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Chronicle & sentinel. (Augusta, Ga.) 1864-1866, April 25, 1866, Image 2

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Ctpiiirle k Ifutimi AUGUSTA, G*., WSU«IiOAV MORMNQ, APRIL 2*. VALEDICTORY. The present is the list number of The Au gwita Transcript. Tbs necessity for the ex istence ot the paper has ceased. There are Do w two journals iu the city, with ample en dowments and under abie editorial conduct, which are devoted substantially to the same policy as that which, accduling to the measure of our ability, we have advocated during net#ly a year past. ihu=e papers suffice to Gati-fy the business requirements of Augusta. Wo began, as our readers remember, in the the dar!#da>s of military censorship and sup pression—days when ev ry variety of scandal was expended upon our people, and when they were obliged to speak in their own defence, if at ail, ‘‘with bated breath ’’ We knew that there wan peril in the undertaking, however prudently it might be carried on, to vindicate the honor and contend for the invaded inter ests of our country then recently subjugated to martia! control. We have been annoyed by inquisitions aud warnings ; we have been for a time suppressed. But amid these un pio.irant experiences, it was our excaediog great reward to know that we were enabled to contribute something to the general cause. And wo have been encouraged and sustained by frit c. t ships that we cauuot forget, and that we now recall with profound emotion, as the old association which has buuud us is broken forever. 'The Trarucript henceforth will be merged into the Chronicle & Sentinel, We have trans ferred its advertising lists subscriptions, and good will, to that oid and wed established paper. Under the administration of its pres ent editors, wo assure ourselves that our pat rons will not be di.-sfttisded with the change. We trust that they will extend to this excel lent journal the same favor that we ourselves have been '..out to receive at their hands. Its wide circulation renders it an excellent adver Using medium ; while its able conduct will recommend it to the public at large. In conclusion, we thank the press of our own and other Stub's for the general courtesy and frequent kindness which we have experienced in our intercourse with them, and wish them a iurga prosperity. Our readers will perceive from the above valedictory of tho Proprietor of the Transcript that that paper has been merged in the Chronicle & bentinol. - The books, advertising and subscription lists, have been transferred to tho Proprietors of this journal, who will furnish to the subscribers of the Transcript, tho Chronicle and BentineL for the unexpired term of their subscriptions. The advertise ments of the Transcript wiil be continued in this journal during the time for which the contracts were made, and we hope to receive a continuation of the patronage heretofore so liberally exteudod to that journal. THE COUNTY COURT. Tho importance of this tribu u al, wo fear, is not fully realized by our people. The idea is prevalent that it is a Court of very limited jurisdiction, and that no very great legal abili ty Is required for the adjudication of such cases as will oume before it. In many portions of tho State men'are running for County Judges, who have received no legal training, and who are, consequently, to a very great extent, in competent to fulfill tho duties of the office. We observe that, iu many instances, very young mou are candidates, who have little more to recommend them than tho mere tact that they have been admitted to the Bar. This is a grave mistake, and one which will be productive of much evil and inconvenience to the commu nity lor the next four years. It will be well to bear ia mind that the Judges to be elected next month will hold their offices for jour years, and, if incompetent meu selected, the county wiil be cursed with an inefficient Judi ciary for that length of time ; provoking litiga tion by errors, and wearying the people by con flicting decisions, and bringing the Court into contempt. The jurisdiction ot tho new Court is concur rent with that of the Superior in all civil cases, except iu causes involving tho titles to land and proceedings iu Equity. In criminal mat-, tors the “jurisdiction oi the County Court, at its monthly aud semi-annual sessions, extends to all offenders of which exclusive jurisdiction not vested iu some other Court.” It will be borne iu mind, further, that the County Court is empowered to draw both Grand aud Petit Jurors, tho former oi whom are required to servo once a month for six mouths. This jury service aiouo will prove a source of great an noyance to our citizens, uuless tho Court is properly organized and its duties directed and executed by men of experience and legal abili ty. Again; there is a large class of cases in which the County Court has exclusive civil and criminal jurisdiction—cases ia the adjudication of which tho highest order of legal ability will bo required. There cau be no doubt that this new tribunal is clothed with powers that are as important, every aspect in which they can be viewed, as those of our Superior Courts. We fie! assured that the voters of Georgia could uot be induced to trust the administra tion of the Superior Courts to men who have shown no legal ability, or who were of even doubtful reputation as members of the com munity. Now, we do not hesitate to say that the election of men of inferior ability to pre side in our Superior Courts, would not produce as much injury to society as tho eleotiou of 6uch men as Judges of the County Courts. This arises from the very condition of the two tri bunals—the oue beiug already established, with all its dockets, records, files, papers, &c., arranged and systematized—the other requir ing to be organized, its powers prescribed and definitely indicated, the usual paraphernalia of Courts to be supplied, the records establish ed. officers instructed, and all things thereunto belonging settled. To do this will not only call into exercise legal experience, but will de mand an administrative ability of a high or der. Again ; the numerous class of cases which will, in the very nature of things, arise between the white and colored population, growing out of the changed relations of the two races, will require a most prudent, impartial, and firm administration of the laws. The times and their surroundings admonish us that if we would restore the laws and preserve order in our midst, the energies of our whole people— those iu office and out of it—will be taxed to the utmost limit. We are surprised and pained to see that so little interest is takeu in this matter. The best interests of sdeiety are at stake, and the good men of the country will be held respon sible for the character of the men who are elected. They have it in their power to con trol the popular will, and give it such direction as will secure the proper administration of Jus tice. It they remain listless and unconcerned, the result will be that incompetent and, we regret to say, in many cases, vicious men will be elected. We cannot understand how a man can vote for another forjudge, who would not, if he had a ca-e iu Court, entrust it to his man agemeut as au attorney. Let every citizen ask himself this question, in making up his mind as to his vote . ‘‘IV ould I select this man as my j attorney, and entrust him with the maijngo -1 mint of a c .se involving my life, liberty, or property ?” If he would not, then how can he conscientiously throw his ballot and influence in favor of such an one, who will, as Judge ot an important Court, pronounce judgment upon these very IrSuea, alike lor himself and his fel low-citizens ? Os hardly less importance is the office of County Solicitor. there will devolve upon this officer, as counsel for the State, the impor tant duty of putting into proper shape all alleged violations of the criminal laws of the country, and of prosecuting to trial and judg ment ail cases of a criminal nature which may arise in the County Court. It is a very common remark, that if a party accused of crime has money to fee counsel, there is very little chance of a conviction What a commentary is this upon our Courts and Judicial proceedings! And yet, if we ex amine it but a very little, we shall find that it is the result of this : When a party is accused of crime, instead of employing some “very promising” young lawyer, he seeks at once the men of the Bar who, from experience, talent, character and position, are enabled to wield a strong influence with the Court and Juries. Now it seems plain that that which individuals do for themselves, they should feel bound to do for the community. It, by failing to take proper interest in the coming eiections, our people should have sad dled upon them incompetent Judges aud Soli citors, the fault will be theirs, and they must boar the consequence with as much patience as they can. We will have done our duty as journalists in directing their attention to this matter in time for them to give such direction to the elections a3 will secure the return of proper officers ; and have endeavored to lay the matter before the public so plainly, that none can misunderstand. Our only desire is the welfare of the community. . ARE YOU RUINED 1 A worthy lady of Georgia, writing recently to a friend, propounded the inquiry which is placed in the caption of this article. She in tended to ask whether her friend was one of that large class whose property had been swept away by the desolating tide of war. Nothing is more common than to speak of those per sons who, irom any cause, have lost their ma terial possessions, as ruined. And he question o which we have referred was only in accord ance with this popular idea of calamity. We dlsßeht, however, utterly from all such ideas and terms. It is time wo had learned that there is a worth superior to that which is mere ly material—a vaiue wholly unaffected by those vicissitudes to which all wealth is liable. Wo hold that there are thousands of men in these Southern States who, six years ago, were luxuriating in all the ease and splendor which the most ample affluence could supply, but who are to day literally penniless and des- yet as far from being ruined, in any just sense of the word, as when in tho unmo lested possession of their large estates, They have to-day as high a sense of honor as they ever cherished ; their character has suffered no deterioration ; their, devotion to all that is true and just aud upright is as inflexible as it ever was; in the possession of every quality by which true raauhood is elevated aud adorned— how absurd to speak of such men as ruined ! We met during the past week a bright-eyed young Georgian in quest of employment.- When the war broke out he was residing in a Northern State, and holding a commercial po sition which was opening the way to fortune and independence. As early as possible he relinquished every advantage, and ran to ally himself to what he believed to be a just cause, Entering tho service a3 a volunteer, he per formed gallant duty throughout tho war. The contest over, he is without business and with out money—having sacrificed everything for the Confederate cause. Is this young man ruined ? He belonged to one of the best fami lies in the South—have his relations repudiated nim ? Has his character for veracity and hon esty been impeached by his withdrawal from the post of profit and of plenty, to take that of weakness and of want ? Is he less high-souled and estimable and noble to-day, than when he was on the high road to preferment in a flour ishing Northern city ? Far, very tar from it. And so far is he from being ruined, that his friends must regard with no common admira tion that magnanimity of character which prompted him to rympathize with the suffer ing and to sacrifice for the distressed. Poor now ho is, and willing to accept the humblest position in which he can gain an honest living; but ho bears about with him a loftiness of soul aud a consciousness of rectitude belonging only to “the noblest work of God.” If tko most worthy object which a man can propose to bimseif, in living, ba material suc cess and accumulation ; it he only can be said to accomplish the true end of his being who surrounds himself with the appliances of wealth, lives in ease and comfort and transmits property to his descendants, then the loss of fortune must be held to be the highest calami ty. Then is ha deserving of our commisera tion indeed, who, either by the ravages of war or the reverses of business, finds himself in poverty. Ruined we may truly call those who have tailed iu attaining this grand end of hu man existence. If, However, man is to be measured by a higher test than his capacity as a money-bag, and his success iu filling it and in retaining the treasure for his personal grati fication, let us cease to predicate ruin of those who have lost their accumulations or failed of success. If to possess principle Indicate a higher development of onr nature than the acquisition of property ; it devotion to truth and justice mark a higher style ot man than devotion to gain ; if to be conscientious and self-sacrificing deserve a more elevated rank in the scale of virtues than to be independent and self-indulgent, then is he not a mined man who, though bereaved of that which the great English bard pronouuces “trash,” retains nevertheless those characteristics which ally us to ‘‘the things which are pure, and true, and honest, and jasf, and lovely, and of good re port.” Demand for Lands. —The General Land Of fice has just submitted for approval to the Secretary of the Interior an official schedule, showing that an aggregate area of 9,042 02-100 acres in lowa, which are swamp lands, have been disposed of as ordinary public lands, and authorizing that State to locate the same quan tity of acres as indemnity, in other public lands. Returns received on Saturday morning show that at the Denver City land office, in do, 10,590 acres of public laud were disposed of during the month of March, part for home stead actual settlement, a portion for cash, and the residue by locations with bounty land warrants. Nearly 4 000 aces were taken up last month at the branch office at Ironton, Missouri, with homestead actual settlements. 13 THE OUPH STILL DISLOYAL 1 It the sacred 3»ge who exclaimed, “Ob ! that mine enemy had written a book,” had been a victim to such slanders as are dus.minated against the people ot the South, through North ern books and presses, he would never have wished for his enemy to take to bock-making. All the agencies for manufacturing and moulding popular sentiment seem employed in the wicked work of convicting the South of disloyalty. Ike utterances of a Congress steel ed against us—the fu’minat;on3 of the hust ings and the pulpit, and a tribe of nsnny-a* licer3 hired to travel through our borders and furnish slanders to a venal press—are all com bined to make up a false and cruel verdict against us. It is not enough that, since the surrender of our armies, there has been an overt act of resistance to the National authorities in all our borders ; it is not enough that the smallest garrisons have not only been undisturbed, bit the recipients of courtesy, aud often of the kindest hospitality ; it is not enough that our soldiers have been faithful to their paroles, and our people to their oaths of allegiance ; it is not enough that Leo and Stephens, and a host of others of known veracity, have borne solemn testimony to the good faith of our people. These evidences go .or nought against the clamor which nils the channels of Radical slander and ignorant prejudice. It is most true that wo have not stultified ourselves by hailing with enthusiasm the res toration of the National flag in place of the loved ensign for which we fought so long and suffered so much. Such a course would have called down the just contempt of all honorable opponents, and been a virtual acknowledgment of our insincerity. The great fact that some of us thought peaceful secession a right, and all acquiesced in its vindication until the destiny of the whole people was absorbed in the issue, seems not to bo understood and appreciated. And when we abandon the principles and hopes Gs the past, we aro not only expected to draw tho vail of oblivion ovur its cherished memories, but re quired to regard as criminal that which en listed all the high qualities of our manhood.— We have done all that has been required, in atonement for our offences; we have con formed in our legislation to the wish of the Executive and the demands of Congress ; and submitted to all the disabilities and burdens which result from defeat. What more can we do, to appease the Moloch of fanaticism which controls our destinies ? It would seem that we have at least donß enough to silence the atro cious slanders upon our good faith, which seek to fix on us the charge of disloyalty. LABOR IS HONORABLE. Southerners have ever been regarded by the majority of Northern citizens of the Republic, as being altogether averse to manual labor. Indeed, it has never entered into their hearts, to conceive the possibility of a people, whose temperament and general habitß aro such as our’s, condescending to work. Such were the exaggerated ideas which had obtained at the North, relative to our social position and wealth, that tho title of “Southern Planter” was tho synonym of all that was and is de sirable in this life. Tne term conveyed to their minds the id<;a of a perfect eiysiuin, through whose plains, though milk and honey did not actually flow, these delectables and their like certainly abounded. Palatial residences, situate in the midst of beautiful groves, overlooking extensive fields —which waived in golden grain, or were white in the staple, called King, to and fro, on whose balcony walked, at even-tlSe, the Southern gentleman and his lady, and through whoso magnificent parlors swept strains of sweetest music, which, wafted on the summer breezs toward tbe negro’s quarters, lost its in flueco in the harshness that brooded, there abouts, constituted the Northman’s view of Southern life. Ourl Western brethren took a like view of us. Even in Tennessee and Ken tucky, the people regarded us from tho same standpoint. They esteemed the Southerner too proud to yield obedience to the fiat which eminated from the Ruler of the Universe. It i3 useioss for us to say that ia this we were ill-judged. With a large class work was not a necessity ; consequently it was not doue. With tho latger class, however, it was absolutely essential to their being, and it was cheerfully performed. The results of the war have developed the fact, that Southern chivalry does not (as it never did) proscribe labor. History affords no instance where a people, who having stake i and lost all in. the isaue of battle, wont to work with greater oheerfalness and heartier zeal, than have the people of the South. Fail ing in one undertaking they do not become discouraged, but immediately Bet about to test the probabilities of the sucesss of another. To excite their greatest enthusiasm, and cause them to exercise their greatest energies, It ia alone necessary that the work to„ which they are called be honorable. Ex-Confederates are at work all over this land. If first class accountants cannot obtain positions for which they are eminently quali fied, rather than be idle, they will accept the office of driver on an Express wagon, and from thence, if merit is rewarded, will win their way to better places. It was only yesterday that, in a walk around the city, we observed several young men, in their faded jackets of grey, engaged in tilling the soil. These men are heroes, as much to be commended in private life, as they were deserving of praise on the battle-field. Libor is honorable, and those who fear it not will reap the reward promised the faithful laborer. RUMORS OF CABINET CHANGES. The National Intelligencer of the 14th, re ports the usual number and variety of rumors afloat, concerning a change in the Cabinet, none of them, however, appear to have much truth in their composition. The Radicals openly asserted for months that the President was practically powerless to remove any of hia Cabinet officers, inasmuch as the Senate would never confirm those ap pointed to succeed them, and the present in cumbents would retain their positions until successors were confirmed ; but in this they are greatly mistaken. All the laws and pre cedents establish the President’s power of re moval. He can appoint a successor to any member of his Cabinet at any time, who would thereupon enter on the duties of the office to which he was appointed Immediately, and act as the head of the department ad interim, or until he was confirmed or rejected by the Senate. There is no law prescribing that such appointments shall be immediately sent to the Senate, and weeks of delay might ensue before the appointee would be rejected if obnoxious to that body. The President would then have the vacancy to refill, and the Senate the same right of rejection, and so on indefinitely. The essential and practical right of removal the President undoubtedly has, as more than one of bis Cabinet will learn should they provoke ! or challenge him to exercise it. The subject ! has been repeatedly discussed since the or-; ganizition of the Government, and the same • conclusions invariably 'reached. No longer ago than the winter of 1860-61 the Secretary of War was removed by the President, aud Joseph Holt appointed to his place without the consent or advice of the Senate. That body was not even notified of the removal until after the passage of a resolution intro duced by Slidell, of Louisiana, calling upon tho President for information on the subject. LETTER FROM SAVANNAH. Uoibams’m-nta not apprehended—Oonversati sa with I*.an t'is—Crop Prefects— A Freedman’“Expert nee at School— Wrecks of Steamer —Uonfedfr.ee Fo-tificCi n —rherman’s EiUh-Wo-ks a: Skier's Feny—The Steamer Swan— Her Oifictrs, &c., Sckbvjsn House. Savannah, Ga., ) April 17th, ISC6. j It was not until after my return from a stroll around the “Forest City” that I experienced tho embarrassment consequent upon the prom ise that I had made you. Throwing myself upon your generosity, I will write enough to redeem my promise. As you anticipated, I en joyed excellent opportunities of informing my self in regard to the opinions of the planters along the River, as numbers of them took pas sage for Savannah on the steamer Swan. They communicated freely with me in regard to the present state of affairs, crops, freed men, &c. Ailkpoke cheerfully and happily of the efforts of the President to restore the countvy to peace and quiet, and confidently relied upon the in telligence and magnanimity of the Northern people to sustain him in the impartial discharge of his duties. They speak discouragingly of the crop3. Bat few of them plunted over half a crop, and, by the indifference aud laziness of tho negroes, it has been neglected, and their fullest expectations will be realized if their plantations prove self-sustaining the present year! Some of them Beemed to have been favored in the selection of their hands, and ex pected to be as fortunate as usual. The freed mer. generally manifest a quiet, indifferent dis position—though very lazy. I was very much amused by the narration of an incident which occurred on tho plantation of the gentleman who related it. He said that •luring the late warm spell, ho was at work in the yard about eleven o’clock, in the morning, when he discovered Zake, the ablest hand on his place, approaching him. Zcke was, ho said, about forty years of age. In his usually kind manner, the employer asked Zake why he had left the field. The negro replied, it was too warm to work, and that he had promised “the lady” to go to school at that hour. The em ployer deeming further inquiry and conversa tion useless, lot SSeke go his way—notifying him that a deduction in wages would be made for the time lost. On going the rounds in tho evening, the gentleman discovered all his employees gathered together under a tree, evidently en gaged in conversation. As Zske appeared to be the orator of the occasion, my informant asked him what induced the assemblage. He was answered by Zeke: “I am relating my ex perience at School.” “Weli,” queried the old gentlemen, “what do you think of it ?” “Tink,” said Zske, “its all foolishness. I neber learn all dem foolishness. Dat woman tako more then we make, and den do us no good. I gin’ her my dollar and quit.” It is unnecessary to add that Zeke’s experience satisfied the rest. The Savannah is at present in excellent “boatifig order,” there being a general depth of about six feet. It is very difficult to navi gate on account of its extreme crookedness, and the presence of snags. Some idea can be formed of these difficulties, when I tell you, that we passed the wrecks of fourteen steamers, five of which had been burned. Three others bad been raised. This fatality was confined for the most part, to Northern boats, whose officers refusing to pay the price demandod by the old pilots, trusted to their own “inventive brain” to supply that knowledge of the chan nel, which can be claimad only by those who have had years of experienca on the river. The fortifications erected by onr (Confed rate) soidiers, ciaim the greatest attention and excite the greatest interest. They are situated wherever a suflioient elevation and range could be obtained, the most prominent of which are those at New Savannah, Shell Bluff. Brown’s Landing, Mathew’s Bluff, and old Sister’s Ferry. The ladies especially seemed attached to them, and, even after their deser tion and the cause lost, in whose defense they were erected, regard them as hallowed objects around which clustered many sad, yet pleas ant recollections of p-jst pride and glory. At Sister’s Ferry where Sherman crossed the Sav annah may be seen the fortifications erected to cover the pontoon bridge. An excellent road was cut down the steep bluff to the bridge for the passage of his artillery and wagon train in the crossing of his troops across the river. The skirmish with Wheeler’s cavalry before crossing was explained by a young lady residing at the ferry, and she interested the passengers for a, considerable time with extracts from a diary taken while his troops were crossing. I have already carried this scrawl farther than I in tended, but I cannot close without mentioning in terms eminently deserved, the officers of the Swan on which we took passage. She is com manded by the polite and attentive Captain Mike Cobsn— long and favorable known to the travelling public. He is a gentleman of experince, and spares no trouble or expense that would contribute to the pleasure or com fort ot the passengers. The tabl9 is always supplied with the very best the market and river affords, and I would recommend this boat to those of our citizens wishing to visit our sister city and at the same time add pleasure to the transaction of business. She makes her regular weekly trips—leaving Augusta every Saturday afternoon and Savannah Monday morning—our estimable leliow citizen, Jno. A, Mooro, is the agent. Anew and beautiful steamer “Hard Times’’ has been added to the Iffi®—she leaves here to-day, and will bo in Au gusta Thursday morning. She is certainly the prettiest and most comfortable boat that has oeen to your city in many years. Her gentle manly mate, Jno. M. Bunch, will take pleasure in showing her to any who may desire to see her. More anon. Ohio. General Jim Brownlow and Woodruff, Edi* tor of the tnion, had a difficulty at the Capi tol in Nashville, on the 17th in9t. Woodruff was severe in an article on Brownlow, who sneezed and spit into a copy of the Uniion, and threw it before Woodruff, when the latter was ooming out. Brownlow had an altercation with oodruflf, calling him a liar, etc. Pistols were drown, but no blood shed. There is talk of expelling Woodruff from the floor of the Legislature. There are also rumors of a duel and further riot. ?.he Secretary of the Treasury has issued an oruer requiring great caution in the importa tion of hides from Panama, on account of the cattle disease prevailing there. Texas, Greene County. Ga., i April 18th, 1866. j Editors Chronicle and; Sentinel : This morning quite an accident happened to myself whilst visiting this portion of our county, and as It was one of those peculiar accidents which seldom happen to one of my age, we think so much of it as an accident that wo are impelled “to mention it to you.” We are ge nerally opposed to public exhibitions of such things, but the tones, circumstances and present situation of the country will, we hope, be a sufficient apolJigy. Perhaps you may become impatient; if you do, light your cigars and take your editorial chairs—quietly and da - cently—for we are determined to tell you all about it. The digression is intolerable, you say—perhaps you may talk Dutch, “Tam it, vy does the fellow keop3 us in suspense.” We will tell you—“but don’t tell your wives.” Last Saturday evening a friend of mine came into my office and very politely invited me to accompany him homo. I told him if was-Sat urday. “But,” said he, “aint you agent of the Freedman’s Bureau ?” I replied I was not act ing ; I was an ex-officio cum otio et dlgnitate —non-comatibus iu svvumpo. “Have any business with the Bureau?” “Well, a few of the drawers do not work easily, aud need a little thumping.” “Very well,” said I, “I will go and see if I have a clean shirt and col lar.” “What!” said he, “does the Bureau have shirts and collars, as well as drawers?” I went home and said to a Freedman, with all the dignity of office : “ This drawer wants a clean shirt and collar—in a hurry.” “All right, Ole Mcssa, him dar in a miuit.” Speedi ly arrayed, I started ; aud in due time reached the hospitable residence of a relative, situated upon the banks of the Apalachee, not far from its confluence with tha Oconea. On Sunday we went to hear the Bov. Mr. Langford, of Clarke county, and listened as attentively as wo oould to his able discourse : Luke, 2d and 14th. Saw many pretty girls and.two beauti ful brides “dressed up to doodle-doos.” We must confess that our eyes wandered, and we could not repress the thought : “beautiful for their size, aud elegantly and eliptically du plexed.” \\%, however, endeavored to pray for forgivenecs lor our sins of omission and commission— that our wheat, corn and cotton may be good, and for the general prosperity and peace of the country. But methinks I hear the Speaker’s gavel— “ The accident is tho order of the day!” Ah! this is serious to you, Messieurs ! To be as careful iu review and as brief as time will permit, here is an exposition of the whole matter —here are the facts : In the year eighteen hundred and thirty seven I became acquainted’with the old “Sen tinel,” who acquired influence and reputation throughout Georgia for deep thought, “wis dom, moderation and justice.” But during the Rebellion, our hero fell from his high estate—not in defence of Constitutional Liber ty nor the cause of States’ Rights—but through aud timidity ; “wiring in and wiring out”—’twas hard to tell whether going North or coming South. This was sad, sad to us, who had so long welcomed the old “Chron icle” as a friend and companion at our homes and firesides. But on this Sunday, for the first time, hope has revived. “ The Old Chronicle revived!”— the first dawn of “reconstruction!” Go on, Gentlemen, we shail again welcome our old friend, and aid you with heart and hand. Nothing rejoices us more than this, we had well nigh said resurrection, of an old friend. We wish you God speed, and long to see the day when the old Chronicle will again flourish in the affections of the people of Geor gia. Tho crops 31b promising in this part of Greene county, called the “Forks.” D. Habeas Corpm Restored. We copy from the New York Times of the 18th inst. The fo’lowing telegraphic dispatebj: JUDGE UNDEKWOOD’B DECISION. The Attorney General to-day made his report to the President iu tha habeas corpus case de cided by Judge Underwood at Alexandria, on the lllh inst. aud which waa referred to Mr. Speed for his opinion as reported in my dis patch cf the 13th inHt. It will be recollected that Judge Underwood decided that the late peace proclamation did not pretend to revoke the previous proclamation cf President Lin coln suspending in certain cases the writ of habeas corjms in tbe States lately in insurrec tion, and upon this view of the law Judge Un derwood refused to grant the prayer of tho petitioner. Upon the facts the Attorney- General corues to a different conclusion from that arrived at by Judge Underwood, and re commends that an order be made for the re lease cf ihe prisoner. Upon this recommenda tion the President this afternoon directed that an order be issued for the discharge of the prisoner. It is scarcely necessary to add that where over the rebellion is declared to have ceased, there the writ of habeas corpus is no longer suspended, and wherever the civil law has re sumed its authority, the military power will not be c-xercieed except to aid the civil au thorities iu executing their decrees, and for the latter purpose only is the military arm retain ed ia the States lately in rebeiliou. effect of the peace proclamation. Several different and erreneous versions of the President’s intention and construction of the Peace Proclamation have appeared ia the papers. The only official construction by the President of that proclamation which has gone forth up to this time is contained ia an answer to the following dispatch : Augusta, Ga., April 16, 1866. Maj.-Gen Howap.d : Does the President’s proclamation remove martial law in this State ? If so, General Brannon does not feel authorized to arrest parties who have committed outrages on freed people or Union refugees. Please answer by telegraph. Davis Tilson, Brigadier-General Vols. To this the following answer was sent to day by direction of the President. War Department, ) Washington City, April 17,' 1866. ( The President’s Proclamation does not re move martial law, or operate in any way upon the Freedmen’s Bureau in the exercise of its legitimate jurisdiction. It is not expedient, to resort to military tribunals in any case where justice can be obtained through tho me dium of civil authority. E D. Townsend, Assistant Adjutant General. The above dispatch, from Adjutant General Townsend, was sent from Washington on the 9th (ninth), over a week before the order was issued by the President, and not subsequent to it, as the above dates indicate, and the force of that answer, therefore, is rendered nugatory by the order of the President. This Is the first definite indication that the tuibeas corpus is practically as well as legally restored Capture cf a British Flag by Fenians.— The Herald’s Eastport special, of the 15th, says nine armed Fenians captured au English revs* nue flag on Indian Island the evening previous. They belonged to the crew of the Fenian pri vateer, from which they lowered a boat and proceeded with muffled oars to the spot under the guns of the English war ship Pylades, and in reach at any time of the picket. The boat’s flag was surrendered without a shot being fired. It is believed there were no soldiers on the Island. It is surmised that the Vera Cruz was wreck el on the Carolina coast on the 12 th. HON. ALEX. H. STEPHENS BEFORE IKE CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEB—-A FULL REPORT OF HIS TESTIMONY. Wo present below a full and correct report of the testimony of Hon. A. H. Stephens before the Reconstruction Committee of Congress : Hou. A. H. Stephens was before tho Roron struction Committee on the llch inst, and ho was sworn aud examined by Mr. Boutwell as follows : Q. State your residence ? A. Crawfordsvilie, Georgia. Q. What means have you had since Lee’s surrender io ascertain tho sentiments of the people of Georgia regarding the Union? A. I was at borne in Georgia at the time of the surrender of Gen. Lee, and remained there till the 11th of May, and during that tima con ferred with the people in uiy immediate neighborhood, and with the Governor of the State, and with one or two other leading atid prominent men in the State. From the llih of M y until my return to Georgia, which was on the 26th of October, I had no means of knowing anything of the public sentiment there except through the public press and irom such letters as l received. From the time of my return until I left on my present visit here, I had very intimate in tercourse with tho people, vit-Uing Augusta, and visiting Miliedgeville during the session of the Legislature, first on their assembling, and again in Jauuary, before their re-assembling, and again in the latter part of February. While there I conversed very freely aud fully with all the prominent and leading men, or most of them, in the Legislature, and met a great many of the prominent and leading men of the State not connected with the Legislature, and by letters and correspondence with the men whom I have met. I believe that em braces a full answer to the question as to tay manner of ascertaining the sentiments of the people of the State upon the subject stated in the question. Q As the result of your observation, what is your opinion of the purposes of the people with reference to the reconstruction ot the Government, and what are their desires aud purposes concerning tho maintenance of the Government ? A. My opinion, and decided opinion is, that an overwhelming majority of the people of Georgia are exceedingly anxious for the resfo ration of the Government and for the State to taka her formal' position iu th ■■ Union, to have her Senators and Representatives admitted into Congress, and enjoy all her rights, and to dis charge all her obligations as a State under the Constitution of the United States as it stands amended. Air. Ainsworth—Whatare their present views concerning the justice cf the rebellion? Do they at present believe it was a reasonable or proper undertaking, or otherwise ? Mr. Stephens—Aly opinion of tho sentiment of the people of Georgia upon that subject is, that the exercise of tbe right of secession was resorted to by them from a desire to render their liberties more secure, and a belief on their part that this was absolutely necessary for that object. They were divided upon the question of tbe policy of the measures. There was, however, but very little division among them upon the question of tho right of it. It is now their belief, in ray opinion, (and I give it mere lyas an opinion,) that the surest, if not the only hope of their liberties, is the restoration ot the Constitution of the United States and of the Government of the United States under the Constitution. Q. Has there been any change of opinion as to the right of secession, as a right, in tho peo pie or in the States f A. 1 think there has been a very decided change of opinion as to tho policy of those who favored it. I think tho people generally are switfisd sufficiently with the experiment never to resort to that measure of redress by force, whatever may be their own abstract ideas on the subject; they have given up all ideas of a maintenance of the opinion by a resort to force; they have come to the conclusion that it is bet ter to appeal to the tormsof reason and justice, to the halls of legislation and the courts, for the preservation of the principles of constitu tional authority, than to the arena of arms. It is my settled conviction there is not any idea cherished at ali in the public mind cf Georgia of ever resorting again to secession or to the exercise of the right of secession. That whole policy of the maintenance of their right, in my opinion, is at this time totally abandoned. Q. But the opinion as to right, bs I under stand. means substantially tho same ? A. I cannot answer as to that; some may have changed their opinion on the subject It would beau unusual thing as well as a difficult matter for a whole people to change their con victions upon abstract truths or principles. I have not heard this view of the subject deba ted or discussed recently, and I wi-h to be un derstood as giving my opinion only on that branch of the subject which is of practical character and importance- Q, What do you attribute the change of opi nion as to the propriety of attempting to main tain these views by force ? A. Well, sir, my opinion about that, my un divided opinion, derived from observation, is that change of opinion arose mainly from the operations ot war among themselves and the results of the conflict among their own author ities in their individual rights of person and property, and irom a general breaking down of the constitutional barriers which usually attend all protiacted wars. Q. In 1861, whon the ordinance of secession was adopted iu Georgia, to what extent was it supported by the people? A. After the proclamation of President Lin coln calling out 76,000 militia, under the cir cumstances in view of which it was issued, and the blockade of Southern ports, and the sus pension of the writ of habeas corpus, tbe South* ern cause, as it war termed, received almost the unanimous support of the people of Geor gi*. Bdfore that they were very much divided on the question of the policy of secession; but afterwards they supported the cause. Tho impressiou which then prevailed was that pub lic liberty was endangered They supported the cause because of the zeal for Constitutional rights. They still differed very much as to the ultimate object to be obtained and the means to be used; but these differences yielded to the emergency of apprehended common danger. Q, Was not the ordinance of secession adopt* ed in Georgia earlier in date than that of the proclamation for 75,000 volunteers ? A. Yes, Sir. I stated that the people were very much divided on the question of tha or dinance of secession, but that after the procla mation they became almost unanimous in sup port of the cause. I'here were some few ex ceptions ia the State; I think not more than a half a dozen among my acquaintances. As I said, while they were thus almost unanimous in support of the cause; they differed also as to the end to ba attained by sustaining it. Some looked to tbe adjustment or settlement of the controversy upon any basis that would secure to them their constitutional rights.— Others looked to a Southern separation really as their only object and hope. These differ ent views ae to the ultimate objects did not in terfere with the general active support of the cause. Q. Was there a popular vote upon the or dinance of secession ? A. Only"so far as in the election of dele gates to the Convention, Q. There was no subsequent action ? A. No, sir; the ordinauee of secession was not submitted to the popular vote afterward. Q. Have you any opinion as to the vote it would have received, as compared with the whole; if it had been submitted to the free action of the people ? Witness—Do you mean after it was adopted by the Convention? Mr. Boutwelj. Yes, after its adoption by the Convention, if it had been submitted forth with, or within a reasonable time ? A._ Taking the then state of things into consideration, South Carolina, Florida and Mississippi, I think, having seceded, my opin ion is that a majority cf the people would have ratified, it, and perhaps by a decided or large majority : If, however, South Caro lina and the other States had not adopted the ordinances of secession, luu very well satis fied that a majority of the psople of Georgia, and perhaps a very eecided majority, would have been against secession if the ordinance had been submitted to them; but a3 matters stood at the time, had the ordinance been sub mitted to a nopular vote, it would have been sustained; that is my judgement about the matter. Q. What was the date of ths Georgia ordi nance ? E The 18th or 19th, I think the 19th, of January, 1801, thougn I am not certain. Q. The question of secession was involved •n the election of delegates to that Convention was it not? A. Yes, sir. Q. And was there, on the part of iho can didates, a pretty general avowal of opinions? A. Yery general. Q What was the result of the election, so far as the Convention expressed any opinion upon the question of secession ? A The majority was about thirty in the Convention in favor of secession. I do not remember the exact vote. Q Iu a Convention of how manv ? A. Ia a Convention based upon the num - ber of Senators and members of the House in the General Assembly of tho State. The ex act number I do not recollect, but think it was 300—perhaps a few over. Q. Was there any difference in different p uts of the State on the strength of tho Union sentiments at that time ? A. In some of the mountain counties tho Union sentiment was generally prevalent iho cities, towns, and villages were generally for secession throughout the State. I think, with soma exceptions, secession was less gen eral in the rural districts aud ia the mountains of the State ; yet, the people of some of tho upper counties were active and decided se cessionists. There was nothing liko a section al division of the Slate at ail. For instance, the delegates from Floyd county, in which the city of Rome is, in the upper portion of the State, was an able one and strong for se cession : while tbe county of Jefferson, down in the interior of tbe cotton belt, sent one of the most prominent dalegations for the Union. I could designate other particular counties in that way throughout the State, showing that there was not what might be termed a section al geographical divisiofl of tho State on the question. Q State whether from your observation, thej events of the war have produced any change of the public mind of the State la re lation to the Constitution of the United States ? A. That question i answered in part yts day. While I can’t say, from general knowl edge, to what extent tha opinions of the South ern States upon the abstract question of tbe reserved rights of States may have changed, my decided opinion is that a v-iy thorough change has taken place upofi the practical policy of resorting to any such rights. Q What events or experience of war have contributed to this change? A. First tho people are satisfied that a re sort to the exorcise “of this right, while it is denied by the Federal Government, will lead to war, which many thought before the late attempted secession would not be the case. They are also now very well satisfied that civil wars are dangerous to liberty ; and moreover, their experience in the lata war, I think, has satisfied them that it greatly endangered their own. I allude especially to tbe suspension of the writ of habeas corpus and the milit iry con scription, tho proclamation of martial law in various places, general impres sments, and the levying of forced contributions, as weli as the very demoralizing effects ot war generally. Q. Whea were you last a member of the Congress of tbe United States ? A. I went out on the 4th of March, 1869. Q. Will you state, if not indisposed to do so, tbe opinions which led you to identify your self with the rebellion so far as to accept the office of Vice President of the Goniederate States of America, so called ? A. I believe thoroughly! in the reserved sovereignty of the several States under tho compact of union of the Constitution of 1787. I opposed secession, therefore, as a question or policy and of right on tho part ot Georgia. When the State seceeded against my judgment and vote, I thought my ultimate allegiance was due her, and I prepared to cast my fortu nes and destiny with her and her people, rather than to take any other course, even through it might lead to the sacrifice of myself and her ruin. In accepting tho position under the new order ot things, my sole object was to do all the good I could in preserving and perpetua ting the principles of liberty as established under the Constitution of the United States. If tbe Union was to be abandoned, either with or without force, which I thought a very im politic measures, I wished, if possible, to res cue, preserve aud perpetuate the principle of the Constitution. This I was not without hope might be accomplished in the new confederacy of the States formed. When theconfl ct arose, my efforts were directel to obtain as sDeedy and peaceful adjustment of the questions as possible. This adjustment, I always thought, to be lasting, would have ultimately to be settled upon a constitutional basis, founded upon the principles of mutual convenience and reciprocal advantage ou the part of tbe States on which the Constiiutiou ot the United States wa3 originally founded. I waß wedded to no particular plan of adjustment, except the re cogniiion, as a bisisof the separate sovereignty of the several States With this recognized principle I thought all other questions of dif ferences ought to adjust themselves according to the best interests of peace, welfare and pros perity of the whole country, as enlightened reason, calm judgment aud sense of justice might direct this doctrine of the several States as a self adjusting, regulating privilege of our American system of State government, extend? ing, possibly, over the continent. Q Have your sentiments undergone any change since tho opening of the rebellion iu reference to the reserved rights of tbe States under the Constitution of the United Statflp? A. My convictions on the original abstract questions have undergone no change, but I ac cept the issue of the war and the result as a piactical settlement of that question. Tho sword was appealed to decide the question, and bv the decision of the sword I am willing to abide. Freni South America, Reports from South America via England, dated Buenos Ayres, March 18, and Rio Janiro, Match 10, say that the Brazilian Admiral Tom undore reached Corriepthon on the 22d of February and sought an interview with Gen. Meter, Commander-in-chief of the allied forces in Media. No movement was undertaken by the Bra zilians, and their inactivity was the subject of severe comment. The fleet under Commodore Perry was a powerful one, including some irou clads The Paraguayans held out determined ly, and made feme very daring naval sorties. It was thought the BrazTians wuuid ateempt a passage of the Para and that it would be ef fected, but with immense loss to the allies. The Pass De La Patria wa3 more carefully watched by tho allies since the success of the Paraguayan incursion on the invaders. Bu-nos Ayres was tired of the war, as her financial and other national interests were dis turbed by its continuance. There was almost a panic produced by the French influence on the Provincial Bank of that city. The merchants proffered aid to the institution, and two private bankers came for ward with aid, one offering $150,000 in silver, and the other offering $250,000 in gold, if needed. FROM BT. DOMINGO. Advices from St. Domingo to -the 20th of March say: the President, in his message to Congress, drew attention to the recent visit of Secretary Seward to the island, from which he argues very happy results. The late attempt at San Christopher was a complete failure. The new Minister of the United States, Gen. C’asevan, was very popular. South Carolina. Abbeville Items. — A daily mail has been es tablished on the Greenville and Columbia rail road the Abbeville branch. The Stowers, Keye3 and Bynum trial before a Military Commission in Charleston has closed. Hon. A Burt, the counsel for the defence ex presses confident expectations cf their acquit tal. . The gin house of James Drennan, on Long Cane Creek, was burnt last week. A detachment of cava’ry, numbering about ninety men, came intoour village last Sunday evening, and are now encamped in the out skirts, near to Westfield’s Tanyard. We un derstand that their stay willl be short— probably not more than a week. This detach ment is under command of Lieut. Rugbies, sth. U. 8, Cavalry, and she whole in charge of Brevet Lieut. Col. Moore. They are visiting the different Districts—spending a few days in each for the purpose, we presume, of preser ving order, Ac.—Banner.