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Southern courant. (Washington, Wilkes County, Ga.) 18??-18??, February 27, 1845, Image 2

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\ hm ha.nr 'v«.'V!y m r, t> rw>* »Mt I'lH r* *», ~ r „„| v . lIIP ,, lh t j«* i »r Three IMareuU II „.» V unl * * |H|<M t*V Iwj il Vie-d, if ~. Mi ttft* (MltrifV W.lhitJt Ihn ••!.* ..J *■* n leiMaro/, U’/e*r/*M« b»«tr.e . :I, , »„ iitßiitf No !• i..1, ttttk'i ivi; jut, |||„| ...i i. Vl () |, the MMa nl too .vit'liiir. any oilier commit tutormeddlers in coin inanities have i>i tin with their neighbor’ll neg itinti.nu. It is no busim-sH of’ ih> its. Tin y have no right to any any thing ; nml Ifthny do, they tberobv become national intermeddler*, uti l bliuulii ho trculcd no cmdingly. It'it there i< another clans of olqiictiona, comprising those that grow mu of the tm turn of our own O/vernmcnt ; iltey uro of n domestic elm meter, and concern nor selves. These ure us u constilutionnl ori gin, and deserve ncituro deliberation. It is said that the proceedings notv ho (ore ms uro unanthoriied hy the fundamental law of the Union, and that wo have no power to •ct upon the sullied ns proposal!. The gentleman from New York (Mr. itanmrd) ill rented his whole speech yesterday to this point, mid presented an argument which was highly complimented hy the gentleman ffro m Mojtsachosefti* (Vfr, fur its ’force arid ability. That gegthiiiun (Mr. It. ) ssid that tiie i louse was proceeding "in contempt of the Constitution,” and that the proposed object was It "fraud” upon the Constitution. These strong c*. prossion* were repeuted, and fell with em phasis fiom the gentleman ; and I listened attentively to liia argument, to hear what reasons he would offer to sustain his ass or. lion ; for I held myself open to convlotlon. And if I could sen th.it the course I intend to take was in contempt of tlicConslltullon, or that I was about to commit a fraud a ‘ gross fraud were hi* words; upon its provisions, I should most cerluinly abandon the project. VVlien I east my eyes, Mr. Chairman, o ver the surface of the World, and survey the nations of the «i,r l l l , nml see that the people of tho United Htates alone, of all the millions of the human family who live up. on the habitable globe, are really free, and fully enjoy the natural rights of mii|r; that all other parts arc dreary, wild, and waste; and that tills is Iho only green spot, the on ly oasis in th« universal rleseit; and then consider that all this difference bowing to our Constitution ; that all our rights, and privileges, and interests are derived front and secured hy it, I am disposed to regard it with no trifling feelings of tineoneeiu and inrllfleft’iice. It is, indeed, the richest in. licritnnce ever bequeathed by patriot sires to ungrateful sons, I confess, I view it with reverence ; and, if idolatry could ev er lie < Sensed, n seems (o me it would he iu allowing an American citizen a holy devotion to the (/’'institution of his country. Such are my feelings; and far lie it from me to entertain sentiments in any way kindred to a disregard for its principles, inueli less n contempt for its almost sa ored provisions. Bin how is it 1 Let usesamlne the mat ter. The gentleman objects to the acqui sition of territory, ns Its calls It, hy joint action of Congress, or by any act of Con. gross in its Legislative capacity. 11 iw arguments rested upon the assmnp. lion, tbai Congress, in its Legislative char acter, could not exorcise any power which was not expressly grunted, nr such as might he necessary to carry out those which were expressly giantcd ; and that there was iio nrigluul substantive power granted in the Constitution for (lie acquisition ofter rilory. This was not one of the original designs In the formation of the Government, ami wav not on a of the ol*|eets to he attain od, as specified in the Constitution, lie admitted that territoty might hr acquired, ifit became a nocesssty incident to the proper exercise of other powers, such as the treaty.makffig power, dts ; hut denied that ihn present proceedings proposed to exercise it iu that way, ami lire re for* was unconstitutional. Now, suppose J grant his position and Ids premises entirely, does Ids oono'.iisjon, in reference to the pionnsition I advocate, necessarily follow/ Do the resolutions of the gentleman from TANARUS» tinrnw«(Mr, Drown) propose to acquire territory 7 We are of ten misled by the use of words, Words, some writer has said, are things; and much misapprehension, I think, has been produced by the trrms mud in this debate. We have had “ annexation,” and " ream novation,” and " ucquitilion of territory, ”j until there is a confusion of ideas In tween the ohjc I desired nml the manner of ob taining il. To acquire, conveys the idea of property, possession, and the right of disposition. And to acquire territory, con veys the idea of getting llm rightful posses ►ion of vacant nml unoccupied lauds. If this lie llie sctiao in which the gimb mnn uses it, | ask, dims liter pi.,it of the gentle, man from Tennessee propose to do any such thing 7 Ills true, it proposes to eo. large n nd t xtend the limit* and boundaries of our Republic. Dot how ? Dy permit* ting an.aher Diuie to Cumc into the Union, With all her Jauds and her territory be 100 ging to her»clf. This Government will U<<juirt nothing thereby, except the sdvan lageago be der<ii and from the union. And, if I understand ibe original suhstsutial do. i sign of the Constitution, the main object of i;» on irti/JD, it was net to at-qui/e territory, it U into, but U> farm a Union of Mute*, a spixies of Confederacy ; conferring ii|«m the joint government of the Cooledcrary. or union, iho "xerc-isc of such sovwrr'gn (rowers as were necessary for all foreign national purposes, and retaining nil others In the States, or the people cf the Stairs,, respectively. TJii* wa* the design, this j was the object of the CotlaUtUtkai itself, w Inch is hut the enumeration of the terms 1 upon which ilur people of the several States agreed to join in the uniou, for the pu rpotes tbuf.fr specified : and in this veav nl the Itiittri rxmr into it, (leatsii amongst the ! ingto Ihn .Mffsinxlppi, not of v»Mvh Si a tea have aim-e yiown up, and hnv» t n likewise admitted. Wh.n the (Writ tm nt w a» first tbmi*d S,,.ih t'aiohna,and Rhode Hand relnsi I to m m n in f.>r somr time. It waauu' njMil after it wax ogam i/.-d, and i oitumnnrtl ..pnalluM hy elevrn of the Stairs, that tin-*.- two com i.d to bnontnc members tis th> Union, t‘mild the United Hiatis, those elevau which lirst «tfi«ri»-«t thin )Vf*rfi(tirut» Uu m»UJ so liovft itc»|if?t«rf tiMi'ivory hlgli Ninth Carolina whs admitted 7 or the tvwlve, w hich foinpon'd the United Ht.itis, when Khodn Island eunie iu 1 There was iu each of those eases an addition of a State, and enlargement of the e iufederated K**- public, juM us them will he it Texas he admitted, ns proposed hy the gentleman from Tennessee, hut no acqnisilion of ter rilory, in the common acceptation of tliut term. How fur, and In how many ways, this Government can constitutionally acquire territory validly, as I have explained, Mr. Chairman, I do not lliinli n pertinent in. quiry at this time ; hut I have no hesitation in snylng, that I think it can Ire done so vn< lions ways,and without resorting to the exercise of incidental powers Ami upon (Ids point the argument of llio gentleman from New York was strangely inconsist ent with itself; for he admitted that wo could ekosliluliooally nripi'no unit hold territory'by right of disevvety ; nml yet, where doci ho find this power among t ’.l'.Oie apeciflcd and expressly granted In llie Constitution 7 I might ask, as did tlm gen. tinman from Massachusetts, (Mr, Win, ibtop,) ifit was one of the original designs and objects in forming our Government "to go In quest of foreign lands ?” There is mi such object stated, and no such power expret/ly given Ami in the ease tlm gen tleman admitted, it striker* trio that il would bnliard to point out the one to which it in even incident, Hut, 1 ir, I do not grunt the position ossit. rued |.y the gentleman from New York, (Mr. Ilainaru, ) I have only been show ing, that, if I were to grant it, it would not affeet my (jisn. And I now state, that I heljevo nothing is clearer than that this Government <«ti in various way* acquire territory, and that lids cun he effected if desired hy Congress hi Its legislative cm paelty, and under ono ol the expn "ll nrovl siona of the Const It nt Jon, This I do not adduce m support of |na *proci adh g I §H vocate, or to show that they arc eoreditti. Ilona I, hut ha rel v to expose the fallacy of tlm argument of tlm gentleman fiom New York. I read in the eccond elausct, latter part, of the tenth section of the first article of the Constitution, the following words: "No Hlnte shall, without the cunarvf ol Covifmm, lay any duty on tonnage ; I cep troops or ships of vvnr in time of peace: rn trr into any uftrirmnil or rnmpael with an. other Htnie, or vviih a far r inn I‘uwrr Ate Now, suppose Congress should, In Itsle* tflslnllvn caput tty, mr it could do «o In no other way, grant its consent to Louisiana or Aikatisaslo enter into no "agreement or compact” with Texas, or Mexico, If you please, for the cession of eeiluin territory bordering upon those Hiutes, upon the com ditionsthat one. ha If of the unoccupied lands so ceded should belong to the Ktalemaking I lio negotiation, uml the other half to he «e d<(| to the United Nlnte», and to be held subject to the laws regulating her other public domain ; with tlm fnilhcr condition, that, so soon as the territory so Crab and should In come sufficiently populated, Il should he admitted ns one of the Nlales into this l it ion: rim anv gentleman say that v''ongrcs« lias not got ilia power to give such consent? And, if such const nt should he given, and such Agreement und compact l.i uttered into, mat Congress would nut have, in llml way, most ehm!y,acquired territory in its legislative rapacity, nml that uiuh'l un ex. press provision of the Constitution t Hut, am I said, I do nut rely upon that vlmv; I do not and am not advoealing that mode of proceeding. 1 was only tracing the argument of’''it gentleman from New York, who broadly denied any snob power to Congress, Ido not propose, it will !,e recollected, to acquire territory, as I uu> derstund it, nt nil, hut simply to admit a m-w Ktate Into the present union ct States, And the authority upon which l rely la no forerd construction, hut the plain simple language of the Constitution, which de. Clares, In the ft cot clause, Ud section, 4th article, tliat«~ "New Htates may be admitted by Con gres* into this Union; but no new Htnte stiall be fo'iitf and or eretlrd within the juris dirii"ii nf uny other Htnte, nor uey Hiato be fi»i "ied by the junction oftwoor morn Hi«t» * or pa'l* oAHtcie*, w ithoiit the consent of the l.'-gisUitires ul the Mis'* * nuticerneil, ns well ns of Congress.” The terms hero used ore broad, niiqunli. fled, nml tin rest ikied, "New Mutes may he "dimiied by Congress into tins Union. ' Hut it is said that il was only mcani by ilnwh* Wo'd# to give the power to udmit Hinii " fotineil out of tlie teiritory if the United Htiiles, ami wiibiu their jurisdiction, and iml to include n foreign Htule. Toth's I might reply, that it is the petitm princtpU —a begging of tho question. Whether tliut was the rm-sning ami intention is the main inqoiry ; ami from tho words used, no such inference can ho drawn. Hut the gentleman from New York says tin believes that ihot was ibe m* suing and intention ; and, Amber, that lie believes that, if any other opinio" had been entertained, tlie Constitution would never have Uu-n rafifi. ed. Well, sir, iiis belief is not aigument. I suppose that every true Mahomet*" vert, ly believes that Christ w-ss tit impostor And I will do the gem'small from New York the justico to admit that his faith is quite as strong ; but we are taught that we should not only behere, but be able to give a "reason for the faith that ts in us.” And here, again, I listened for the reswet* of the gentleman's faith, but lirard nothing better t' an a repetition of his belief. Let us. then, examine the matter ?f mWnfJ?, \ |<i t|*#» ttnt'i*. th r y H!i Th«? trrin 11 fltilt*' * [« ««»dy 1“ Matimvrnity of govctnnw M. Amt any Slate, cvi * "tm ot tlm t grow mu up in the Imaom of« us own lernioi v, upon ndtnlsst iit, »t,n\ 'in « u -id. i red to *oWtn extr-nt t >r> ign. t ••• " A Stair, it ino>!| have a s<|mrate t it mu i lie a p diliual c -mimmiiy "'Sil'; it mu* t have a Government ~*< am! to Nome extant Independent * f, ion. for If il ho in the Union, tie nft |otild liol he admitted ; that onMMAt tie a.liidlted which is already in. Ami if it is ikgShitr, and out of the Union, seeking ndnti "Yon. it must la com idi ii and tfuo ini It of to ne for. eign. Now, as to cntlt* mporntitou,* and suhsequeni history. What lelation did North Carolina hold to the Union wlistt it was first formed 7 Mint refused to ratify the Constitution, umbwas most dearly out of it. 'Uhe lu*ii arfh ht ot tin Constitulfnn dm la red— "'l'lki rallfleniion of the conventions of j nine Hiata -i slut 11 ho miflicicnt lor the estah. I lir.hne lit ol this Constitution Im'lwi eii the i Htates *o ratifying,” lint more than nine iniiie and 'ltvi n did , Idhvlng North <lira linn and Klnsle Island out, as before 'tilled, Tlm Union was formed, and the CofiStltu* lion cstaldisliad, for those that add ih* Ucvcmment pros coded to (dftfhi/.a. I lion. North Carolina was then eertalnly I out of the Union Site hud the right and ' power to remain out. If she hud, would ! site not have been foreign to it ? And, con -1 wequently, was shu riot foreign win never I (lie Government went into operation with# ' out her ia 11 float lon t Theca sent' Vermont ;Ih more in point, Him wa* a separate and j Independent community, with a Govern ' merit of her own, Hie* wo not even onrr of the original revolting thirteen ooUniirs. Mbe had never been nulled iu the old Con. | federation, and did not recognise the pH 1* ] diction of |lie l!riit< and Htates, | Mr. Cm.nmor, of Vermont, interrupted, I and said, that Vermont did at that tore ful | ly recognise tint authority of the I oiled i Htates. | Mr, Hie),lhiim, Vis, sir: but not over . her. Hhe recognised the authority of the : United Htates n« we do tloil of or j Knglatid, or uny other foreign Dower lMhe i »vas a distinct, iurlepenrlerit (hiviwlietlt | vvitliin heiself, HJic had In r own Const! tulfou, her o« n l.cgislature, hei nwn Kj. ccutive, Judiciary, and Military establish I merit, and exercised nil Ihn (acuities of a sovereign and iudepnmlt nt Ktute, filte had her own post office doparlmr id, and ri vr li ne laws and regulations of trade. The United Htates did not nlti iupt to exercise any jurisdiction over her. The gentleman I'rom Vermont suys that Nevv York claim od jurlaiiction over, and finally gave her consent Ibr the admission of Vermont as a Hlnte, This is true, Hut Vermont did not ri cognise the irlsdietimi of N< w Y nk; she hade defiance to It, And nth r years hud rolled on m ibis situation, she trenterl ! with New York as one sovereign ti"iits *»itli anothei, and paid thirty ihomnoffiedol ; lars to New York, (or a relinquishment of tliut jutisdlction which she would not allow i to ho exercised, and was then admitted in Jto fire Union ns one of the Hliitc», These : arii tho facts of that ruse. Again: front 1 the contcmporanruuM history of the (lines, | is it n violent presumption to suppose that the convention, at tlo* tjme (Ids clausa of l t ln Constitution was insert, and, were looking i to the probability of some of the other licit- Ii -.li colonies throwing oil’tlm got eminent of 1 the mother country, and uniting with us/ Wo know that tlm old Articles ofOnnfed , i intion lutd beet! adopted with that view, for i they contained an < xpress provision, that— " Canada, acceding to this Confederation, j und joining in mausurvs of the Uidled M|nt< s, i hid| l,e admitted Into und entiled ito fttt the ndvnttlnges of this Union ;!m rm other colony shall Ira admitted j same, uiiless such admission ho agreed to , by nine Htates,” And as we know that flit olde«t of tin* j Cnn»i it ol lon was to remodel tlm Union, and ; onlu'gti the powers oI Congress, as we I as j the general powers of the Government— and we find in the prcseM Constitution tin* j clause which it contain* in relation h Ibn admission of now Hiotes, in lieu of the one |U>»! staled In tlm Articles of Con fide ration ' ■ ,ris il not reasonable to suppose tliut tlm stlrnr idea was still retained, and instead of j requiring the consent of nine Htates, or two. thirds, sis tlm admission of any hut ('anu> da, llml it was the Intention for tlm fuitiro to put them all upon the snnin tooling, and leave it with Congress to admit them, if a ease should arise 7 Ami is it not prosuma- Ido, tlint if the intention find been to with, draw rite privilege before extended loX’an. a<ta tn express terms, it would hovoweati done In terms equally plain urn] explicit 7 llut again t It lias been said, that what, ever Cong less does in its legislative oapa city l» of a municipal character, and par takes of tlie nature cf laws, which arc sub, i ject to repeal; that iu this way ono Con. grass cannot bind another succeeding cue; und that, though aueh a measure as is pro pos' and might Im adopted lids session, yet tlm next one might repeal if, and there is noth, ing in the Constitution to prevent it, Are Hut is It true that Congress can do nothing ! Irfftslalirrlj) w Inch is not mimk*i|i/ in its tti- I ture, and subject to repeal 7 It certainly i is not. Ho fur from tins being correct, I I will venture to affirm that no action of Con. gross which proposes terms to other parties ' can ever bo constitutionally repealed uft«*r : the term* have been neoeded to, ami rigfta and interests have thereby accrued. H* s.des charters, we have a number of iqii acts. All our acts relating to patents u,l j land gran's are of this class. And how slid , this Government become possessed of the i fertile and extensive lands of Alabama and I Mississippi, but by Irgiilati re compact and agreement with the State of Georgia, bv j w hich they were ceded 7 And could that. I or any oilier simitar compact, he repealed / And how docs a legislative compact bo- j 'ween this Government and a foreign Sta'e ’ and Lading 7 Hot I . anm* dwell wp* Another objection offi>nd ia.liist if T* Xss h» e,,nsittuti<*ti*l!y repn-m nti and on this th*>r end in til* H. nate for some time; for the t •,n*tiiwimtt dvdart’s,lltat "no(arson shall h, n If, pu , niativc who hull n„t lisvr ,a tniiuii lOyllte eg* ol twenty •live yetti*. mel In en see, a year* <| rilitnn ts the I'nanl Shite*, \> . And us the pcopln ofTexas nro not tdtiKelts of the United Htutra, it would require serm and uittr years, respec. lively, before nteiitliers to the House and He tin lit could lie chosen, which is wholly inconsistent, it Is said, with the idea of the constitutional admission of her as a ,State. Hut vvhitt is to he Understood hy tiiese otau hcn of the Constitution / Tlm gentleman from Virginia (Mr. Drortigoole) yesterday said that they ffi'plied only to natnrulited foreigners ; that residents of foreign ac, quii'ai tei rilory, as in ilm case of Louisian. a, he a rite citizens inimei'iutcly, without naturalization ; nml lltoruffire these clauses of ilia Cdnstllntimi did not refer to tliut class of citizens. Tin* may bu a oorrmi answer to tlm objei lion; inn I Imu* another iu my iniiiil, which hi tons to mo much morn satis factory, It i- ( .undid l*i lire nature of our Government and ihv meaning of the term I titled Stale*, VVhut are we to understand hy tin* I nited Hiutes ? No particular mini | Inn nl Hiaies, certainly, lor an Intlellnilo time; nr, particular, unvarying nationnl i | ih nlity, as we speak of Kugluiitl or Uranim, ! but *u«li Htates and Hindi country iin imiy 1 lio united at any given time under tin* ('on ; stilulieil, ’Uhe Uniii and Htates, lit lii'M, were 1 101 leh veil, al'lerwunls lldtleeii, and now 1 twenty-six ; anil to lie a citizen of tin* U -1 lilted Hiutes is to lie a eltiz, n ol'idtlier ol' a. ny otic of ilir iii. Ail tliut is imccssary to eninply with these requlsltmnsoi llio Con. stiiniieii Is, that tlm Uiembor nr Henttnr, when lie taken Ids seal, slinll liiivo lictl a nltlzen of one of the Hiutes lor ill" lime re quired, |f Texas ho hdmltti dns pmpnsMl. she Immediately brc.'iiim's one of inn I nlted Hiutes | uml the inciiibrr ouiulng here, who slinll have been a citizen of tliut country forwven years, will of course have been n eltlsn nos one ol’ihe tiiun United Htates (or tlm time required, 'i'liis must have hei u the ease with Nurili ('iindina and llhude Island umi Vermont, before alluded to) ■lbr bell,ic Noilh Curulltui i utile in, as I huvn suld, the Union wits funned, tlm Gov ernment was organized, and the I lulled Hiutes, as tin it formed under tlm Constitu tion, were well known, North Carolina was not nun of them ; she was a state to herself, with her own Govetnmeul. When she consent'd to come in, ami did cane In, she Him l/ei.'eme out of the United Htates j and though her im'inbeis Imd never heel) citizen* of the then Government, yet they had been citizens of ono of those Htates which toiDied the Governin' lit at that time, and were constitutionally admitted. Ho with ith"de Island ufteivvards; and panic, uliirly so with Vermont, Her peopie had never acknowledg' and ihemsi lves to bo oitl zen« of either of the old thirteen Hiutes.— And yet, when sit" was adinllled, sh" he eii""' one of ihn Htates of tlm Union; and he people, who had been her citlft'ns for seven nod nine years, had been eitlz* us (hr those respective terms of mio of the United Htates, as they then existed ; and so will it be with Texas and Imr citizens, if slm lie iiiliiilih and Into the c.'uirtinvii fraternity of Htates, Hut I have not limn to notice more of the objections, I have only glanced at tlm mnsl prominent of them ; and I shall now brief, ly state sonic of tho reasons that induce mo Iu favor annexation upon tlm principles Ain ted, And, to begin negatively, 1 will stale 'liui 1 uni not nt all influenced hy the milk' ttiry va vv which some gentlmneuliuvo wlrli iiiuuli eorneslitcss presented, It will mid Inn little strength, in my opinion, to our Hotilhw Astern border in that particular,— Hueli nt least, was the view entertained at the time ourclttim wo*relinquished. The idea of an nrmy landing in Texas, and marching sevornl hundred miles over her lowlands to attack tlm city of New Orleans, I consider almost preposterous, Other con siderations opart, Texas has no porta ofsuf Aden! depth of water at tlm bar to allow large ships to enter, ns wo sec by the ro* port of the surveys of tlm roust before ,ys. Galveston Is tlm In st port, and that ha* but twelve feet of water ut tlm bar, A mao of war could never enter on* oi lier Inn hors. Neither am I much influenced hy the pecuniary advantage* to he derived from the union of that country with this—the henetiis of i rude, commerce, vVc. So far u« these nro concerned, the accession will he to the interests exelusivrdv es the North and West, That section which I rrpre. sent will have no port or shire in tlioin.— ’{'l"' North will lone an enlarged market for their manufactures, und will Imve n new competitor in tin* so ld Against tlie South, In tho growth of the raw materia! which siic now lias to buy, nnd by which sin* will hcennhlrd to get it cheaper. The soul" with tlte West with their breudsttifl's; while the Mouth wilt have nelhitig to *cll to i fin people of Tex as, but wilt f"e| sorely tier formidable competition in the produc tion of cotton and sugar, her great stunles. If I looked t<> these views, tlie re fore, only, t should most certainly oppose it, in he. halfbf my section; for I take it for grant, ed that, notwithstanding the same Maple* might ami would begrown in Texas, wheth er in the Union or out of it, yet they would not be grown to *u< h extent, ami tlie whole resource* of llio country would never In* so : speedily and.fully developed out of the U nion, a* they will tie if once brought with in the wholesome influence of our laws nnd institutions. I am, however, influenced by ! other considerations. These 1 will state. 1 In the first place, tho people of that conn- ! try are mostly emigrants from this. They \ are of the Anierico- Anglo-Saxon race.— They are from us. and of us, bone of our j bone, nnd flesh ofour flesh. Our sympa- . Ist bnxent tor **«f uuMvtMtmws lend !■'«« «M gex»rmsvp«*. *„d. in ** • slshlishvixt ot and the seme, it tx but os''trsl thsi we vrM |.v * xtetwl them a h. Ip.ng hsmt. though ewt indtxidusl in. ter, si* may n.a in' thefphy advancrtl, Again : l nm»ivln it Important that the rotten sod xugnt grow mg inter* M* of this continent, ns far n« possible, sitouhl ho ttih. pvt in iho same laws—to picvont tinduc •dvsmag, s, weurrd hy tri-aty. sepi/ale regulation* of trade, «'r oiherwlsh. inf tlm markets of the world. If'lTxas should re> ■ nain out of the Union, nml a livahhip should spring up there to the staples ol the .South, our interests might be greatly injn* red hy regulations with other countries, partial in theirs, and discriminating against ours, '('his cannot he, if the vv hole he made subject to llio same laws and policy. A gain! a large section of that country lie* upon navigable waters flowing ini" the Mississippi, and must always seek a tour, ket through the out li tof that river, More limn three hundred thousand dollars worth of rotton, pioduced In Texas year In fino last, was shipped from New Orleans; first pay lug a duly upon entering tin* limits ot our country, and limn lining entitled t" tlm drawback upon final shipment, All this j is ini'utivrnletit, uml will cuntlnuv to In. i erensc. Ami tlm history of iho world shows ! the in ft suily, fur the peace and quint of a country, that lliennvlgution ol'walnrxshould lie Iren and t quill to those who llvo upon their holders, Tlm pooplo of th» western country, on the Mississippi und it* brunch "S, fell the difficulties attending a contrary sint" of things when Spain held tlm mouth of that nolilo slreum. Our commerce, up. on arriving at New Orleuiis, was subject to outrun* restrictions; difficulties throat, cuing tlm poaoo of this country were the re i suit, and to avoid them,'was perhaps the ronirolllng reason vvith Mr. Jefleroon fur the acquisition of Louisiana. To avoid similar ones between this Government and the people of llml section to which I have alluded, It is Important that It should ho hnnight into this Union. Again t I am In favor of It, because It will a Abril an nutlet, u retreat, for our an cumulating population. It will open anew field for tlm pioneer. Our peoplo am di*. posed t" roiii", They like nevv cminiiies and new lands ; mid them they will have opened up a great Southwest within our own ennntry, In which iho lid" of emlgra tlon may Ifiivv -to which our people may go llir the purpose of gain, adventure, and cnierpriM', carrying with litem their cus. loins, their habits, llmir law s, and " house hold gods," without Incurring llmjmbilily of expairlat'on, or fuiTelllng ill" Inestiuin. h|i> rights ami piivileges ol' l.elng Amerl. entt citizens, With tills question Is also to he decided nnollier nml a greater one; which Is, win ih er llio limits of this Itcpubllo are ever to he enlarged ? This is un important step in nettling tlm principle of' nor future exten sion. Nor do I concur with geiitlem"it vv ho j seem tn apprehend so much dang'r from tliut quarter. We were the oilier day ir minded hy the gentleman from Vermont (Mr, t'ollamer) ol’tlin growth of the Uo man Umpire, which went on increiising and enlarging until It heenmo unwieldy, and fi ll of it* nwn weight ; nml nl'the pres ent extent of Kngluml, stretching to all sec tiuns of the world, governing one-xlxih of the human family, and which is now hard ly ix I*l «i to keep together its extensive parts Hut there Is a wide dillerencc hetwoen j these cases. Itome extended Imrdomlniona Iby cnnuucts, Hli" mail" the rude inhalil. mnls i/I her prov im es stihjeol* und slaves. She compelled lliern to lieur the yoke, jit it nut sit hid was the requisition of her chief tains, und none w ho wire overcome hy her arms could escape the ignominy. England extends her dominion and power upon a dif fcrciit principle, llcrsistho principle of eolonUntimi, Her distant provinces and dejmmlericli s are subject Iu her laws, hut are deprived of ihn i iglits of representation. Hut with us anew system has commenced, suited l" and clinriioteristio of the atre. It is, if yon ph use, the system of n confeder, ittion of States, or n Hepubllo formed by the Union of Iho peoplo of sepurute inde. pendent Hint/sor communities, ye ldingso muches the national oharnoior or soveroign powers a* are necessary for national and liireigii purposes, and retaining all others for local nml dooiostie objects to ihernselv s sepontlely and severally. Ao/I who shall undertake to soy towh il extent this system may not go 7 Mr. Madison laid down the | rule, In speaking ofoflr system, which he called tho ' basis of uumixed and exteusivo republics,” that llio "natural limit” to which it may go i* " that distuuoe from the centre which will barely allow the repro. sentntives of the people to meet as often ns may be nocessiiry for the administration of public afiairs,” Ami upon this rule, in consideration cf the improvements of the uge, the facilities of truvl nml the truns. mission of intelligence, who eon say that this entire continent Is l"/> w Ide uml exten sive. The distance from this place to Or. egon and California, inn few years, will be travelled in as short a time as it was to Georgia when Mr. Madison wroto. Then it required from twenty to thirty days fora Representative from that State, our extreme Southwest nt that time, to come to the sent of Government, and now the distance is performed in three days. And Represen. tstives from Louisiana, five or six hundred miles tho other side, now require loss than hulf the timo then required by those from Georgia to come from their remote districts. And who can toll whit improvements for the speed of travel are vet in store 7 Now elements in nature are being daily brought into subserviency to man When Mr. Mad. I isnn penned the remarks l have quoted, in 1787, the power of steam was unknown, and other agencies now used were not dreamed of. Then it would have required a whole day to have got news fr/rni this place—not this city, for there was none here then—to Hahimorc, now it requires but an instant, as quick as thought or light ning ; and, with comparatively a small a mount of funds, the «3me facilities could be rxt«wd, and tn IkitsS, I'iitciMtlti, and New Oi iniih, w ni*i is G up") th> l's rWc, We five. * r, n■< only in a r w nervs. phi »■ , hut, ,t.vii iit, iw *v w»s- «vv, si.it we imve stalled a m w system of tfoverene nt, a* new snd as dili'etenl trim those ot th« old world, as the lUeonian system ol IMul. o» -phv w«s novel and di tils rent from the Ar. istutii nn, and destined, perliap*. to produeo quite a* great a revolution in the moral and pnlitlunl world as his did in iho sciemilio. Ours is the true American system, and, thong Ii it is still regarded hy some us an i xpermn nt, yet, so lur it lias succeeded he yolid tlie expectations of many of its host friends. And who is prepared now to rise up and say, " Thus far it shall go, and no further ?” Hut I un in favor of this measure for another reason. It is, as tin* hoiiornbln i huirmuu ul tlm Committee on Foreign Af lairs said in hie opening speech, in ono sense and 111 one view, a sectional question; u Houtlicrn question. It will not prouiolu our pecuniary iuiurosts, hut it will give us political weight ami importance ; and to this view lam not insensible. And though I have a patriotism that embraces, I trust, ull parts of the Union, nml which cuuics ma to rejoice to sec ail ptosperouu umJ hap py ; ii rid though 1 believe I uni lice froth the iiiflucnuo of unjust prejudices and joai* ousies toward* any purl or section, yet I iinust con less tliut my fiuliiigs of uttach* mint lire most ardent towards that with wluoli all my interest* umi association* ure ideiilllled. And is limit natural and ex cusable tliut tliay should be 7 Tho South is my homo—my fuilior land. There sleep the ashes of my sire uml grandsirca ; there nro my hopes and prospects ; with her my families uro cast; her Into is my lute, and her destiny my destiny. Nor do 1 wish "to hoax’’ gentlemen from other sections upon this point, a* sonic have intimuted.— I am candid and frank In my acknowledge, me*nt. This Acquisition will give add!, tlonul power to tho Hoiithwestorn scotion ip the National uounuils; and for this pur* pose I want it; not that 1 am desirous to sco art extension of t lio "area of slavery,” us some gentlemen have said its ullculs would he. lam no defender of slavery in the ahstraot. Liberty always had charms for me, ami I would rejoice to sac all the splis of Adam’s fi.nlily, In every laud and clime, iu llio enjoyment of those rights wliioli oro sot liiflii in our Declaration of Independence ns 'naiurul and inalienable,’ il'n stern necessity, hearing the marks und impress cil'ihci Ituiiii ol’the Creator himself, did not, in some casts, Interpose ami prt« | vent, Hitch is tlm case with the States wli'tio slavery now exists. Hut l have no wish losco it "Mended to nlhor countries ; I and il'tho unite,xalioit ul Texas wcio for ' the soft purpose of extending slavery whom I it does not now and would not otherwise ex* 1 isi, I should oppose it. ’i’liis is not the oh joi.'t, nor will it he its ellbet. Slavery al. ’ ready exists In Texas, and will continue I" exi.-t lie in Til- /uni" necessity that pre j vails in tlm Southern Htutosprevuils there, laud "ill prevail vv lieicver the Anglo Maxell and African lace, arc blended in the mi mu proportion". Il matters not, so far as this institution is cnnoonicd, In tho abstract, wlii'lltri' Tex un h" in llio Union or out of it. Tb.i!, tliciciore, is not my object; but it i* lie political advaiiluges it will secure, with the question settled us pioposcd ; leaving no door <(</ n li>r future ugiiuliou ; umi thus preserving a proper balance between the | difl'ereni sections of the country. This is my object , and is it not proper and light I If tie look it roil ltd and sec tlm East, by lier economy, In r industry, und her enter, prls", by her comtmnoo, navigation, and mechanic arts, growing opulent, strong, and powerful. The VV<w/, which a few I years ago was nothing hut un unbroken wllderiicss, cinlirai ing tile broad and fer tile valley of the Vlississippi, where tlm voice of civilization wjs never beard, is now teeming vv ith its millions of popula tion. The lido of emigration, still rolling in that direction, has nlreudy reached the hum of tho Rocky Mountains, and will sothi break over those lofty barriers and be dlffiisrd in tlm extensive plains of Oregon. Already llio West vies Ibr llio ascendency on this floor ; and why should riot llieHoutli also he advancing ? Arc her limits never to lie enlarged, und her inllucnco and pow er never to ho Increased 7 Is sfie to be left l" hind in the race fbr distinction nml nggrarnhseiTK'itt, if you please / As one ol'm i' sons, I sny no. Let her, too, enter the glorious rivnlship ; not with feelings <d rflrl/e, jealousy, or envy ; such sentiments are not characteristic of her people ; but with aspirations prompted by too spirit of a laudable emulation und un honorable am j liition. From ilie Athc.ni Fanner, Carnosville, Feb. 4. 1715. Mr. Chase.—l discover in tlm Banner of the 50th ult,, over the signature of 11., a communication intimating his understand ing that Gen. Harris has resigned Ids com maud of the 4th division, 0. M. and res psotfully suggests the name of Gen. Hums of Jackson, as tho most suitable person to fill tho vouuncy, being nn able and efficient officer, Permit me, sir, with deference to Gen Hum’s claims, to suggest the name efltoci. Henry Freeman of Franklin. Asa sol (tier and a patriot of (he late war with Great Hritain and the Indians, poet, Fie.. man’s claims can bo surpassed by no mub'u In >he six counties composing the divMiin. lie was under the gallant Newman ; in tho memorable campaign in East Merida, in IHit*; also under the command ut ihu m* less brave and gallant Gen. John Floyd, against the Creeks in 191 .‘1 und 1914. lie is now vigorous and in the prime of life, being 40 years old. lntheevent of a va cancy, aud hi* election, his friends guar antee, that should an opportunity offer, he will neither be a Hull at Detroit or an Ar • void al 7Fe#( Point. Should Doct. F. be iuduccd to run a succinct memoir of his campaigns with Great Britain and tho Indian?, shall be forthcoming, for the in