Newspaper Page Text
One That Is Interesting Every
THE ECONOMY OF HOME-MIXING
Commlsiioner of Agriculture Nesbitt, In
Ills Monthly Talk, Telia How to Get
the Very llest Returns From Our Soils
■ t the Leaat I’ossib!e Cost—Fair Supply
of Humus Absolutely Necessary.
Etate Agricultural Department,
Atlanta, Ga., Dec. 1, 1896.
FERTILIZING, ROTATION, SOILS, ETC.
The question of fertilizers is just now
one in which evury thoughtful farmer
is interesting himself, not only as to
th ir price and the feasibility and econ
omy of mixing them at home, but also
as to the kinds needed by our different
qualities of land, and best suited to the
most perfect development of our various
crops. A careful study of principles of
plant growth, and of fertilizers, and a
practical application of these principles
to our lands and to our different crops
will certainly mean money to those
farmers who take the trouble and the
time to make the investigation. As no
two crops take from the soil exactly
the same elements in exactly the same
proportions, it follows, that to get the
very best our land we must study
the composition of our soils, as well as
the demands of the crops to be grown
or. them. Owing to the principle just
mentioned, that different crops make
different demands on the soil, it is an
established fact, that a carefully planned
and executed rotation of crops, exer
cises a powerful influence in enabling
us to get the very best returns at the
least cost, and at the same time add to,
instead of diminish the fertility of our
lands. Our first inquiry should be as to
the general qualities and needs of our
lands, and to ascertain these we are
STUDY OUR SOILS.
We all know that the t hree principal
elements, nitrogen, potash and phospho
ric acid are absolutely essential to plant
growth, and that while our lands, as a
rule, supply all that is needed of the
lesser elements, these predominating
elements have been, in a greater or less
degree, exhausted, from our surface soils
at least. To resupply these in the best
and most economical manner, is the
most important subject, which we have
to consider. In beginning this investi
gation, we may lay it down as an inva
riable rule, that no land will give profit
able returns without a fair supply of
humus, or decayed vegetable matter on
which to build our supply of plant food.
Lands which have been recently cleared,
cr those where a careful rotation alter
nating with green and leguminous
crops, has been practiced usually con
tain an abundance of humus, but un
fortunately, ou the majority of Georgia
farms the long continued, clean culti
vation of corn and cotton, without al
ternating with any humus giving crop,
mid the leaving of these bare lands to
the washing, leaching action of winter
rains and spring floods, have all com
bined to deprive them of their last ves
tige of vegetable matter. If we keep in
mind that no commercial fertilizer can
give the best returns without humus,
and if we realize that the destructive
effect of drouths is in great measure due
to its absence, we will at once set about
supplying this necessary humus by
every means in our power. There is
nothing better for this purpose than sta
ble manure, and its beneficial effects af
ter one application may be observed for
several years, but we can only obtain
this in limited quantities, and therefore
we have to cast about for other availa
ble humus making materials. Cotton
seed for clay soils, and cottonseed meal
for sandy soils are excellent, but are ex
pensive. A well considered system of
rotation, using green or leguminous
crops, fiirst for forage and the residue
to be plowed under for manure—is less
costly and on the whole more satisfact
ory. Here again it is necessary that
we be thoroughly familiar with the pe
culiarities of the soils with which we
have to deal. Many soils have become
so much worn and in such poor condi
tion, being hard and dry, that it is folly
to attempt to plant even cow peas as a
renovating crop. On these, Lispedza
has been found to do well. It will grow
where peas will hot, and by an applica
tion of cottonseed meal, may be made
to do well on almost any soil. On land,
which is in better condition, cow peas
are a better paying renovating crop.
Their growth is heavier, their roots are
larger and penetrate more deeply into
the soil, thus bringing to the surface
more of the mineral elements which are
locked up in the subsoil, and when these
roots are left in the land they furnish
m- re of vegetable matter to be con
verted into humus. On richer land
there is no better renovating crop than
clover. Its system of large, strong roots
extending in every direction, and pen
etrating deep into the subsoil, often
reaching down several feet, make it pe
culiarly valuable, but it is exacting. It
will not do well on sa l ly land, but re
quires either clay lari'' br lighter land
underlaid with a subsoil. Nor
will it succeed on laiW* which is not
thoroughly drained. It has not the
power of the cow pea to forage for a
living and having obtained enough for
its ewn needs, to leave a generous share
for the use of succeeding crops. Clover
will only grow on land of good quality
where ample food is furnished ready for
its immediate use, but once well set, it
gives back without stint, all and more
than it has received.
Where the soil is rich in lime Meli
lotus has been tried and found to be in
comparable as a fertilizing crop. Its
roots are larger and extend deeper into
the soil than any other renovating plant,
aud those dying at the end of the
second season and decaying furnish a
large quantity of valuable plant food.
It will not grow except on soils well
supplied with lime, but where this is
present in abundance, though the land
be apparently barren, Melilotus will
grow and flourish, and for such lands
is the best renovating crop known.
Crimson clover, hairy vetch, rye, ail
occupy important places among our ren-
ovating crops, and besides their direct
benefit to the land in collecting nitro
gen possess the power of carrying on
their great work during the winter
months, thus furnishing green food for
farm animals at a season when most
other crops are dormant or dead and
covering and protecting the land for a
period of several months, when it is pe
culiarly liable to injury. On cur ordi
nary lauds and under present condi
tions, rye perhaps is the crop most used,
first, because of its pre-eminent ability
to hunt for food, and again, because it
may be sown up to and even into the
present mouth. The clover and vetch
require early seeding, and also that the
land be of good quality aud brought to
a fine mechanical condition. The seed
are also more expensive—and just now
that is one of the main difficulties in the
way of a more general trial of the vetch.
It is comparatively new and the seed
are scarce aud high, but those, who
have tried it, pronounce £ incompara
ble as a renovating plant. A very re
cent publication from the United States
Department of agriculture recommends
it in the highest terms —states that “it
has been grown successfully in all parts
of the country, and has proved to be
hardy it. the moist coastal regions of
Washington, the dry prairies of South
Dakota and the rich loamy soils along
the gulf.” In our own state the com
mon vetch has been tried for years with
eminent success. The hairy vetch is
hardier and in all respects more desira
ble. ‘‘The seed of hairy vetch should be
sown at the rate of a bushel and a half
to the acre from the latter part of April
to the middle of May for summer for
age, an< from the middle of August to
the middle of September for winter for
age. Tae nutritive value of the hay is
very high. The yield usually varies
from or e and a half to four tons per
acre, according to the fertility of the
soil. We would be glad for farmers,
whenever possible, to try, if only a lim
ited area in this crop, and report results
to this department.
We have said enor h art to thsse ren
ovating crops to enip...... the import
ant fact, that they should form tho
foundation for any system of fertiPzing
which we may adopt, and that their ro
tation with other crops is also of the
utmost moment in reclaiming our worn
lauds. The next step of importance is
to decide on the proper
to select for our various soils and crops,
to be used in conjunction with these
renovating crops and with a judiciously
chosen crop rotation, in building up our
lands. If we could by judicious man
agement and feeding produce all the
manure we need on our farms, this
question would be forever settled, but
this has been found impossible. Under
present conditions the need for commer
cial fertilizers is real, but the enormous
sums speut for this artificial plant food
may be considerably reduced, if we ap
ply ourselves to more carefully consid
ered and more judicious methods. Our
great mistake has been that we have
depended entirely on commercial fer
tilizers to supply the gradually uimin
ishing fertility of our farms, whereas
they should be regarded and used only
as adjuncts to a careful system of ma
nuring and rotation. They have al
ways been found to give best results
when the soil is well filled with organic
matter, and as mentioned before, this
condition can be best maintained by a
syst m of grc«n manuring—that is
plantuig leguminous crops, cutting a
part for stock feed, and turning under
the residue for “laud feed.”
GENERAL RULES FOR FETILIZING.
In buying our fertilizers, two points
should engage our attention and study
—the needs of the land, and the needs
of the crop to be grown. A few of the
most important facts bearing on these
two questions are all that may be at
tempted in the limits of this article, but
the farmer who interests himself will
find that there is a wide field for invest
igation, aud that the vaii itious of re
sults, according to different plans of
management, and difference in soils
and local conditions, are almost limit
As a general rule, however, it will be
found that our sandy soils will require
all three elements, nitrogen, phosphoric
acid and potash, while clay soils usually
contain some portions of the mineral
elements. A soil rich in humus is some
times lacking iu the mineral elements.
A limestone soil generally contains a
good deal of phosphoric acid. Os course
the most certain way of finding out
what the soil needs is to make the soil
itself answer the question by experi
menting with different crops and oiffer
ent fertilizers, but as a gt leral rule,
farmers are averse to undertaking these
experim mts,regarding them as too com
plicated and too expensive. They have
preferred to “trust to luck,” and have
lost thousands of dollars by following
one fixed rule of fertilizing for all crops
and all lands alike.
R. T. Nesbitt, Commissionar.
Sources of Fertilizing Materials.
Question. Please give me a few
hints on fertilizers and the best way to
select them. I must confess to de
plorable ignorance on this important
subject, and often I am confused by the
multiplicity of terms usedin designating
the different plant foods. I have al
most decided to try mixing my fertil
izers at home, but am somewhat at a
loss as to the best brands to buy for the
purpose. Would 1 run any risk in buy
ing the concentrated materials, or are
they of uniform value as to contents
and availability? In buying the fertil
izers already mixed is there any sure
way by which I can at least partially
judge of their merits?
Answer.—lt is the law of Georgia
that each manufacturer register with
the State Department of Agriculture
the sources from which his nitrogen is
derived. This has a more important
bearing on our success or failure with
different crops than most farmers are
aware. Before purchasing any com
mercial fertilizers farmers should care
fully inform themselves as to the sources
from which the three principal fertil
izing elements contained in them are
derived and their availability fi r the
different crops to be grown. The fol
lowing important facts are condensed
from a valuable bulletin by Profess ir
Vorhees. and we trust are iu such form
as to arrest the attention of thinking
farmers, and also aid them iu selecting
the best aud most suitable materials for
the various crops to which they are to
SOURCE.? OF NITEOGBN.
Ail materials containing organic ni
trogen must undergo a change before
the nitrogen becomes available as plant
food, and tlie time needed for this
change varies with circumstances. Th a
material may be hard and dense, or tue
treatment ii has received may delay the
natural decay, or it may be associate !
with other substances which tend
to prevent the necessary changes. This
causes organic nitrogen to differ in its
J degree of availability, not only from
i the material, which furnishes it, but
from the treatment that material has
received. The most valuable sources of
organic nitrogen are dried blood, dried
meat, concentrated tankage, dried fish,
refuse from fish oil and canning estab
lishments aud cottonseed meal. These
products also furnish more or less phos-
J phoric acid.
Other materials which are less desira
ble as sources of nitrogen, are leather
] meal, horn and hoof meal, wool waste,
felt waste, etc. These decay so slowly
that they are of doubtful value unless
; the object is to gradually increase the
fertility of the soil rather than to secure
; immediate returns. Commercial nitro
gen in the form of sulphates and
nitrates is extremely so üble iu water,
and while very valuable is liable to be
i washed out of the soil if applied too
heavily or before the plants are ready
to take it up. In this form nitrogen
should be applied after the crop begins
; its growth, and is then at once taken up
i by the plants while the organic nitro
gen may or may not be used up by the
crop, depending ou whether conditions
are favorable for tho changes it must
undergo before it becomes entirely
SOURCES OF PHOSPHORIC ACID.
The phosphoric acid of commercial
fertilizers occurs in three forms: “solu-
I ble,” that- is that which is easily taken
I up by plants because readily soluble iu
water; “reverted,” or that which is
■ insoluble in water but readily used bv
i plants, and that which is soluble only
in strong acids and therefore is taken
up very slowly by plant-’. All three of
these forms are derived from materials
called phosphates. “Organic’ 7 phos
phates are those containing organic or
animal matter; “mineral” phosphates
are those which contain no animal mat
ter. Os the former, bone in its various
forms is the chief source. Os the latter,
the river and land phosphates of South
Carolina, the “soft,” ‘pebble” and
I “rock” phosphates of Florida, the mine
phosphates of Tennessee, are those with
which we are not familiar. The “min
eral” phosphates are insoluble and
have to be treated and acted upon
strong acids before they become availa
ble as plant food. They are first ground
to powder and then mixed with strong
sulphuric arid, which changes the in
soluble phosphoric acid to the soluble
form—they then become “superphos
phates.” This name is applied to any
material containing soluble phosphoric
acid as its c >ief element, and of course
those containing t-1 e greatest amount
are the most valuable. The "soluble”
distributes itself in the soil and goes to
the ro< it of the plants, while the “re
verted” remains where it is placed and
the roots of the plants must come to it.
2XII important fact to remember is that
phosphoric arid is not washed from the
soil; it becomes “fixed” by combinations
with lime, iron and other mineral sub
stances. Bone or "organic” phosphates
are mure valuable than the “mineral,”
because of their greater tendency to de
cay. ami because they may be used di
rectly ou the soil without other treat
ment than the grinding necessary to
make them more easily available. The
finer this grinding the more valuable
the product, because very fine ground
bone is more easily acted on by the
forces which cause it to decay and
thus it becomes more quickly available.
Another fact which adus to the value of
bone phosphates is, that they contain
considerable nitrogen. Pure “raw bone”
usually averages about 22 per cent of
phosphoric acid and 4 per cent of nitro
gen. In “boiled” or “steamed” bone
not only is the bone made finer, but it
is softer and acts more quickly than if
it is merely ground. By boiling or
steaming the per cent of nitrogen is re
duced, while the phosphoric acid is in
creased, “steamed” bone is therefore
much richer in phosphoric arid than
raw bone. “Tankage” is a bone pro
duct which contains considerable nitro
gen. The amount is variable, depend
ing upon the proportions of bone and
meat used in its preparation. "Tank
age” is not used as much as bone. Os
the other phosphates derived from bone,
“bone black,” “bone ash,” etc., are
much less valuable than the forms al
ready mentioned. Superphosphates
made from animal bone contain nitro
gen in addition to phosphoric acid, and
are therefore often called “ammoniated
SOURCES OF POTASH.
All forms of potash are soluble in
water and are considered as about
equally available, but it is important in
selecting any form of potash to specially
consider its suitability to the crop to
which it is to be applied. For instance,
it has been demonstrated that muriate
of potash has an unfavorable effect on
tobacco, potatoes aud certain other
crops, which is not the case when other
forms of potash are used. Our chief
source of potash salts are the German
mines, from which we obtain the kai
iiit, muriate and sulphate of potash and
other forms in general use. Kainit,
which has obtained such favor iu recent
years, is a crude product of these mines,
and contains, besides potash, common
salt and magnesium sulphate. It con
tains ou an average about per cent
of actual potash. The muriate and sul
phate of potash are more concentrated.
They are manufactured from the crude
forms and contain about 50 per cent of
In purchasing the ingredients for
home mixing of fertilizers, the follow
ing may be depended upon to furnish a
uniform amount and form of certain
constituents, no matter where secured,
and for that reason they are regarded
as standards: Nitrate of soda, sulphate
of ammonia, dried blood, superphos
phates and potash salts, all come under
this head, and like other articles of
trade, have a certain commercial rat
ing. R. T. Nesbitt.
Sugar Made From lieets.
Question. —How much sugar is made
annually from beets in Europe? How
much in this country?
Answer.— During the season of 1891
95 there was made in Germany, 1,850,-
000 tons; in Austria, 1,050 000 tons; in
France, 79*0.000 tons; in Russia, 620,000
tons; in Belgium, 285,000 tons; in Hol
land, 90,0b0 tons; in other countries.
106,000 tons; a total of 4,847,000 tons.
In the same year the product in the
United States was 267,0)0 tons—State
When will it eoine croundl
It always says ’tis coming,
But never can bo found. ;
It’s always in tho distance.
Still it is on its way
And will be here betore long,
In just one more short day.
But when that day approaches
Says till tomorrow wait.
I get so tired of waiting,
it surely must be late.
Sometimes I ask a favor.
Wait till tomorrow, too,
Comes back tho answer to ma,
I know not what to do.
I know too well tomorrow
Will never come around.
‘Tis flitting e’er before mo,
Yet never here is found.
So ne’er wait ti 1 tomorrow
To do what should be dona
Today, for you'll be waiting
Each setting of the sun.
The treacherous one flies on,
And it will ne'er be here.
For when you think you’ve gained It
’Twill be today, I fear.
Tomorrow still will mock you
As loud its echoes ring—
I’ll come to you tomorrow
And all my pleasures bring.
’Tis ignis fatuus like.
E’er flitting just before.
While you will long to catch it
And that it wait implore.
Oh, come, oh, come, tomorrow I
I long to welcome j ou.
Ah, will you ne’er permit me
Your tempting face t > view?
—Martha S. Lippincott in Brooklyn Eagle.
How to Detect a Real Ghost.
Hero is something that will be of
absorbing interest to the great mass
of people who perhaps have never
seen a real ghost, but whoaro living
in mortal dread that they may run
up against one on any dark night.
Tho article is from ‘‘Tho Annual of
“Every ono who has pressed his
eyes when shut 4s more or less
aware of the curious colored figures
that are thus brought before the
consciousness, and others are again
aware that when looking into space
curiously shaped bodies float before
tho eye as though they really occu
pied a place in the horizon of vision
These last are occasionally suffi
ciently obvious to cause annoyance
and the consulting of physicians,
who call the disease by a high
sounding name which means ‘flit
ting flies.’ Those subjective phe
nomena of the eyes have sometimes
assumed very definite forms, and
their study has enabled the physiol
ogists to give what are considered
very satisfactory explanations of the
supposed appearance of ghosts to
persons of diseased visual apparatus.
‘‘Besides bringing out some very
interesting particulars concerning
tho sights and wonders which such
persons see during their waking
hours, these researches have also ac
counted for many so called ‘visions.’
They also give a ready means of de
tecting a real ghost. All that is nec
essary for this purpose is, when the
supposed ghost is seen, to press the
sides of the eyeball with the finger,
when, if such pressure does not have
the effect of doubling the image, the
presence cf a real or objective ghost
may at once bo doubted and the
whole scare bo referred to some de
fect of vision. ”
Dawn In an African Village.
I slept in a iiouso to the
African Lakes company, a creepy
sort of habitation at night. Rats
galore raced about tho roof, chasing
ono another and squealing most
piteously. I was awakened in the
morning by cocks crowing. There
was a of night insects; the
houses in tho dawning light were an
indistinct, dull brown; the grass
was wet with dew. I heard the shuf
fling of reed doors slid to one side
or their grating on clay flooring
when flung open. A few natives
begin to appear, exchange morning
greetings and start to blow up fires;
men, women and- children crowd
around the fires, the gilded clouds
in the east withdraw, the sun peeps
on the horizon, fires are soon desert
ed and daily work begins.—Century.
Mr. Snaggs—Miss Bellefield paid
you a compliment last night.
Mr. Van Braam—Waat did she
Mr. Snaggs—She intimated that
you looked like me.
Mr. Van Braam —I don’t know
whether that is a compliment or not.
How did she come to say it?
Mr. Snaggs—She did not say it in
so many words, but she said you
looked like a smart man.—Pittsburg
Blood and Skin Diseases'
' BOTANIC BLOOD BALM never fails
1 to cure all manner of Blood and 18 ’
1 eases. It Is the great Southern building up
and purifying Remedy, aud cures all manner
of skin and blood diseases. As a buiMtag ,
up tonic it is without a rival, and absolutely
beyond oomparison with any other similar
remedy ever offered to the public. It is a
panacea for all ills resulting from impure
blood, or an impoverished condition of the
human system- A single bottle will demon- ,
' strate its paramount virtues.
for free book of Wonderful Cures.
' Price, SI.OO per large bottle; *5.00 tor six (
For sale by druggists; if not send to us, 1
and medicine will be sent freight prepaid on I
1 receipt of price. Address ■
i BLOOD BALM CO., Atlanta, Ga. I
It has bew ascertained that aH 1
the women who have been disap
pointed in love are not old maids;
that the majority of them are mar
HOOD’S Sarsaparilla has over and
over again proved by its cures,
when all other preparations failed, that j
it is the One True BLOOD Purifier. '
fin Important Ghangc.
Beginning January 1, 1897, the pres
ent W eekly Edition of The DETROIT
FREE PRESS will be changed to a
The price will remain the same,
SI.OO Per Year.
The usual lit rary and humorous fea
tures will be continued, and it will con
tain all the news, making it an up-to
date newspaper. We have just made
an arrangement with the publishers of
this World Famous Paper whereby we
can offer you an excellent bargain.
WE WILL SEND
The Summerville News
The Detroit Free Press
Both One Year for only 50.
156 ron EKS $1.50.
Less than I cent Per Copy.
Sample Copies Sent Free.
Western & Atlantic R. R.
Nashville, Chattanooga & St.
1 . . TO . .
PULLMAN PALACE BUFFET SLEEPING CARS
JACKSONVILLE and ATLANTA
.. TO ..
NASHVILLE and ST. LOUIS,
THROUGH WITHOUT CHANGE.
Local Sleepers between Atlanta and Chat
Cheap Emigrant Rates to Arkansas and
Excursion Tickets to California and Col
For Maps, Folders, Sleeping Car Reservation and
any information about Rates, Schedules, etc.
write or apply to
C. B. WALKER, J. A. THOMAS,
Ticket Agent, Ticket Agent,
Union Depot, No. 8 Kimbtiflllouee.
C. K. AYER, J. L. EDMONDSON, T.F.A.,
Ticket Agent, Chattanooga,
Rome, Ga. Tenn.
JOS. M. BROWN, CHAS. E. HARMAN,
Traffic Manager, Gen. Faso. Agt.,
= CHATTANOOGA, ROME & COLUMBUS RAILROAD =
EUGENE E. JONES, Receiver.
Passenger Schedule In Effect Nov. 15.1896.
SOUTHBOUND MIMAM NORTHBOUND
Sunday only. Daily No. 2. Daily No. 1. Sunday only.
P. M. * A.'M. P. M. A. M.
. ... 745 II 44 Cedartown...., 307 600 , ....
Conneciions are made at Chattanooga? Rome. Cedartown, Bremen and Car
•olton with other lines at these points. For further information apply to
C. B. Wilburn, Traffic Manager, Odell, Agent,
Rome, Ga. Summ erv ille, Ga.
jL - PIEDMONT
WZL H’ Green Bush, Ga.
JAGKS AND JENNE.TS.
A large assortment on hand. Prices reasonable. Stock gvarr.nteed a
e i'. ■- L >' IJ ’ 4 filled for any class—from six months to six years old.
M. K. HORNE., Prop.
DR. J. T. KOAN.
Office in Hoiks & Hinton Block.
lam prepared to treat Rupture,
Hemorrhoids, Fistula in Ano, without
ligature or knife or drawing blood.
My operaiious are quite painless.
A. L. MURPHY,
Repairing a specialty. All work
neatly and cheaply executed and sacis
faction guaranteed. Give me a call.
LaFayette, - - Ga
Does first class Dental work of al)
kinds. Will visit Trion once a month
Summerville, - - Ga
W. H. KNNIB. J. W. STABISO.
ENNIS & STARLtNb-
MASONIC TEMPI E»
ROME, - - - GA.
Will practice in all the courts of
T. J. Harris,
T. S. Bboivn,
riftice over Hollis & Hinton’s store
Summerville, Ga. All Dental opera
tions neatly performed aud work guar
anteed. Prices reasonable.
C. L. ODELL
Attorney at Law.
SsSQtT WuHF Young
tnents In part payment for a high grado Am,
bicycle, watch we send them on approval. K«
work done until the bicycle arrives and prows
ACME CYCLE COMPANY, |
ELKHART, IND. 1