the abuse of the service for the mere furtherance of private or party purposes, and leaving the employe of the government, freed from tlie obligations imposed by patronage, to de pend solely npon merit for retention and advancement, and with this constant in centive to exertion and improvement. These invaluable results have been attained in a high degree in the offices where the rules for appointment by com petitive examination have been applied. A method which has so approved itself by experimental tests at points where such tests map ue fairly considered conclusive, should be extended to all subordinate positions under tbe government. I believe that astrongand growing publicsentimeut demands immediate measures for securing and enforcing the highest possible efficacy in tlie civil service, and its protection from recognized abuses, and that the experience referred to has demonstrated the feasibility of such measures. Tbe examinations in the custom-houses and post-offices have been held under many embarrassments and without pro visions for compensation for tbe extra la bor performed by tbe Officers who have conducted them, and whose commenda ble interest in the improvement of public service has induced thif devotion of time and labor without pecuniary reward. A continuance of these labors gratuitously ought not to be expected, ana without aa appropriation by Congress for compensa tion, it is not practicable to extend the system of examinations generally through out the civil service. It is also highly im portant that all such examinations should be conducted upon a uniform system and under general supervision. Section 1753 of tlie revised statutes authorizes the Pres ident to prescribe tbe regulations for ad mission to the civil service of the United Stales, and for this purpose employ sala ble persons to conduct the requisite in quiries with reference to “the fitness of eacli candidate, in respect to age, health, character, knowledge and ability, for the branch of service into which he seeks to enter;” but tbe law is practically inopera tive for want of tbe requisite appro priation. 1 therefore recommend an appropria tion of $25,000 per annum to meet tlie expenses of a commission, to be appoint ed by tho President In accordance with tbe terms of tills -section, whose duty it shall be to devise a just, uniform, and ef ficient system of competitive examina tions, and to supervise the application of the same throughout the entire civil ser vice of tlie government. I am persuaded that the facilities which sucii a commis sion will afford for testing the fitness of those who apply for offlea will not only be as welcome a relief to members of Con- ress as it will be to the President and leads of departments, but that it will also greatly tend to remove the causes of em barrassment which now inev.tably and constantly attend the conflicting claims of patronage between tbe legislative and ex ecutive departments. The most effectual check upon tlie pernicious competition of influence and official favoritism, in the bestowal of office, will be tbe substitution of an open competition of merit between the applicants, in which every one can make his own record with the assurance that his success will depend upon this alone. I also recommend such legislation as, while leaving every officer as free as any other citizen to express his political opin ions, and to use bis means for their ad vancement, shall also enable him to feel as safe as any private citizen in refusing ail demands upon bis salary for political purposes. A law which should thus guar antee true liberty and justice to all who are engaged in the public service, and likewise contain stringent provisions against the use of official authority to coerce the political action of private citi zens or of official subordinates, is greatly to be desired. Tlie most serious obstacle, however, to an improvement of tbe ciyil service, and especially to a reform In tbe method of appointment and removal, has been found to be the practice, under wliat is known as the spoils system, by which the appointing power has been so largely en croached upon by members of Congress. Tlie first step in the reform of tbe civil service must be a complete divorce be tween Congress and the executive in the matter of appointments. The corrupting doctrine that “to the victors belong the spoils,” i> inseparable from Congressional patronage as the established rule and tives and Senators are entitled to disburse the patronage of their respective districts and States. It is not necessary to recite at length tho evils resulting from this in vasion of the executive functions. The true principles of government on tbe subject of appointments to office, as stated m tlie national conventions of the leading parties of 'tlio coun try, have again and again been ap proved by tho American people, and have not been called in question in any quar ter. These authentic expressions of pub lic opinion, upon this all-important sub ject, are the statement of principles that belong to the constitutional structure of the government. “Under the constitution, tlie President ami heads of departments are to make nominations for office. Tho Senate is to advise and c >nsent to appointments, and tlie Uouse of Representatives is to accuse and prosecHte faithless officers. The best interest of the public service demands that these distinctions be respected; that Sena tors and Representatives, who may be judges and accusers, should not dictate appointments to office.” To this end the co-operation of the legislative department of tbo government is required, alike by tlie necessities of tbe case and by public opinion. Members of Congress will not be relieved from the demands made upon them with reference to appointments to office until, by legislative enactment, the pernicious practice is condemned and for bidden. . It is therefore recommended that an act be passed defining the relations of mem bers of Congress with respect to appoint ment to office bythe President,and I also recommend that tlie provisions of section 1767, and of the sections following, of the revised statutes, comprising tlie tenuro- of-office act, oi March 2, 1867, be re- lie vine that to reform the system and methods or the civil service in our country is one of tbe highest and most imperative duties of statesmanship, aud that It can be permanently done only by the co commend the whole subject to your con siderate attention. It is tbe recognized doty and purpose of tbe people of the United States to sup- presi polygamy where it now exists in our Territories, and to prevent its exten sion. Faithful and zealous efforts have been made by the United .Slates authori ties in Utah to enforce the laws against it. Experience has shown that the legis lation upon tills subject, to be effective, requires extensive modification and amendment. The longer action is de layed, the more difficult it will be to ac complish what is desired. Frompt and decided measures are necessary. The Mormon sectarian organization which up holds polygamy has the whole power of making and executing the local legisla tion of the Territory. By its control of the grand and petit juries, it possesses large influence over tho administration of justice. Exercising, as tlie heads of this sect do, the local political power of the Territory, they are able to make ef fective their hostility to tho law of Con gress on the subject of polygamy, and, In fact do prevent its enforcement. Poly gamy will not be abolished if the enforce ment of the law depends on those who practice and uphold the crime. It can only he supptessed by takingaway tho po litical power of the sect which encourages and sustains it. The power of Confess to enact suitable laws to protect the Ter ritories is ample. It is not a care for half way measures. The political power of the Mormon sect is increasing; it controls now one of our wealthiest aud most populous Territories. It is extending steadily into other Territories. Wherever it goes it es tablishes polygamy and sectarian political power. Tlie sanctity of marriage and the family relation are the corner-stone of our American society and civilization. Re ligious liberty aud the separation of Church and state are among the elemen tal* ideasof free institutions. To re-es tablish the interests and principles which polygamy and Mormonism have imper- illed, and to' fully rcopeu to intelligent aud virtuous immigrants of all creeds that part of our domain which has been, in a great degree, closed to general immigra tion by intolerant and immoral institu tions, it is recommended that tlie govern ment of the Territory of Utah be reorgan ized. I recommend that Congress provide for the government of Utah by a governor aud judges, or commissioners, appointed by tbe President and confirmed by the Senate, a government analogous to the provisional government established for tlie Territory northwest of the .Ohio, by the ordinance of 1787. If, however, it is deemed best to continue the existing form of local government, I recommend that tlie right to vote, hold office, and alt on juries in the Territory of Utah be confined to those who neither practice nor uphold polygamy. If thorough measures are adopted, it is believed that within a few years tbe evils which now afflict Utah will be eradicated, and that this Territory will in good time become one of the most prosperous and attractive of the new States of the Union Our relations with all foreign countries have been those of undisturbed peace, and have presented no occasion tor concern as to tbelr continued maintenance. My anticipation ot an early reply from the British government to the demand of indemnity to our fishermen for the inju ries suffered by that industry at Fortune Bay in January, 1878, which I expressed in ray last annual message, was disap pointed. This answer was received only in tbe latter part of April in tbe present year, and, when received, exhibited a fail ure of accord between the two govern ments »3 to the measure of tbe inshore- of this great success cannot bet b6 advan tageous to this important and growing in dustry., There have been some questions led bef fishing privilege secured to our fishermen by the Treaty of Washington, of so seri ous a character that I made it the subject of a communication to Congress, in which I recommended the adoption of tbe measures which seemed to be proper to be taken by this government in main tenance of the rights accorded to our fish ermen under tbe treaty, aud toward se curing an indemnity for the injury these interests had suffered. A bill to carry out these recommendations was under consideration by the House of Represen tatives at the time of the adjournment of Congress in June last. Within a few weeks I received a com- raunication from her Majesty’s govern- men, renewing tho consideration of the subject,both of the indemnity for injuries at FortuneBay.a&d oftbe interpretation of the treatyin which tlie previous correspondence had shown the two governments to be at variance. Upon both these topics the dis position towards a friendly agreement is manifested by a recognition of our right to an indemnity for tbe transaction at Fortune Bay, leaving the measure of auch indemnity to further conference, and by an assent to the view of this government, presented in the previous correspondence, that the regulation of conflicting interests of tho shore fishery of the provincial sea- coasts, aud tbe vessel fishery of our fisher men, should be made the subject of con ference and concurrent- arrangement be tween the two governments. A sincerely hope that the basis may be found for a speedy adjustment of tbe very serious divergence of views in the inter pretation of the fisheiy clauses of tbe treaty of Washington, which, as the cor respondence between tbe two govern ments stood at tbe close of tbe last ses sion of Congress, seemed to be irreconcil able. In the important exhibition of arts and industries, which was held last year at Sydney, New South Wales, as well as in that now in progress at Melbourne, tbe United States have been efficiently and honorably represented. The exhibitors from this conntry at the former place re ceived a large uumberof awards in some of tbe most considerable departments, and the participation of the United States was recognized by a special mark of distinc tion. In tlie exhibition at Melbourne the share taken by our country is no less no table, and an equal degree of success is confidently expected. Tbe state of peace and tranquillity now enjoyed by all the nations of the continent of Europe lias its favorable influence upon our diplomatic aud commercial relations with them. We have concluded and ratified a convention with the French Republic for tlie settlement ot claims of the citizens of either country against "the other. Under this convention a commission, presided over by a distinguished publicist, appoint ed, in pursuance of tlie request of both na tion?, by bis Majesty the Emperor of Bra zil, has been organized and has begun its sessions in this city. A congress to con sider means for the protection of industrial roperty lias recently been in session in ’arts, to which I have appointed the min isters of the United States in France and in Belgium as delegates. The interna tional commission upon weights and measures also contiuues its work in Paris. I invite yonr attention to the necessity of an appropriation to be made in time to enable this government to comply with its obligations under the Metrical Conven tion. Our friendly relations with the German Empire continue without interruption. At the recent international exhibition of fisb and fisheries at Berlin, the participation of the United Elates, notwithstanding tlie haste with which the commission was forced to make its preparations, was ex tremely successful and meritorious, win ning for private exhibitors numerous awards ofa high class, and for tbe country rincipalpi ■ “ ‘ raised between the two governments as to tlie proper effect and inte.-pretation of our treaties of naturalization, but recent dis patches from our. minister at Berlin show that favorablo progress is making toward an understanding, in accordance with tlie views of this government, which makes and admits no distinction whatever between the rights of a native and a naturalized citizen of the United States. In practice, tbe complaints of molestation suffered by naturalized citizens abroad have never been fewer than at present. There is nothing of importance to note in our unbroken friendly relations with the governments of Austria-Hungary, Rus sia, Portugal, Sweden and Norway, Switz- land, Turkey and Greece. During the last summer several vessels belonging to the merchant marine of this country, sailing in neutral waters of the West Indies, were fired at, boadred, and searched by'an armed cruiser of tlie Spanish government. Tbe circumstances, as reported, involve not only a private in jury to the persons concerned, but also seemed too little observant of the friendly relations vxlitlng for a century between this couutry and Spain. The wrong was brought to the attention of the Spanish government fq a WriptlS protest and re monstrance, and tbe matter is undergoing investigation by the royal authorities, with a view to such explanation or reparation as may be called for by tho facts. The commission sitting In this city for tbe adjudication of claims of our citizens agaiust tbe government of Spain, is, I hope, approaching tho termination of its labors. The claims against the United State! under the Florida treaty with Spain were submitted to Congress for its action at the late session, and I again invite your at tention to this long-standing question, with a view to the final disposition of the matter. At tlie invitation of the Spanish govern ment, a conference lias recently been held at the city of Madrid to consider tlie sub ject of protection by foreign powers of na tive Moors in tbe Empire of Morocco. The minister or the United States, In Spain, was directed to take parLinthe de liberations of this conference, tbe result of which is a convention signed on befaalt of all tlie pow ers represented. Tbe instrument will be laid before tbe Senate for its considera tion. Tbe government of the United States has also iott no opportunity to urge upon that of the Emperor of Morocco the necessity, in accordance with the humane and enlightened spirit of tbe age, of put ting and end to tbe persecutions, which have been so prevalent in that country, ot persons of a faith other than tlie Moslem, and especially of the Hebrew residents of Morocco. The consular treaty concluded with Belgium has not yet been officially pro mulgated, owing to the alteration of a word in the text by tbe Senate of the United States, which occasioned a delay, daring which tbe time allowed for ratifica tion expired. Tlie Senate will be asked to extend the period for ratification. The attempt to negotiate a treaty of ex tradition with Denmark failed on ac count of the objection of tbe Danish government to the usual clause providing tbat each nation should pay the expense of tbe arrest of tho persons whose extra dition it asks. The provision made by Congress, at its last session, for the expense of the com mission which had been appointed to enter upon negotiations with the Imperial Government of China, on subjects of grest interest to tbe relations of the two countries, enabled the commissioners to proceed at once upon their mission. Tho Imperial Government was prepared to give prompt and respectful attention to the matters brought under negotiation, and the conferences proceeded with such rapidity and success that, on the 17th of November last, two treaties were signed at Pekin, one relating to tbe introduction of Chinese into this country and one ra iding to commerce. Mr. Trescot, one of the commissioners, is now on his way home bringing the treaties, anil it is ex pected that they will be received in season to bet id before tbe Senate early in Jan uary. Our minister at Japan lias negotiated a convention for tbe reciprocal relief of ship wrecked seamen. I take occasion to urge once nore upon Congress tbe propriety of making provision for tbe erection of suita ble fire-proof buildings at tho Japanese capital for tbe use of tbe American lega tion, and tbs court house and jail con nected with it. The Japanese govern ment, with great generosity and courtesy, has offered for this purpose aa eligible piece of land. In my last annual message I invited tbe attention of Congress to the subject of the indemnity funds received some years ago from China and Japan. I renew the recommendation then made, that what ever portions of these funds are due to American citizens should be promptly paid, and tbe residue returned to the na tions, respectively, to which they justly and equitably belong. Tbs extradition treaty with the kingdom of tlie Netherlands, wiiich lias been lor some time in course of negotiation, has, during the past year, been concluded ana duly ratified. Relations of friendship and amity have been established between the government of the United States and that of Rouma- nla. We have sent a diplomatic repre sentative to Bucharest, and have received at this capital the special envoy, who has been charged by nis Royal Highness, Prince Charles, to announce tbe indepen dent sovereignty of Roumania. We hope for a speedy development of commercial relations between tlie two countries. In my last annual message I expressed tbe hope that tbe prevalence of quiet on the border between this country and Mex ico would soon become so assured as to justify tbe modification of the orders, then in force, to our military commanders, in regard to crossing the frontier, without encouraging such disturbances as would endanger tbe peace of the two countries. Events moved in accordance with these expectations, and the orders were accord ingly withdrawn, to the entire satisfaction of our own citizens and the Mexican gov ernment. Subsequently tbe peace of the border waa again disturbed by a savage foray, under command of the chief Victo- rio, but, by tbe combined and harmonious action of the military forces of both coun tries, bis band lias been broken up and substantially destroyed. There is reason to believe tbat tlie ob stacles which havesolongprevented rapid and- convenient communication between tbe Uuitea States uid Mexico by railways, are on tlie point of disappearing, aud tbat several important enterprises or this char acter will aoon be aet on foot which cannot fail to contribute largely to tbo prosperity of both countries. New envoys from Guatemala, Colum bia, Bolivia, Venezuela aud Nicaragua have recently arrived at this capital, whose distinction and enlightenment afford tlie best guarantee of tbe continuance of friendly relations between ourselves and these sister republics. The relstlons between this government and that of tbe United Slates of Colombia have engaged public attention during the past year, mainly by reason of tlie project of an interoceanie canal across tbe isth mus of Panama, to be built by private Tbe treaty obligations subsisting between the United States and Colombia, by which we guarantee tbe neutrality of tbe transit and tbe sovereignty and property of Co lombia in the isthmus, make it necessary that tbe conditions under which so stupen dous a change in the region embraced in this guarantee should be effected—trans forming, as it would, this lath- from s barrier between the Atlantic Pacific oceans, into a gateway and ougLfare between them, lor the navies the merchant-ships of tbe world— should receive tbe approval of this govern ment, as being compatible with the die charge of these obligations on our part, aid consistent with our interests as the principal commercial power of the western hemisphere. Tbe views which I express ed in a special message to Congress in March last, in relation to this project, I deem it my duly again to press upon your attention. Subsequent consideration has bat confirmed tlie opinion “that It is tbo right and duty of lbe United States to as sert and maintain such supervision and authority over any interoceanie canal across tbe isthmus tbat connects North and South America as will protect our national interest.” Tbe war between tbe re public of Chili on the one hand, and tbe allied republics of Peru and Bolivia on tbe other, still con tinues. This government has not felt called upon to interfere in a contest that is 1 within the belligerent rightsorthe par ties at independent States. We have, however, always held ourselves in readi ness to aid in accommodating their differ ence, and hare at different times remind ed both belligerents of our willingness tq render sucS eervlce. ■Our good offices, in. this direction, werC recently accepted by all the belligerents, and it was hoped they would prove effica cious; but I regret to announce tbat the measures, which the ministers of the Unit ed States at Santiago ami Lima were au thorized Jo take, with the view to bring about peace, were not successful. In the course of the war some questions have arisen affecting neutral rights; in all of these tbe ministers of the United States have, under their instructions, acted with promptness and energy in protection of American interests. The relations of the United States with tbe Empire of Brazil. continue to be inpst cordial, and their commeriiaHnter- course steadily increases, to their mutual advantage. Tho internal disorders with which the Argentine Republic has for sometime pqpt been sffiicted, and which hare more or less influenced its external trade, are understood to have been brought to a •lose. This hsppy result may be expected to redound to tlie benefit of the foreign merco of that republic as well as to development of its vast interior re- rces. u Samoa, tbe government of King Malietoa, under tbe support and recogni tion of tbe consular representatives of the Ueited States, Great Britain and Ger many, seems to have given peace and trranauillity to the Islands. While it does not "appear desirable to adopt as a whole the scheme of tripartite local govent- .ment, whifh has been proposed, the com mon interests of the three great treaty powers require harmony in tlieir relations to the native frame of government, and this may be best secured by a simple di plomatic agreement between them. It would be well if the consular jurisdiction of our representative at Apia were in creased in extent and importance so as to guard American interests in the surrouud- Lm nave oeen conuuciea .or some inn F „. operation of the legislative and executive at laneAbe prTndpal prize of honor offered capital under a concession from the Co in V »«veral of the'^executive departments, departments of the government, I again | by His Majesty the Emperor. The results lombian government for that purpose ng and outlying Islands of Oceanica- Tho obelisk, generously presented by the Khedive of Egypt to the city of New York, lias safely arrived in this country, aud will soon be erected in tbat metropo lis. A commission for tlie liquidation of the Egypt! in debt lias lately concluded its work, and this government, at the earnest solicitation of tbe Khedive, has seceded to tho provisions adopted by it, which will be laid before Congress for its information. A commission for the revision of the judi cial code oftbe Reform Tribunal of Egypt i.« now in session in Cairo. Mr. Farman, consul-general, aud J. M. Batchehler, Esq., have been appointed as commission ers to participate In this work. Tbe or ganization oftbe reform tribunals will probably be continued for another period of five years. In pursuance of tbe act passed at the last session of Congress, invitations have been extended to foreign maritime States to join in a sanitary conference in Wash ington, beginning tlie first of January. The accejitance of this invitation by many prominent poweis gives promise ot success in this important measure, designed to es tablish a system of international notifica tion by which the spread of infectious or epidemic diseases may be more effectively checked or prevented. The attention of Congress is invited to the necessary appro priations for carrying into effect tbe pro visions of the act referred to. The efforts of the Department of State to enlarge tbe trade and commerce of the United Suites, through the active agency of consular officers and through the dis semination of Information obtained from them, have been unrelaxed. The interest in these efforts, as developed in our com mercial communities, and tbe value oftbe information secured by this means, to the trade and manufactures of the country, were recognized by Congress at its last session, and provision was made for the more frequent publication of consular and other reports by the Department of State. The first issue of this publication has now been prepared, and subsequent issues may regularly be expected. The importance and interest attached to tbe reports of consular officers, aro witnessed by the general demand.for them by all classes of merchants and manufacturers engaged in our foreign trade. It is believed that the system of such publications is deserving of the approval of Congress, and tbat the necessary appropriations for its continu ance and enlargement will commend itself to your consideration. Tho prosperous energies of our domestic industries, aud their immense production of the subjects of foreign commerce, Invite, and even require, an active development of tlie wishes and interests of our people in that direction. Especially important Is it that our commercial relations with the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South Amer ica, With tho West Indies and the Gulf of Mexico should be direct, and not through the circuit of European systems, and should oc carried on In our own bot toms. Tho full appreciation of the oppor tunities which our front on the Pacific ocean gives to commerce with Japan, Chi na ana’ the East Indies, with Australia and tlie island groups which lie along these routes of navigation, should inspire equal efforts to appropriate to our own shipping, and to administer by our own capital, a due proportion of this trade. Whatever modifications of our regulations of trade and navigation may be necessary or use ful to meet and direct these impulses u> the enlargement of our exchanges and of our carrying trade, I am sure the wisdom of Congress will he ready to supply, jOne initial measure, however, seems to me so clearly useful and efficient that I venture to press it upon your earnest at tention. It seems to be very evident that the provision of regular steam-postal com munication, by aid from government, has been the forerunner of tlie commercial pre dominance of Great Britain ou all these coasts aud seas, a greater share in whose trade is now the desire and intent of our people. It is also manifest that the ef forts of other Euroi proportion with their adoption of regular steam-postal communication with the markets whose trade they sought. Mexi co and the States of South America are anxious to receive such postal communl- cations with this country, and to aid in their development. Similar co-operation may be looked for, in due time, from the Eastern nations and from Australia- It is difficult to see how the lead iu this move ment can be expected from private inter ests. In respect ol foreign commerce, quite as much as iu internal trade, postal communication seems necessarily a mat ter of common and public administration, and’thus pel taining to government. I re spectfully recommend to your prompt at- tentiou sucii just and efficient measures as may conduce to the development of our foreign commercial exchanges, and tlie building up of our carrying trade. In this connection I desire also to sug gest the very great service which might Be expected In enlarging and facilitating our commerce on the Pacific oceau, were a transmarine cable laid from San Fran cisco to tbe Sandwich Islands, and thence to Japan at tlie north aud Australia at the south. Tbe great influence of such means of communication on these routes of navigation, in developing and secur ing tbe due share of our Pacific coast in tbe commerce of the world, needs no il lustration or enforcement. It may be that such an enterprise, useful and iu tlie end profitable as it would prove to private in vestment, may need to be accelerated by prudent legislation by Congress in its aid, and 1 submit the matter to your careful consideration. An additional, and not unimportant, al though secondary, reason for fostering aud enlarging tbe navy may be found iu the unquest^‘ u »Ble service to tlie expansion of our commerce, be rendered by frequent circulation of ns!* 1 # the seas and ports of all quarters of the globe. Ships of the proper construction and equipment, to be of the greatest effi ciency in case of maritime war, might be made constant and active agents in time of peace in the advancement and protec tion of our foreign trade, aud in the nur ture aud discipline of young seamen, who would, naturally, in some numbers, mix with and improve the crews of our .mer chant-ships. Our merchants at home and abroad recognize the Talue to foreign commerce of an active movement of our naval vessels, and tho intelligence and pa triotic zeal of our naval officers in pro moting every interest of their country men, is a just subject of national pride. The condition of the financial affairs of the government, as shown by the report of the Secretary of the Treasury, is very satisfactory. It is believed tbat the present financial situation of tbe United, States. whether consid ered with respect to trade, currency, credit, growing wealth, or the extent aud variety of our resources, is more favora ble than that of any other country of our time, and has never been surpassed by that of any couutry at any period of its history. All our Industries are thriv ing; the rate of interest is low; new rail roads are being constructed; a vast immi gration hlnereasluK our population capi tal and labor; new enterprises in great number 'are in progress; and our com mercial relations with other countries are improving. The ordinary revenues, from all sources, for the fiscal year ended Jar e 30,1880, were— From customs ------ $130,522,004 00 From internal revenue - - 124,000,27:5 1)2 $6,107,583. The burden of intereat baa ciency ol the army wouid be larirelv In also been diminished by tbe sale of bonds creased. y bearing a low rate of interest, and the ap- The rapid extension of tbe railroad sts- plication oftbe proceeds to tbe rederap- tern west of the Mississippi rfrer, and the tion of bouda bearing a higher rate. The great tide of settlers which has flowed in stnce March "P° c new territory, impose ou tbe inill- . Ur 7 an entire change of policy. The Within a short period over six hundred maintenance of small poets along wagon millions of five and six per rent, bonds and stage rentes of Level u no lodier will become redeemable. This presents necessary. Permanent quarters at noiuta averyfavoreble opimrttmltT notoniy to selected, ofa more substantial character further reduce the principal of tbe public than those heretofore constructed, will he debt, but also to reduce the rate of inter- required. Under existing laws, oermauent estonthat wh ch will remain unpaid. I buildings cannot be enacted without tbe call the attention of Congress to the views sanction of Congress, and when sales of expressed on this subject by the military sites and buildings have been Secretary of the treasury in authorised, the moneys received have re- his annual report, and reremmend verted to the treasury, and could only be- prompt legislation, to enable the Treasury come available through a new appropria- bepartmentto complete the refunding of tion. It is recommended that provision the debt which is about to mature. be made by a general statute for the sale Tbe continuance of specie paymenU ha* of such abandoned military paste and not been interrupted or endangered since buildings as are found to be unnecessary, the date of resumption. It has contnbu- and for tbe application of the proceeds ti ted greatly to tbe revival of business and the construetkmeof ether poets. While to our remarkable prosperity. The fears many of tbe present poatTare of but that preceded and accompanied resump- «iight value for military* o* to the tion have proved groundless. Noconsid- J mthe changed S STSTmaSS gtabttymtmut totTtoitbd States notes have tbetr occupation la continued at great ex From sales public lands - - 1,016,506 00 From tax on circulation aud deposits of national banks 7,014,971 44 From repayment of inter est by Pacific Railway Companies ------- 1,707,367 18 From sinking fund for Pa cific R’l’wy Companies - 780,021 22 From customs fees, fines, penalties, etc. ------ 1,148,800 16 From fees—consular, let- te re-pa tent, and lands - 2,337,020 00 From proceeds of sales of Government property - 282,010 50 From profits on coinage, etc. 2,702,186 78 From revenues of the Dis trict of Columbia - - - 1,800,400 70 From miscellaneous mrces - -- -- -- -- 4,000,003 88 Total ordinary receipts- $333,526,010 08 Tbe ordinary expenditures for the same period were— For civil expenses, - - $15,693,063 55 For foreign intercourse, - 1,211,400 58 For Indians, - - - - For pensions, indndl $19,341,025.29 arrears ol pensions, - - For tbe miliUiy establish ment, ineluding river and harbor improvements and arsenal, - - - - - For the naval establishment, including vessels, ma chinery, and improve ments at navy-yards, v For miscellaneous expendi tures, including public buildings,. light -houses, and collecting tbe reve nue, 34,535,601 00 For expenditures on ac count of the District of Columbia, - - - - - Fur interest on the public debt, - - 05,707,575 11 For premium on bonds pur chased, ------ 2,795,320 42 - 5,045,457 00 - 56,777,174 44 38,116,916 22 13,530^984 74 Total ordinary expend itures 260,642,057 78 Leaving a surplus revenue $05,883,053 20 Which, with an amount drawn from tbe cash bal ance In treasury,of - - - - 8,084,434 21 Making - 73,908,087 41 Was applied to redempttion: Of bonds for tbe sinking fund $78,652,000 00 Offractlonal cnrrcucy - - 251,717 41 Of the loan of 1858 - ttMtata Of temporary loan Of bounty and scrip Of compound int’est notes Of 7.30 notes of 1804-5 - - OC one and two-year notes Of old demand notes - - - 40,000 00 100 00 25 00 10,500 00 2,050 00 3,700 00 495 00 ipeau nations to eon- _ _ tend with Great Britain for a share of 1758,100 has been paii since March 1,7877, 73,008,087 41 Titer amount due tho sinking fund for this year was $37,931,043.55. There was applied thereto the sum of $73,004,617.41, being $35,972,073.S0 in excess of the actual requirements for tlie year. The aggregate oftlie revenues from ail sources during the fiscal year ended June 30,1889, was $333,020,610.98, an increase over the preceding year of $50,60s),432.52. The receipts thus far, of tlie current year, together with the estimated receipts for the remainder of the year, amount to $150,000,000, which will be sufficient to meet tbe estimated expenditures of the year, and leave a surplus of $90,000,000. It is 'utucate that this large surplus revenue occurs at a period when it may be directly applied to tbe payment of tlie public debt soon to be redeemable. No public duty has been more constantly cherished in tbe United States than tbe »licy of paying the nation’s debt at rapid- y as possible. The debt of the United States, less cash iu the Treasury and exclusive of accruing Interest, attsinod iu maximum of $2,750,- 431,671.43 in August, 1805, and lias since that time been reduced to $1,880,019,- 504.05. Oftbe principal of the debt, $108,- an paid si exchanged for coiu or notes. The increase of coin and bullion in the United States since January 1, 1879. is estimated at $227,309,428. There are still in existence, uncan celled, $346,OS1,016 of United States legal- tender notes. These notes were author ized as a w»r measure, made necessary by the exigencies of tbe coufiiot in whion the United States was then engaged. The preservation of tbe nation’s existence re quired, iu the judgment of Congress, an issue of legtl-tender paper money. That it served well the purpose for which it was created is not questioned, but the em- ployni?nt of tbe notes as paper money in definitely, after t 1 * accomplishment of cere of the line, in active duty, from their regiments, is a serious detriment to tbe maintenance of tbe service. Tho constant demand for small detachments, each of which shonid be commanded by a com missioned officer, and the various details of officers for necessary service away from their commands, occasions a scarcity in the number required for company duties. With a view to lessening this drain to some extent, it is recommended tbat tbs' law authorizing the detail of officers from the active list as professors of tactics and military science at certain colleges and universities, be so amended as to provide tbat all such details be made from the retired list oftbe army. the object for which they were^ pFSYlded. | Attention i? asked WttW aeOOssUy of * i nrovialilff by lealslAtlda fc was not’contemplated by the framers of j providing by legislation for organising the ■ law under which they were issued, arming, and disciplining Ibfl attlte militK Those notes long since became like any - — other pecuniary obligation of the govern ment—a debt to be paid, aud, when paid, to be cancelled as mere evidence of an in debtedness no longer existing. I there fore repeat what was said in the annual message of last year, that the retirement from circulation ofUuited States notes, with the capacity of legal tender in pri vate contracts, is a step to be taken in our progress towards a safe and stable curren cy, which should be accepted as the policy and duty of the government and tbe in terest aud security oftbe people. At the time of the passsge of the act now in force requiring the coinage of sil ver dollars, fixing their value and giving them legal-tender character, it was be lieved by mauy of the supporters of tbe measure that the silver dollar, which it authorized, wouid speedily become, under tho operations of the law, of equivalent value to tbe gold dollar. There were other supporters of tbe bill who, while they doubted as to the probability of this result, nevertheless were willing to give tbe propoeed experiment a fair trial, with a view to stop the coinage, if experience should prove that the silver dollar author ized by tbe bill continued to be of less commercial value tbau the standard gold dollar. The coinage of silver dollars, under the act referred to, began in March, 1878, aud has been continued as required by tbe act. Tne average rate’per month to tbe present time has been $2,270,492. The total amount coined prior to tbe 1st. of No vember last waa $72,847,750. Of this amount $47,084,450 remain in the treasu ry, and only $25,763,201 are in tbo hands of tbe people. A constant effort has been made to keep this curreucy in circulation, and considerable expense has been neces sarily incurred for this purpose, but its re turn to the treasury is prompt and sure. of the country, and liberal appropriations aro recommended in this behalf. Tbe reports of.the Affiutant-General of the Army and the Ciiief oi Ordiuaucc touch ing this subject fully set forth its impor tance. The report of the officer In charge of ed ucation in the army shows tbat there are seventy-sight schools now in operation in the army, with an aggregate attendance of of2,305 enlisted men and children. Thn Secretary recommends the enlistment of one hundred and fifty schoolmasters, with tbe rank and pey^of commissary-serge ants. An appropriation Is needed to supply the judge advocates of the army with suitable libraries, and tbe secretary recomuenda that the corps of judge advocates be placed upon tbe same tooting, as to promotion, with the other staff corps of the array. Un der existing laws, the bureau of military justice consists of ooe office, tho judge-ad vocate general, and the corps of judge ad vocates, of e ! ght officers of equal rank, (majors,) with the provision that the lim it of the corps shall remain at four, when reduced by casualty or resignation to that number. The consolidation of the bureau of military justice, and the corps of judge advocates, upon the same basis with the other staff corps of the array, wouid re move an unjust discrimination against de serving officers, and subserve tbe best in terests of tbs service. Especial attention is asked to the report oftlie chief of engineers upon the condi tion of our nations] defenses. From a personal inspection of many of the fortifi cations referred to, the Seeretsry is able to emphasize foe recommendations made, and to state that their incomplete and defenseless condition is discreditable to the country. While other nations have been increasing tbelr means for carrying on oflfensive warfare and attacking mari time cities, we have been dormant in Contrary to the confident anticipation of preparation for defense; nothing of iin- the friends oftbe measure at the time of portance has bean done towards strength- its adoption, tbe value of the Silver dol- j cuing and finishing our casemated works lar, containing 412} grains of silver, has ! since our late civil i not increased. During the year prior to the passage f the bill authorizing its coin age, tlie market value of the silver which it contained was from ninety to ninety- two cents, as compared with the standard gold dollar. During the last year the av erage market value oftbe silver dollar has beea eighty-eight and a halt cents. It is obvious that the legislation of the last Congress in regard to silver, so far as it was based on an anticipated rise in tbe war, during which the great guns of modem warfare and the heavy armor of modern fortifications and ship) came into use among tlie nations, aud our earthworks left, by a sudden fail ure of appropriations some years since, in all stages of incompletion, aro bow be ing rapidly destroyed by tbe eleiueats. The two great rivers of tbe North American continent, tbe Mississippi and the Columbia, hare tbelr navigable waters wholly within tbe limita of the United value of sliver as a result of tbat leglsla- , btatea, and are of vast Importance k>oar tion, has failed to produce the effect then j internal and foreign commerce. Theper- 'icted. The longer tbe law remains in • manency of the important w_ork on the , requiring as It does the coinage of a South Pass of the MUeiseippl river aeewis _—inal dollar, which, in reality, is not a 40 be assured. There has been no dollar, the greater becomes tbe danger ; fsilur® whatever in the maintenance of that this country will be forced to accept ; maximum channel diuzng the six a single metal as the sole legal standard I months ended August 9, last, fnis exper- of va.ue in circulation, and this a standard , ment has opeued a broad, deep highway of less value than it purports to be worth 1 10 the ocean, and is an improvement up- in the recognized money oftbe world. , ‘Be permanent succeee ot which con- The constitution of the United Slates,' gratulations may be exchanged among sound fiuancial principles end our best in- people abroad and at home, and especially terests all require that the country should , among the communities of tho Mississippi have as its legal tender money both gold I valley, whose commercial exchanges float andbiiver coin, oflntrinsic value, as bull- ; an unobstructed channel safely to and Ion equivalent to tbat which, upon its ! ,r0 ] n tbo ***; face, ft purports to possess. The coustitu*; " cotnprehensiTe improvement of tlie tion in express terms recognizes both gold Mississippi and its tributaries Is a matter and silver as the only true legal tender or transcendent importance. Three meat „ money. To banish either of these metals water-ways comprise-a system of inland 3,272,384 63 from our currency is to narrow and transportation spread like net-work over a limit the circulating medium of l* 1 ^ 6 portion or tbe United States, and exchange to the disparagement navigable to the extent of many thousands or important interests. The United ! of miles. Producers snd consumers alike States produce more silver than any other have a common interest in such nneqnaled country, and is directly interested in facilities for cheap transportation. Geo- maintaining it as one of the two precious graphically, commercially and politically metals which iurulsh the coinage of the j they are the strongest tie between the re world. It wiii, in my judgment, coutrib- fious sections of the country. Three eban- ute to this result if Congress will repeal! n el» of communication and interchange so much of existiug legislation as requires arc the property of the nation. Its juns- the coinage of silver dollars containing diction is paramount over their waters, only 4124 grains of silver, and in its stead an ^ plainest principles of public inter will authorize the Secretary of the Treas- require their intelligent and carefol ury to coin silver dollars of equivalent supervision, with a view to tbelr protec- value as bullion, with gold dollars. This I tion, improvement and the enhancement will defraud no man, and will be in ac- ! Jtacfolueai. cordauce with familiar precedents. Con- ! channel of the Colombia river, for gross, ou several occasions, has altered * distance of about one hundred miles, tlie ratio of value between gold andsll- fr°m its mouth, is obstructed by a siic- ver in order to establish it more nearly in cession of bars, which occasion serious de- accordauce with the actual ratio of-valuer * u navigation, and brevy expense for.' between the two metals. 1 lighterage and towage. A depth of at teast . -■****•.'-Srrys zssi SX ZSZSL'ZSZHinXZ 1 beeu found by experience to dimmish the H rates of interest which debtors arc requir- .jaw, h^a.MiigVth s£ 1 *jssss > SK’sr rt ‘ , “ S&rSSf «?5S 'ISSY *1- *«f ««*!-. nancial history shows how surely money becomes abundant whenever confidence in distance of over six hundred miles, there is no harbor on our Pacific coast which can be approached during stormy weather. An appropriation of $150,- 000 was made by the Forty-liftk Congress tor the commencement of a break-water and harbor of refuge, to be located at some point between the Straits of Fuca aud San Francisco, at which the nocessl- the exact performance of moneyed obliga tions is established. Tbe Secretary of War reports tbat tlie expenditures of tlie war department lor tlie fiscal year ended June 30, 1880, were $10,924,773.03. The appropriations for ? this department for the current fiscal year ties 0 f commerce, jocafaaid general, will amount to $41,093,630.40. | be best accommodated The —,p_ With respect to tlie army, the Secretary propriated is thought to be quite made- invites attention to the fact tbat its strength quate for the purpose intended, The cost Is limited by statute (section 1115, revised of tbe work, when finished, will be very statutes) to not more than 30,000 enlisted great, owing to the want of na^urM advan- men, but that provisos contained In appro- tages for a site at any point on the coast priatiou bills have limited expenditures to between the designated limits, and it haa this commerce have been successful In effecting an annual saving of interest of for this additional outlay, an< the enlistment of but 25,000. It is be lieved the full iegal strength is the least possible force at which the present organi zation can be maintained, having in view efficiency, discipline and economy. While the enlistment of this foroe would add somewhat to tbe appropriation for pay of and the estimates for oootTnuihf Us coo- the army, tbe saving made In other re- struct ion are especially recommended, specie would be more than an equivalent Tbe collections of books, id Itw effi- not been tbeugbt to bo advisable to wn- dertake the work without a larges appro priation. IJ commend Jtbo matter to tbo attention of Congress. The completion of the new budding for the War Department is urgently needed. [Continued pit eighth page ]