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Weekly chronicle & sentinel. (Augusta, Ga.) 1866-1877, November 28, 1866, Image 1

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oil ) m:kii;s vol. faxy. Ciwomcle & Sentinel II IN It V HOOK 1.-:, A. It. IVlUfillT. Trims of 'i list i: iution. J. R. YV. JOHNSTON , \ I«. I ST \ , «, A : VIIIUMT V.oiUGM. SOTEXBKt». Mr. s. vtkiuson. Tt is with regret tliat we announce the withdrawal of Mr. Atkin-on from the editorial staff of the Chronicle k Senti nel. Mr. Atkinson is ari accomplished writer and able editor. We tender him our best wishes for his success in his future Common School fit!l. A\ e lay before our readers to-day the Common School Bill, as reported by the < ommittec—and now awaiting the action of the G -noral Assembly. Wo invite a care ful perusal. It i a matter of the highest importance to the peophYof the State, j It i- all-important that in initiating the j Common School system as part and parcel I of the government of the State, that we should begin anightsiring all the ad j vantages and avoiding all the errors which j the development of this system has ex hibited in other States:. We urge aearc fill perusal of the bill, and invite discu -ion | of it i merits from such as feel inter t in the matter. Our columqs are open to them. Military Interference with Suits in the South. General Heintzelman, commanding tlie district of Texas, publishes in general or ders the following telegram from General Grant to General Sheridan : Washington, Octoln r i", IWli. —Major (Ictienil I*. 11. .Sheridan, (.'oiniiiauding .De partment o! the <>uil', .New Orleans, J,a:- Sir : Ite.erring to your endorserrients up oti coiiiinunicttUon* of General <>. Fos ter, eoininuniting (iistrict of Florida, of dat< s September IS and 20, relative to the eifet-t of tie- President’s Proclamations, el,-., I amVireete 1 by the (ienerttl-in-eliief to enclose you a copy of tlie same, and to sn v that lie construes these proclamations as tiullilying tJenei-al Orders No. :i, War i)e|iartmeut, Adjutant Oeneral's otliee, .futitiary 12, and General Orders .Vo. 41, lliiilqtiarters of Army, July 0,1808. I nave the honor to he, very respectfully, vourohedii tit norvant, Gkoiiok K. Id-.KT, Assistant Adjutant General. The first order referred to, No. 3, pro vided ibr the protection of loyal persons against improper civil suits and penalties in late rebellious States, and directed commanders of military divisions and de partments, whose commands are in lately rebellious States, to issue and enforce or (1 rs protecting from prosecution or suits in the State or municipal courts of those States all officers and soldiers of the ar mies of the Unit and States, or any person thereto attached, or in any way belong ing, who are charged with offences com mitted in their military capacity against rebels during the excitement, of the re hellion. The second order referred to, No. 44, wi -i i 1 by G literal Grant on the Oth of duly last, and directed to department, di-ti' -t, and post commanders, in States lately in rebellion, to arrest all persons who have been, or may hereafter he, charged with the commission of crimes against officers, agents, citizens and inhabi tants of the United States, (irrespec li"o of color,) where civil authorities have Utile 1 to arrest and bring such parties to trial. Relief—Tin: .Uab .ua Flail. As this is a subject which seems to en gross the thoughts of a large portion of our people, wo think that the following bill, which has just been introduced into the Ala haunt 1 legislature, will be read with in torcst-. However much we may differ in rt .-ard to the details there can be no doubt that dl our people are in favor of some mode of alleviating the present financial distress of the country. Vie do not intend to say that this bill meets the difficulty, but nme of its features arc novel and seem to 1,,., t t!:c objections which have been ur.! cd .; siii.-t our own Stay Laws. We commend its consideration to our law makers at Milledgeville:;, A BILL to bo entitled “An Act to regu late tlie loins of Judgments and Execu tions, and the sale ol personal property levied on by filial process. See. 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and //"iis, or Representative* of the State of J lot,a, Hit, in (intend As-imhly convened, That no judgment hereafter rendered by any Court in this State, hall be a lien on any property of the defendant or defend ants therein, real or personal. See. 2. .ln</ be it further enacted, That no execution hereafter issued, shall he a lien upon any property of any of the parties thereto, real or personal, except front the time that such execution shall ho actually levied, and then only upon the property actually levied upon ; provided, however, that this act shall not only apply to any execution which has already Ih-cii is .'lieu, or which shall hereafter be issued, w here the judgment is a lien, or where a previous execution had acquired a lieu which has not been lost. Sec. 11. Amt /«; it further enacted, That whenever an execution, or order of sale shall be levied on any real or j>< rsonal praperty of the defendant therein : it shall iv the duty of the officer levying the pro cess, if required by the defendant, to sum nun three disinterested persons to value j»r, pet ty so levied upon, on each, in writ in,., and thereupon the officer shall adver tise tie property so levied on, for side as required tv law, hut if no person w ill Lid as much as two thirds of the tip praised value, the oil'nvr shall restore the property to the defendant, with his endorsement thereon,showing the levy, the valuation, the advertisement, and that the property was not sold for the went of a lawful Lid and <ueli return shall destroy the lieu creat ed by the levy. Important Decisions In the ease ofth? lUkcr Locomotive and Machine Works vs. 1. \V. Bayne, Howard Seining and Johfi K. (’arow. Trustees of the Charleston & Savannah Railroad, et. at., in the United States Cir cuit Court, in Charleston. Judge Bryan, aft i r a lengthy and able argument on Loth siil ‘s. Las issued the following order. We learn that the order will not effect the sale of the road, which has been advertised, we believe, to take place this week, hut its operations is confined to the property i'lie Rogers l.’simotive and Machine W o ks vs. 1. \\ 11 ay oe. Edward Sebfing, John E Cartw, Trust/-e- of the Charles ton and Savannah Rail Road Com pany. <f. at It is ordered that the defendants. Isaac W. llayne, E. S ‘bring and JohnE. Carew, Trustees, be enjoined from selling the four locomotives,- lsondiga. Mayor Maelie h, James Adger and Southward Ho! in cluded in the property advertised by them to tie sold, until the further order of this Court, ommtil the said Trustees give -uffi cient security, to he approved by Daniel I!or!beck. Esq., Commissioner of this Ci urt, in the sum of ?3t>.tMh to abide the dtvree in this ease as to the lien of the de fend;.tit upon the said locomotives, or any one of them, and that all equities be re served. Geo. S. Bryan, V. s. Judge for Dist of South Carolina. License Taxes of Bankers. The Cotnmis-ioner of Internal Revenue has is -ued a circular respecting bankers license taxes. The Commissioner says ; l e. ler the p ovisions of the act of Jure 1". Is-.G. the licenses of bankers are based upon the amount of capital used or em ployed The Solicitor of the treasury has given it a. his opinion that the surplus earpings of an incorporated bank are no part of its capital within the meaning and intent of that part of said act which relates to license taxes, and that the license tax of such bank should not be assessed upon a sum greater than it- chartered capital. herever, therefore, a sum greater than the chartered capital has been made the measure ot such a tax for the current year, the excess will be abated upon an applica tion made in proper form to this office. The i Tty s«:*scriptloii to the Augusta and foiumbia Railroad—The Constitution alist still in Opposition. The Omstilutionalid of yesterday ex hibits its chagrin at the result of the city election on the question of a .subscrip tion to the stock of the Augusta and Co lumbia Railroad, and attempts to shew that the result i not a fair expression of the popular will, ft complains that the 'oppo nent.-; of the measure had no money to spend to secure the election in their favor, and that the oppositioi/was too lukewarm to stand a fair chance as against the active efforts of the friends of the road. The usual and hackneyed cry of the vanquished that artifice, puffing, &c., were used by their opponents is brought forward with' ns much coolness and naivette, as tbot/gn the ('institutionalist really believed what it t: id. It is decidedly refreshing to witness the air of injured innocence which our cotem , | But. familair as we arc with all the | wriggling and twisting of the Coustifur ■ tionnli.4 upon this question, we were not I prepared for the assertion which it makes j that “many voted for subscription, be- I cau.se it was generally understood that such ! a decision by the people simply empowered the Council to subscribe, if, in their judg ment, the city would receive no detri ment.” We venture to a«sert that not a' single vote was cast for the subscription, with the understanding that a decision in favor of it would “ simply empower the Council to subscribe, if, in their judgment, the city would receive no detriment.” The vote was asked for and directed to be taken by Council, that the people of the city might instruct and direct Council in the premises. Council refused to take tlie responsibility of a subscription unless directed to do so by tlie legal voters of the city. The City Fathers, it is presumed, acted in good faith in thus submitting the question to their constituents. We do not believe for a moment that they will now attempt to ignore the instructions which they asked from the people, and which then an plnhjed to earn/ out in good faith. The Council dare not trifle with the people’s wishes and interests in this way ; and we are not only surprised, but mortified that so respectable a journal as the Con stitutionafist could so far forget its past character and history as to even hint at such an act of had faith. The question of subscription to the Augusta and Columbia Railroad is no longer an open one. The only thing for Council to do in the promises is, to proceed at the earliest practicable moment in con summating the act. There are some terms which we would like to see embraced in the subscription—or, rather, some guaran tees, which wo think Council should de mand from the Railroad Company, in relation to the connections of the Road and the proper representation of the City’s interest in tlie management of the affairs of the Company, and which we believe the President and Directors of the Road will cheerfully comply with. These being set tled satisfactorily to both parties, the subscription should he made at once. We are surprised to find the Constitu tionalist still harping upon the old objection —that Council was under some obligation to the South Carolina I’ailroad, to the effect tliat no competing Road should come into the city, unless upon the re payment to the former of its subscription to the Alilledgeville Road. It lias already been replied to this objection, that no such contract was ever entered into between the City and the South Carolina Railroad. — But we reply further: that if such con tract had been made and consummated, it would be absolutely null and vpid.— First , because the City Council of Augusta had no authority, under the city charter, to bind the people of the city for the ben efit of a foreign corporation; and, second, because such a contract would be in re striction of trade and commerce, and, consequently, injurious to the interests not only of the city, but of the whole State. The Constitutionalist is extremely un fortunate in its allusion to the history ot the City’s action in relation to the Savannali-River Valley Railroad.— It we arc not greatly at fault, the Consti tutionalist contended, alter that election, that although there had notheen a majority of the registered votes of the city cast in favor of subscription, a majority of the rotes polled was all that was contemplated by the law, and was equally binding as though there had been a majority of the whole number of registered voters. We beg the Constitutionalist to refer to its files of that date, where it will find all its objections of yesterday fully met and an swered. Oh! consistency, thou art a jewel! Improved Farming Implements. Now that the negroes can no longer be forced to do a moderate day's work, the agricultural interests of the South must suffer for the want of proper, persistent and patient toil, unless the evil can be remedied by the introduction of cheap, simple and durable mechanical contrivan ces, which will enable the Southern plan ter to accomplish the necessary amount of work to cultivate and prepare for market the crops which, in former years, were produced by the compulsory labor of slaves. The present year's experience lias shown that, under the most favorable cin um stances and with the best of management, free negroes are not more than one half as effective, as laborers, as before emancipa tion. There have been, doubt'ess, some instances where, from the individual excel lence of the negroes, and the small number which have been worked together, their ! dior b ' - ’ con almost equal to the “olden time;" bat these Lave been exceptional and rare cases, and do not disprove the almost unanimous verdict of our planters, that their labor is not more than half as good a- before their freedom. In addition to the comparative meffici eney of the present negro labor, our plan ters find themselves deprived of the usual number of laborers, and many acres of our best lands will lie uncultivated another year front this cause alone. In some of the middle and western counties of this State the exodus of the negro population this fail and winter to the rich fields of the Missis* sippi valley will leave the agricultural in terests of these counties iu a most desolate and alarming condition. The present crop has been a very short one —not more, per haps. throughout the State than one-third of a fair average crop, and another failure next year, will be attended with results too fearful to speculate upon. It is true that the seasons of the present year were very unpropitious, and to that cause the failure of the crop fuust. to a large extent, be at tributed. It is hardly probable that we will have next year a repetition of this years disaster from the same or like causes. Our trouble next season will be, first, in gett'ng the necessary number of laborers : and then, in being able to get from them a -umeieut amount of work to insure the proper cultivation of the erop. We confess that we have not very strong faith in the willingness of the negroes, to perform their work with such efficiency as will secure large results. W e think that we should begin to look about for such me chanical aids, as will enable us to cultivate the usual number of acres without the labor, which we have formerly bestowed upon them. We want ploughing machines, grubbing machines, improved cultivators, and all the modern appliances of mechani cal skill, which are used in Europe and the Northern and Western States. The old style of one horse ploughing, by which an acre or an acre and a half were “scratched over in the day, must give way to the gang plough or sulkey cultivator, with which ten to twelve acres are thoroughly prepared for the seed, or the young crop cultivated. The farmer' of the JVestern .States have already discovered, that their lands can be made ten times more valuable by the in troduction and u-3 of these modern ap pliauces for cultivating a crop. They are already far in advance of the Eastern lan kee?. in their invention and use of farm implements. Indeed, the Western farmer does now nearly thewhole of his farm work with these new machines. A correspon dent of the New York Post, writing from the West says: “The farmers of our East era States, compelled to till rocky and un even lands, and used to small holdings, do not know by experience, all of the changes which improved machinery ha.- wrought in agricultural operations on the great West era prairies. There, machines do the labor of men to such'a degree, that the farmer’s, heaviest toils are lightened, and one man is enabled to achieve with ease, the work of half a dozen. 1 ' We saw recently, a corn-field of one hun ! dred and sixty acres, on the “Grand l’rairie.” in the plowing, planting and cul tivation of which, no man walked a stop. A rotary spader drawn by four horses, and driven by a man upon the box, plowed the field to a uniform depth of eight inches, and gave such thorough tilth t aat it was not necessary to use a harrow at all. A corn-planter drawn by two horses, and driven by a man upon the box, next plant ed seed. A cultivator drawn by two mules, one walking upon each side of the knee high corn, and driven by a man upon the box, completed the culture of a row at a sin pie operation ; and in the tool house lay another machine, also to he drawn by horses, which will cut down the corn when it is ripe, and lay it in regular rows, to he finally gathered by hand. But it is ex pected that by next year this machine will be so improved as to gather up the c-oru also. “When it is remembered that the farmer who follows the common plow or cultivator during a long summer’s day, performs a march of from ten to fourteen miles, it will be seen what a boon is the machinery which relieves him from this toil. And when we remember how scarce were men during the last four years in the West, we shall see that but for such labor-saving imple ments our vast crops of cereals could have been neither planted nor gathered. “The farm of which the corn-field we speak of was a part, has seven hundred acres in a single field if timothy. Os what use would this he if it had to ho cut by hand ? Rut a half-dozen harvesting ma chines sufficed to cut it all in good time; and it will do without “groaning” the work of half a regiment of men ; patent horse-rakes, gather it up, and two hay presses up on the place, squeeze it into bales fit for shipping. Seventeen and a half miles of board fence enclose a little more than half of this farm, which lias as part of its furniture, comfortable sheds for ten thousand sheep, a rat-proof corn crib holding fifteen thousand bushels of corn, and ext nsive stabling for horses.” What machinery lias thus done for the West it will do for the South, now that free labor is substituted for that of slaves. Wc see no reason why the cotton and sugar fields of a great part of the South should not be tilled by machinery. These fields arc —in Louisiana, Mississippi, and indeed in almost the whole of the cotton and su gar region—level and devoid of rocks: and these are the only conditions necessary to tlie successful use of the most valuable fa#m machinery. The slaves, ignorant and careless because they had no interest in the work, used only the rudest and clumsiest tools ; but in the hands of in telligent freedmen, the rotary spader or steam plow, or cultivator, can be used as well on the immense level bottom-lands of Louisiana, where sugar is grown, as on the prairies for corn and wheat. Editorial Correspondence. Waynesboro’, Ga., Nov. 20,1866. Chronicle d> Sentinel: The fall term of the Superior Court for this county met yesterday—Judge Ilook presiding. The dockets seem to be pretty heavy, and the indications now are that the Court xvill sit all of this and very prob ably a portion of next week. I learn from examination that more than two hundred cases were brought to the last term of the Court, a large portion of which, I am in formed, are founded on contracts made during the xvar, and which the defendants’ claim should he scaled in accordance with the provisions of the ordinance of the late State Convention. There are quite a number of the Bar from your city here, among whom I notice, Gov. Johnson, Maj. Ganahl, Frank Miller, Esq., Col. Laller stedt, .Judge Snead, AY. A. Walton, Esq., and Judge Gibson. From Louisxrille, we have Judge W. F. Derry and AY. A. AVil kins, Esq., and from Laurens, Hon. J. T. Showmake, formerly of your city. I learn that a meeting of the planters of this county xvill be held to-day to take some measures with a viexv to the supply of the county xvitii corn for the next year. The crop of this county, like that of all Middle Georgia, has been an almost total failure. The corn made this year in the county, it is thought, xvill not be more than sufficient to meet the wants of the people up to the Ist of January next.. The present high price of corn in the Southern markets forbids the purchase here of the large amount necessajy to carry on the usual farming operations of next year. It is thought that by combining together, as certaining the wants of the different plan ters, and sending an agent to tlie AYest to make the purchase for the whole amount tliat may be needed, that it can be laid down here at a cost greatly below the prices now charged in Savannah and Augusta. This plan was suggested some weeks since by the Chronicle & Sentinel , and we are glad to find that the Burke planters are dis posed to try it. I believe that they will have no cause to regret such a course. I xvill try to give the results of the meeting. The proceedings of the Court for the present week, or at least for two or three days promise to be of considera ble interest. It is thought that the eiise of Dr. Carter, who is charged with the murder of J. E. Navy, formeily Clerk of the Courts of this county, will be brought to trial on Wednesday, and will probably consume the balance of the week. Able counsel have been employed on both sides —for the defendant, Gov. H. Ah Johnson, Hon. J. T. Shewmake, Hon. J. J. Jones and Capt. A. M. Rogers. For the State— Solicitor General J. P. C. AA'hitebead. Esq., Judge Starnes and General A R AA right. The alledged homicide was com mitted in 1861. and the defendant has’ been at large upon bail ever since. Boi’ 1 . the accused and the deeedant have strong and influential friends, and both sides are active and earnest in the preparation of the case for trial. There seems to be a good trade doing here, and I notice some improvements in the “old town.'' Its nearness to Augusta, and the facilities for reaching the latter place by rail twice a day operates somewhat against the business of the place, but not withstanding these drawbacks. I learn that business is better here this year than it has ever been. The negro trade! which was very small, and principally confined to the coarser fabrics heretofore, has been greatly increased since emancipation, not only iu the quantity of goods bought, but also in the style aud quality of the pur chases. I will write again in a few davs. W. Gen. Butler ran as well at the election as he did at Fort Fisher, AUGUSTA, GA., WEDNESDAY MORNING, NOVEMBER 28, 1866. 1 National Finances and Taxation. The October statement of the public debt i.-calculated to inspire confidence in the public mind respecting the manage ment ia the public iinanc. The interests • 1- . " ’ distributed and the influence of the uponth currency, and taxation son mediate and direct that anything relating to our debt is a matter of national itnp >r | tance. In foreign countries the national debts are for the most part respectively in the hands of comparatively a small num ber ofpetsons, known, as fund holders, and persons outside of this favored class regard anything relative to the national debt with indifference. The tendency in this country will probably be in accordance with the general law to concentrate our debt ulti mately in the hands of capitalists. But at present there is no person in our commu nity so poor as not to hold a portion of the national debt in the shape ol currency or bonds. The more general distribution of wealth among the people of the United States may retard the tendency toward the accumulation of bonds in the hands cff capitalists, and so long as the present pop ular distribution of the national indebted ness continue, so long will the debt state ment be a matter of general importance. For the purpose of more clearly represent ing the condition of the public debt, and the changes effected in it, we present the following comparative .statement of the debt on the first of November, and on the first of May: COMPARATIVE DEBT STATEMENT. Actual Debt— Nov. Ist. Mrfy Ist. Dec. $2,681,030,900 »2,427,676,871 $143,739,806 Debt le- s cash in Treasury— Nov. Ist. .May Ist. Dec. §2,551,310,006 $2,t>89,6?9,8 12 $138,379,557 Compound Interest Notes- Nov. Ist. Mav Ist. Dee. $ 148,512,140 $ 107,012,141 § 18,590,001 Greenbacks— Nov. Ist. May Ist. Dec. •5 390,105,785 $ 415,161,318 § 24,968,523 Coin Debt— Nov. Ist. May Ist. June. §1,333,538,841 $1,186(092,811 §147,466,006 Currency Debt — Nov. Ist. Mav Ist. Dee. § 882,408,440 §1,147,222,226 ? 264,813,786 This statement exhibits our national | finances in a favorable light. There is a reduction of $133,379,839 in our debt with in six months. The debt on November 1, 180.3, amounted to $2,744,847,726. We ; have, therefore, paid off within a year an j indebtedness of nearly two hundred mil lions ($193,037,821.) This is equal to the total revenue of Great Britain for a year, and is a reduction of taxation that has never been equalled by any nation. _ The changes in this statement, with the ; single exception of the large gold balance : in the Treasury, are favorable and con : servative. The currency is now more con -1 tracted than at any period, and the returns ' show that Secretary McCulloch has reached i the limit of his power in contracting its j volume. He lias withdrawn the full ten millions allowed by Act of Congress; and thenceforth the contraction will be limited to the withdrawal of four millions a month, j according to law. This slow and gradual | contraction has at least the good effect of j preventing any undue disturbances in the k monej’ market, and is so far calculated to j inspire public confidence. The contraction I of the currency is not, however, the only ; diminution that has taken place in the vol ume of the circulating medium. The \ eighteen millions of compound notes xvith | drawn virtually exhibit a corresponding de crease in the currency, as the compound ■ notes presented for redemption were held by the banks as a part of their legal ro i serve, and must be replaced by an equal i amount of greenback currency. The vol | tune of currency now afloat is about a.; follows: Greenbacks $390,105,785 , National Bank Notes 280,000,000 ; State Banks 20,000,000 : Compound Notes 148,512,140 i Fractional Currency 27,588,010 Total $870,295,835 This is about three hundred million in ! excess of the actual amount of currency in circulation, that being the probable sum ; held by the National Banks iti the shape ! of compound notes and legal tenders, for the redemption of this circulation. The Treasury held on November Ist, $30,913,- | 942 in currency. This sum is not likely to be reduced by f)aymeuts, 'as the revenue now exceeds the expenditures, audit may be re garded as a virtual diminution of the vol ume of the currency so long as it ma}’ *bc locked up. A.ter allowing for these de ductions it will appear that the total ! amount of paper in circulation may ho es timated in round numbers at about five hundred and fifty millions. Os course a j large proportion of this sum is held by i private parties in reserve, and does not j properly enter into circulation. But it is | liable to do so, and must, therefore, he in cluded in the estimate of outstanding cur | rency. That the amount is excessive is i apparent, , but that this excess exercises the i influence upon business and prices of com modities that is claimed by certain writers, cannot ho proved. A great many other causes besides a redundant currency may enhance prices. The large sum of $899,413,018 in coin in the Treasury ou the Ist of November, is one of the most serious and least satisfac tory features of Mr, McCulloch’s report. ThiS large amount of specie is an embar rassment to the National Treasury and to the public. The question is what to do with it. At present the accumulation of coin undoubtedly injures the credit of the Government, as it tends to increase the price of gold, by withdrawing it from the market. Any advance iu gold of course depreciates United States currency and bonds to a corresponding amount. Busi ness men must procure gold at any price to pay import dues and settle foreign balances. The withdrawal of one million of coin diminishes the amount of the sup ply, aud enables a few speculators to con trol the market. There were extensive rumors last week, and this, of sales of gold on account of the Government. But all reports to that effect are entirely unfound ed. Mr. McCulloch has placed no gold directly upon the market, and the apparent increase in the supply is merely caused by the reappearance of a portion of the specie lately disbursed for interest on gold-bearing bonds. . It lias been urged with great plausibility that the Secretary cannot better dispose of the specie ou hand than by devoting it to the purchase of greenbacks fir retirement. But he is precluded in doing so by law. Mr. McCulloch's hands have been tied up by Congress, and the only way he has of disposing of the gold in the Treasury is by 1 inviting sealed proposals for it according to act of Congress. He has not yet seeu fit to do so, and the probability is that lie will j refer the whole matter to Congress for ac ! tion, and throw the responsibility upon that i body. The proposed plan has its advan i tages, but it is impracticable, $870,000,000 would retire, or purchase $100,000,000 in greenbacks, and would set the whole > machinery of contraction in motion. But ! contraction upon suc-h ati extensive scale j would inaugurate a disastrous financial panic, and is not to be thought of even if !it were legal. Mr. McCulloch’s obvious policy is to promote an easy money market, in order to facilitate the conversion of the short bonds that i#now taking place upon quite an extensive scale. In reference to this subject we find that the currency debt has decreased 8204.813,- 786, since the Ist of May last. The ‘short ! bonds,’ as they are generally called, re : definable within a couple of years, amount to a total of 926.000,000. payable on de mand. Os the balance, $200,000,000, due next summer and fall, aud 8500,000,000 iu j -July, 1868, it does not npw appear proba : hie that the Treasury xvill suffer any serious | embarrassment in providing for next year’s j bonds at least. The cash now on hand ; would nearly suffice for that purpose. But the process of conversion is likely to settle that question, and it xvill only remain to provide for the bonds that fall due in 1868, and the Secretary of the Treasury xvill. no L doubt, attempt once more to reduce the ' rate of interest. This, however, can , fcardly be effected until the whole debt shall have been consolidated into six per cent, gold interest bends. We are going last enough as it is. We are funding our debt faster than was ever before effected by any country, and. xvhat is better, pay ing it off iar more rapidly. It is apparent, however, that the large payment for the liquidation of the debt, imposes a burden upon the resources of the country that it is in no condition to bear. We have only just recovered from a long and exhausting war, and there are oniinious siens of a loss of recuperative force. Our taxes are too high, and withdraw too lame a sum from the savings of the country. We are in no condition to spare anything more than a per centage of the actual amount necessary for the expenses of the Govern ment. and the interest on the debt for the pavment of the principal. Anythin;: more than this, abridges employment, checks production, and diminishes our capacity for future taxation. There is such a thing as going too fast in the payment of the debt Our taxation nmst be reduced near ly two hundred millions a year. aud this should be one of the first duties of Congress, at its approaching session. There are evi dent signs of prostration and weakness among the commercial, fhanufaeturing,&fld agricultural interests, and caution is partic ularly necessary at this time. * - When wc con»iJcr, however, the pecu liarly complicated nature of our National finance-, the diversity of our obligations, and th ‘-tnferaissuieuts(necessarily aris iug from an irrJicenrablg eurrejiej’. it must be considered that our j itwpectsare hopeful, and calculated inspire confidence both at home and abroad. The approaching upnual Treasury statement will he looked forward to with peat interest, as it will throw light u;tot< the financial policy and intention' of tit. Government. Most of Mr. McCulloch’? j conclusions are sound, and, judgffi- the future by the past, wo may anticipate prudence aud moderation, aud a conservative course so far as it can be carried out by tie National Executive* \\ hat Coi gross m.y determine upon re main? to be seen. —A’. Y. Mr. Jour. The Scarcity of Money—The Remedy. There can he njo doubt that tIU scarcity i of money as a eSrctlating medium at tlie South, is operating disastrously upon all our material interests. However much wc ! may differ to the true remedy for this distressing evil all will agree that our trade, commerce, r.arieulturp and industrial pur suits, of every dc eriplion, are waning and perishing for tlie ]w»nt of a proper and regular supply of this indispensable in vigorator. i’iie following artiel-',, which we eiip from the Charleston Memory, presents the mat ter in a strong and*to gs, somewhat novel light. Without fid!’- endorsing all its, views, we eoufets points upide arc full of interest, am. should have the thoughtful consideration ttf our people : _ The grea want now iu the Southern States, is the want of available means. With the emancipation of our slaves, and the fall of the Confederate States of America, two-thirds of the capital of the Southern States perished ; the other third the people of the Southern States are striving manfully to use, to resus ciatc their fallen fortunes. But their remain ing property consists, chiefly, in lands, which cannot be effectually cultivated with out borrowed capital. By credit alone can money he borrowed: but the credit, no less than the capital of the Southern peo ple, is destroyed. Even the States cannot, borrow money; for the capitalists in Eu rope, or in the United States, are loath to lend money to State 'Governments which the majority in Congress threaten to over throw. Nor will money flow to meet the exigences of a people, who are kept in an unsettled condition by peace measures of war, more ruinous, than war it self. The great source of our embarrass ment, therefore, arises from the policy of the predominating party at the North to wards the South. AY here it will end, no one can know; but,f|n the meantime, it becomes us not to despair of the future, and to do all in our power to redeem our fortunes. Cannot the Legislatures of the Southern States do something to aid their people and enable them to borrow money ? It is clear that ordinary banking, ou a metalic basis, can avail ns nothing. A bank putting out an issue of bills promising to pay money, is out of the question. A specie currency in the United States is at an end for the next twenty years, if the debts of the United States arc to be paid. Wc arc doomed to a depreciated paper currency for an uncertain or indefinite pe riod of time! Nor can public loan offices, based on the mortgage of lands, hacked by the credit of the States, support any currency. The j paper issued on the fcith of such mort- j gages and such credit, could not ho a prom- j ise to pay money of any kind on demand, because no money of any kind would be received from the loqs on the mortgages. The paper (whatever' it might be) issued \ on the faith of lands must be ! made payable at the tjmc the loan will be j returned. The borrower wants the loan ! for years, and the pijper issued ou his j mortgage must be flxtensive in point of i time, as tiro payment of the mortgages. No mere promise to pky at a distant future ' day—it matters not niw good the security j may be-—would avail is a currency to carry [ on agricultural operat ons; or would retain such an appreciation as be effective for our relief. It would greatly depreciate. National banks ye have tried to get. Two, of not largo/ .neons, xvcltavebc.cn able to establish in Charleston ; but they have been very usefrjl, as far as their capi tal goes. But they are totally inadequate to the great wants of our people. Yet, even this resource, is at an end, since the whole issue of bank notes, authorized by the laws establishing them, is already put out into circulation. If xve can obtain relief from neither banks of issue, nor loan offices, nor national banks, can any other expedient of credit avail us ? We think there may he : 1. In the first place, we must get rid_ of the usury laxvs. They are of a very qestion able use in the regular couiso of things, where capital abounds, during profound peace. Jeremy Bcntham showed this long ago; but in a time of revolution, when the greater part of the capital of the country is destroyed, they arc a vicious absurdity. It is true, that the national banks in the United States arc prohibited from charging more than seven per cent, on their discount of notes ; but then they are authorized to deal-in exchange ; and, working the two together, they virtually charge xvliat interest they please. In such a condition of things, the usury laxvs of the Southern States should be speedily re pealed. 2. Let banks _(uot of issue), but of dis count and deposit, bo authorized by the Southern Legislatures, to any amount the wants of the Southern States require. 3. Let the Stockholders be liable only to the amount of their stock. 4. In our oxvn State the Bank of "the State of South Carolina should be resusci tated, and reorganized as a bank af dis count and deposit. It may be objected to such banks, that they will not afford for the currency they use, any security beyond their capital. This is true ; but this currency xvill have the same security as banks of issue. Sup pose, for instance, xvliat xve presume will be the case, that the stock subscribed is paid in, in the currency, of the National banks. This currency has bonds of the United States, lodged in the Treasury of' the Uni ted States to support it. It isjust as good after being put out into circulation, when used by one bank as another. The banks we propose to establish, will use the cur rency which the National banks secure. The National banks, make it good, not only l>y the stock of the United States de posited in the Treasury of the United States, but with all theiv other means of payment. Tlie National banks buy their currency hv United States bonds. The banks we propose, xvill use it. But it may be objected, further, that the banks we propose to establish, xvill exact more than sex-cn per cent, interest on the discounts and loans. Wc answer, in the first place, that that is what exists now. The National banks in the Southern States, and all lenders of money, except as a favor, exact more than seven per cent, xvhich is the interest authorized here. In the second place, xve answer that money is xvorth in the Southern States more than seven per cent., and ought to receive its value. ’1 his is the inevitable law of every country, with little capital and wide fields for industry. We must pay xvhat capital is fairly worth, or go without it. The remedy is not in usury laws, but to make money cheap by making it abundant. The banks we propose wili be an avantageous position for mak ing mi iney. They wilUiave less responsibili ty, and, of course, less fisk, whilst they xvill he as free in making gains. The taxeslaidon hanking by the revenue law of 30 th June, 1864 (amounting to two per cent, on deposits, capital and circulation included), arc a very great burden on banks, xvheu the interest of money is but four per cent, per annum as it is in New York; hut, xvhen interest is twelve or twenty per cent., as it is in the Southern States, with the usury laws abolished, it is uc formidable obstacle to banking. The various restrictions put on the national banks, may be far more burdensome than such a tax. Vi hat has reduced the rate of interest on money loaned in New York? Competion. Let us have the same thing in South Carolina and the South. Multiply banks of discount and deposit. The more money they make, the more they will abound, until their profits are reduced by competition, and Become, perhaps, as they are in New York, less than the interest noxv allowed by laxy. This is our remedy—the only remedy, it appears to us, now in our power. It may liot avail us from the hostile action of the dominant party in the l mted States, hut it is worth our trying. Seizure of Tobacco by the L nixed States Authorities.— A lot of over five hundred packages of tobacco wa.~ seized ye.ttrh-. by Deputy United States. Mar shal H. \V. Biinn. the property of B. E. Hal! & Cos., of Covington, Kr., for various frauds alleged to be committed in violation of the internal revenue law. The officer also seized a sum of money, the proceeds of the sale of over four hundred other pack ages of tobaooo belonging to the lot, which, it is stated, was being sold without the proper legal observance. The will come up for hearing in the I. nited State - court. — [Cincinnati Enquirer, The Relief Bill Before the House of Representatives. A BILL, To he entitled .lit Act for the Permanent Relief of the People of this ’* 'State. Sec. 1. The General Assembly do enact, that the first section of “ An Act entitled An Act for the relief of the people of Georgia, and to prevent the levy and sale of property under certain circumstances, and xvithiu a limited period, passed Bth March, Iso6, he. and the same is hereby repealod, and in lieu thereof it is enacted as follows: That there shall be no levy or sale oi property of defendants in this State, before the first day of January, IS6B, un der any execution founded on any judg ment, order or decree, upon any contract or liability made or incurred prior to tlie first day of June, 1865. Sec. 2. It shall be in .the power of every citizen of this 8-tate xvho is indebted, to have said indebtedness discharged, and of creditors to have their demands satisfied unon the following terms, and complying with the following conditions, namely : The debtor shali mortgage to the State of Georgia, real estate to the value of fifty cents on the dollar, or one-half such in debtedness, op any less amount, payable nine years afior the first day of January, I>4xvhich mortgage, xvhen perfected, as hereinafter provided, and deposited with the Comptroller,* General of this State, in liis office, at tin! seat of Government, shall entitle the holder thereof to _ Treasury notes of the State of Georgia to the amount secured by said mortgage; xvhich* Treasury notes shall be payable at the seat of Government of this State, or such other ; l ilacs or places as the Goveruur may deem best, ten years after the ,first day of January, 1668 : thus allowing the State twelve months within which to make said mortgages available to meet said Treasury notes in case oi failure of prompt payment; and in addition to the faith of the State, said mortgaged property, aud the pro ceeds thereof if sold, shall be held as a specific fund for the redemption of said Treasury notes. See. 3. It shall he iho duty of the Judge of the Superior Courts in cac-h Judicial , Circuit of this State, to select two proper and competent persons, xvho, acting under oath, shall enter upon, examine and \-alue the property mortgaged, as herein set forth, and certify that the same is xvorth the sum lor xvhich it is so mortgaged, and of xvhich the Judge aforesaid shall certify tliat lie is satisfied, it shall also be the duty of such debtor and creditor to exhibit to the Judge aforesaid satisfactory and sufficient proof that the debt for which said mortgage is given is a bona fide debt xvhich existed prior to the first day of June, 1865, of which fact the debtor and creditor shall each make oath before said Judge; and should any person be found guilty of false sxvearing, or of presenting or making a fraudulent claim or mortgage under the provisions of this Act, the person so offend ing shall be punished by imprisonment and labor in the Penitentiary of this State, not less than four nor more than ten years. See. -1. It shall be the duty of the J udge aforesaid to attend at the Court House of each county in his Circuit at such time or times as lie shall appoint, and then and there receive, examine and pass upon the mortgages contemplated by this Act, and the title of tffie mortgager to the property embraced in.said mortgage, and certify to, and upon said mortgages as by this Act is required, which mortgages xvhen so exe cuted and certified shall ho filed in the office of the Clerk of the Superior Court in which the mortgaged property lies, and shall there remain for the space of thirty days, and be in said office recorded; and any person ’claiming to have any prior mortgage on said mortgaged property xvho fails to file said lion and claim xvithin said thirty .days, shall thereafter be barred from enforcing the same as against the State as mortgagee of said property; aud when any such claims arc filed, the same shall bo passed upon qnd determined by said Judge, whose decision, shall be final, unless appeal ed to by the person asserting such lien, and if so appealed the same shall be finally determined by a special jury tit the next Superior Court held for said county. See. 5. When said mortgage lias remain ed thirty days in the Clerk’s office as herein directed, said Clerk shall certify the same on said mortgage under iiis seal of office, and shall deliver said mortgage so certified to the creditor or creditors ofsaid mortga ger upon said creditor or ‘creditors signing on said mortgage and not otherwise, a re ceipt in the following form, to wit: Re ceived , _ 186 ,of the with in mortgage in full payment of all demands against him up to the first day of June, 1865. Witness my hand and seal. I Seal. 1 Which receipt shall be attested by the Clerk of the Court aforesaid, and embraced in his certificate under seal. Sec. 6. For each mortgage made under this Act, mortgager shall pay tc. the Judge herein named at the time of his certifying to said mortgage as required by the 4th Section of this Act the sum of dol lars, from which said J udge shall pay the valuators contemplated by the fid Section of this Act, for their services ; and said mortgager shall also pay to the Cjcrk for recording and certifying each mortgage, the sum of fifty cents. See. 7. The form of the mortgages con templated by this Act may be as follows : State of Georgia, county,.;, I, , hereby acknowledge myself' torbe indebted _to as Governor of the State of Georgia, and his successors in office, in the sum of dollars, which sum I pro uiise to pay to him, as Governor, and his successors on the first day of January, 1877; and for the payment and to secure the pay ment thereof, 1 do hereby convey and mortgage unto him the said , as Governor as aforesaid, and his successors in office forever, all that This conveyance to be void upon the payment of the said sum of dollars according to the tenor and effect of this mortgage, otherwise to remain in full force. Witness my hand and seal, this day of 186 , [Seal.] Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of Sec. 8. When said mortgages become due, if the same be unpaid, it shall be the duty of the Comptroller General to issue execution thereon within thirty days there after for the amount due on said mortgage, directed to the Sheriff of the county in which the mortgage property lies, and returnable to the next term of the Superior Court of said county; and it shall be the duty of the Sheriff to levy on, and after advertising thirty days, sell said mortgaged property under thc rules governing Sheriff’s sale of lands, to satisfy said fi. fa., and make return of the same as by said fi. fa. directed ; and the money raised by such levy and sales shall bo by said Sheriffs paid over to such officer or agent as the Gover nor of this State shall direct. See. 9. TneTreasury Notes contemplated by this Act shall be of such form and amount as to lie available as a circulating medium, be issued under the direction of the Governor of this State, he signed by the Trersuror and countersigned by the Comptroller General of this State, and bear on their face the faoi that they are “secured by mortgage on real estate,” and be payable to bearer. Sec. 10. It shall be the duty of the Comptroller General, under the direction of the Governor, to prepare blank mort gages with forms of certificates, and re ceipts thereon as contemplated by this Act, and furnish the several Judges of the Superior Courts with a sufficient number thereof to carry this Act into effect. Sec. 11. The mortgages contemplated by this Act shall be numbered by the Comptroller General in the order in which they are received by him, and creditors filing said mortgages shall receive Treas ury Notes therefor in the order and ac cording to the priority of filing the same. Sec. 12. The mortgager shall have the' privilege of paying off said mortgage any time at the office of the Comptroller Gen eral or Treasurer of this State, as the Governor may direct in Treasury Notes issued under this Act, and thus relieving the mortgaged property, from the lien thereof; and on paying the same it shall be the duty of the Comptroller General to certify on such mortgage that the same is satisfied in full, and sign such certificate officially, which, on being produced to the Clerk of the Court in whose office said mortgage has been recorded, he shall, with such record, record said certificate of satis faction, and the same shall be evidence thereof in any Court in this State, and for recording which said Clerk shall be enti tled to twenty-five cents. See. 13. When there are several credi tors of the same debtor whose claims are j embraced in the same mortgage, the 1 Judge in passing upon said claims and re- 1 eeiving and passing upon said mortgage, shall give to each creditor a certificate of ' the amount due him under said mortgage, which amount shall be his pro rata of said I mortgage according to the magnitude of his claim, in determining which, _ all debts 1 shall be considered of equal dignity. Sec. 14. This Act shall remain of force [ and its provisions open to the citizens of ; this State, until the first day of January, j 1868, and no longer. Sec. 15. All laws militating against this Act are hereby 3 The Freedmen’s Bureau has just ccmd pleted the colored census of Norfolk, and report nine thousand negroes there, Jefferson Davis. I here is nothing that can be said of the great state prisoner, which is devoid of interest. Even those who have been ad x ersc to him, must- i'eel a degree of con ecru. He seems no nearer trial than a year or more ago. The Nexv York Tribune has repeatedly spoken truthfully of the extreme wickedness in keeping him a close prisoner aud refusing him the con stitutional right of a speedy trial. AYe take the folloxving from a recent number of the Tnbune, which will he read xvith un divided interest : Eighteen months have nearly elapsed since Jefferson Davis was made a state! prisoner. Ho had previously been pub licly charged, by. the President of the j United States, xvith conspiring to asstts- j sinatc President Lincoln, and SIOO,OOO j offered l'or his capture thereupon. The i capture xvtts promptly made and the money duly paid ; yet, up to this hour, there ! has not been even an attempt made by the j Government to procure his indictment on | that charge. He has also been popularly, if not officially accused of complicity in the > virtual murder of Union soldiers, xvliilo ! prisoners of war, by subjecting them to ! needless, inhuman exposure, privation and ; abuse ; but no official attempt has been j made to indict him on that charge, lie' has been indicted for simple treason ; and even this indictment has not been obtained at the instance of the Government. It may be so badly drawn that no conviction could be had on it, whatever the proof ad vanced ,■ vet tin. ! fyoc-utm: could .-ay, “I am not responsible ibr this. The in dietment was obtained without the assent, or privity of my Attorney-General or cab iuct.” Repeated attempts have been made by the-prisoner’s counsel to bring his case to trial, but to no purpose. The government does not appear to prosecute; tin! ma chinery of the courts is always out of order. At one time martial laxv stands in the way; xvhen that obstacle is removed, there is a cavil as to the sufficiency or completeness of its withdraxval; and, xvhen that xvill no longer serve, it is found that Congress has somehow disarranged the judicial districts, so that the case cannot safely be proceeded with. And Congress itself, having most inconsiderately meddled xvith tlie matter, never took pains to inquire xvhat action on its part, if any, xvas requisite; so that noxv, Congress, President and Chief Justice, arc in a complete muddle ou the subject; each seeming incliued to throw all responsi bility for the delay on one or both of the others. The upshot of all this is, that the pris oner is not tried, nor likely to be; and that, if tried, lie is morally certain not to bo convicted; if convicted, not to be pun ished. There are still many persons xvho | xvould. like to have him executed, but there is not one intelligent man on earth xvho has the faintest notion that lie ever xvill he.. For, though governments some times inflict capital punishments on con spicuous rebels, they never, at least in modern times, do so long after their re bellion xvas suppressed. Austria, in 1849, put to death thirteen of the Hungarian leaders, betrayed into her hands by the miscreant Gorgcy; but she tried them by drumhead court martial directly after their surrender, and had them all hanged and buried xvithin forty-eight hours. Had she xvaited eighteen months and then executed them, she xvould have invoked the execra tion of'all Christendom. Since it is notorious that Mr. Davis is not to be punished, why is he still kept awaiting a trial xvhich lie alone seems to desire, and xvhich he can by no means obtain ? AVlial, good end is subserved by persisting in a menace which still serves to irritate, though it no longer appalls? Congress, at its last session, evidently felt that it had the president at disadvan tage xvith regard to this prisoner—that was an elephant which Mr. Johnson had too eagerly acquired, and xvas noxv unable j either to keep or dispose of, save to his own loss. 1 ' In the state of feeling then preva lent., tjiis aspect of the case xvas regarded by many xvith evident complacency. Had the president been a man of high courage, xve think he xvould have bailed the prisoner, and called on Congress to demand, if tliat were deemed advisable, that he should bo surrendered, and tried, and to prescribe the ! legal conditions of sucli trial, since tin. laws as they stand seem inadequate or de fective. But he should first, at all events, have publicly retracted the charge of com plicity with the assassins of President Lin coln, since ht! has virtually abandoned it by not attempting to found an indictment thereon. It is neither just nor wise lo send forth a prisoner of state with the brand of murderer on his brow ; and a naked failure to prosecute Is but equivalent to the Scotch x’crdict, “Not proven.” If Mr.. Davis is even probably guilty of com plicity with Booth, he should long since have been indicted and tried for that crime; if lie is not, he should have ere this been explicitly freed from the reproach, even though he were to he executed for treason on the morrow. A great government may deal sternly with offenders, but not meanly; it cannot afford to seem unwilling lo repair an obvious wrong. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIONS IN 1860. Counties I’rwUuciug the Largest UuantUy as appearing by tlie United States Census. Wheat. —Lancaster county, Pennsylva nia, production, 2,125,722 bushels. Rye. —Columbia county, New York, pro duction, 547,902 bushels* Corn. —Sangamon county, Illinois, pro | duction, 3,599,405 bushels. Oats— Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, j production, 1,922,922 bushels. ! Rice. —Georgetown district, S. C., pro i duction, 55,805,385 pounds. Tobacco. —Christian county, Ky., pro duction, 11,409,016 pounds. I Cotton. —Tensas parish, La., production, 141,493 bales. Wool. —AVashingtoncounty, Penn., pro duction, 1,115,868 pounds. Reas and Beans. —Barnwell district, S. C., production, 171,605 bushels. Irish Potatoes. —Monroe county,-N. Y., production, 1,312,215 bushels. Sweet Potatoes. —Dublin county, N. C., production, 303,006 bushels. Barley. —Aiamcda county, California, ! production, 808,015 bushels. Buckwheat. —Butler county, Penn., pro duction, 422.379 bushels. Wine. —Hamilton county, Ohio, produc tion, 353,818 gallons. Butter. —Chenango county, N. Y., production, 5,046,772 pounds. Cheese. —Herkimer county, N. Y., pro duction, 10,901,522 pounds’ Hay. —St. Lawrence county, N. Y., pro duction, 165,634 tons. . Hops.— Oswego county, N. Y., produc tion, 3,507,069 pounds. . Hemp.— Garrard eouuty, Ivy., produc tiom 24,871 pounds. Flaw. —Renssalaer county, New York, production, 492,671 pounds. ■ Maalc Sugar. —rit. Lawrence county, Nexv York, production, 1,378,142 pounds. Cane Sugar. —St. Mary’s parish, Lit., production, 30,731 hhds. Maple Molasses. —Montgomery county, Ohio, production, 22.078 gallons. Cane Molasses. —Point Coupee parish, La., production, 1,342,195 gallons. Sorghum Molasses. —Marion county, lowa, production, 67,680 gallons, j Beeswax. —Shelby county, Aia., pro : duction, 13,000 pounds. Honey —Steuben county, N. Y., produc : tion, 132,844 pounds. Home Manufacture. — Wilson county, Tenn., value of production, $222,236. Slaughtered Animals. —Starke county, Ohio, value of production, $1,523,568. State Aid to tiie Macon & Bruns wick Railroad. —The hill to lend the credit of the State to the Macon and Brunswick Railroad, passed the House, on Thursday last, by a large majority. There seems to be no doubt about its passing the Senate, also. The main feature of the bill is that the State shall endorse the Bonds of the Pioad, and that the State shall have a mortgage on the Road for security. As the Road is already built to Hnwkiusville, some fifty miles, and is worth a million of dollars, prudent legisla tors think that the State is amply secured, and runs no risk whatever. If the bill is approved by the Governor, the Road will certainly be put through to Brunswick. I hat it will develop an important section of our State, and prove a most profitable investment, we do not question for a mo ment. Savannah will have a rival now on our Atlantic coast, and must bestir her self, or she will be outstripped in the race for commercial prosperity. - The precedent in this hill is the only dangerous feature in it.— f ederal Union. W e hear it rumored, on very good au thority, that Mr. Tutt, of this city, has received notice from England that, by the death of some of his relations in that coun try, a fortune of two million dollars has been beoueathed to him. The family of this gentleman reside in this city, but he has, since the war. been engaged in busi ness in St. Louis, and pays his family a visit once a year. —Norfolk Bay-Book. The election of contrabands in Massa chusetts exhibits a niggardly disposition. NEW SERIES, VOL.XX Y. NO. 49. GEORGIA LEGISLATURE. Saturday, Novo miter 17. SENATE. i The Senate iuct at the hour of 10 o'clock A. M. Prayer by the Chaplain. Mr. Blount moved to reconsider the bill (lost) for the pardon of 'A'ise, of Butts county. The motion prevailed. Mr. J. F. Johnsoumovedtoreconsider the action ol the Senate yesterday, in the passage of a bill to repeal the Act to allow persons charged with crime to bo commit ted for trial in any county of the State. The motion prevailed, and the bill was laid on the table the balance of the session. Mr. Casey introduced, on the 15th inst., a bill to abolish imprisonment for debt Also, a bill to provide that the settle ment ibr bills ol’ Banks shall be made at the current, rates of value of such bills at the time the suit was commenced. Mr. J. A. AY. Johnson: A hill to incor porate the People’s Savings Bank of Dal ton. Mr. .1. I . Johnson: A bill to allow the -Masonic Fraternity of Atlanta to raise by lottery money, for building a A\ i. loves’ and Orphans’ Home. Mr. O. L. Smith: A bill to incorporate the Carter, villc and A an AYert Railroad Company. •The regular order of the day—tlie bill to modify the Act creating County Courts — was taken up, tlie same being the recom meudation of the majority of the Commit tee. After considerable discussion the ’notion >"• ' ; ■' Repot t tvaslost by a vote of 19 to 20. Tue Senate nifoumed. HOUSE. Saturday, November 17. Air. Ridley introduced a resolution to have morning and afternoon sessions of the House after this day. Agreed. Senate amendment to 1 louse resolution to appoint committee to examine digest of decisions of Supremo Court by J. AY. Avery, was concurred in. A seat on the Hour of the House xvas tendered to lion. Jno. A. Jones and Gen. 11. C. AYayne. THIRD READINGS. To change line between AYilcox and Pu laski. Passed. To change line between Appling and Coffee. Passed. BIIXS INTRODUCED. Mr. Durham: To allow AY. F. AA’hitc, ofClark county to practice medicine, and charge for the same. Air. Adams : A resolution for tiie re lief of maimed soldiers—to appoint a com mittee to examine the Eureka leg, &c., invented by Dr. Byrd. The Senate resolution to furnish certain books to Fannin and Pickens counties, xvas concurred in. The morning session xvas consumed, after the hour spent iu debating whether there should be afternoon sessions, in read ing bills a second time, adjourned. I send the remarks of Air. Barnes, of Richmond, made on the motion to reconsider the bill to aid in the construc tion of theAlacon A Brunswick Railroad: Air. Barnes arose and said : Mr. Speaker : It is always xvith feelings ol extreme reluctance that l throw myself upon the indulgence of the House. That reluctance, on an occasion like this, when T am compelled to differ from valued friends, becomes pain. Painful, however, as the duty may he, 1 still feel that I cannot shrink from its discharge. AVhcn the debate closed on yesterday, in which 1 did not participate, my mind was carried back to an anecdote xvhich 1 had read in my school boy days. A great philosopher, xvliose name has come down to us through the light and darkness of more than txventy centuries, observed that he lmd frequently retired from (lie Academy at Athens with regret that he had spoken—never xvith regret that lie had been silent. Comparing so humble an individual as myself with so illustrious an example, 1 could not hut feci on yesterday that my position was the reverse of his, and so feeling, I cannot, without being recreant to my own sense of duty, be silent upon this motion. My objections to tlie bill arc threefold. The first is of a Constitutional character, tlie two others are based upon expediency. The Constitution declares that the taxing powers shall bo exercised only to raise reve nue for the support of government, to pay the public debt, to provide for the common defence, and Ibr such other purposes as the General Assembly may, by statute, be specially required or empowered to accom plish by this Constitution. This clause was not in flic old Constitu tion. It xvas introduced in 1861. Legis tiem prior to that time cannot he adduced as a precedent. The old constitution gave the legislature a general taxing power. Under the new it. is restricted to certain specific purposes. The question arises: is aid to State railroads among those ob jects ? If it is, and it is a question xvhich each legislator must answer in his own mind—then the bill may be Constitutional, il it is not then the bill is unconstitutional. Now, no where can we find that State-aid is among the specificd objects for which taxes can he laid. It may lie said that we do not propose to lay taxes. But can it be honestly urged that the State can endorse the paper ofa private corporation which may eventuate in the creation of a public debt, and thus lay tax for its discharge ? So much for the Constitutional argument. Now, as to the question of expediency : VV hat arc the objects of government? lie vertingto original definitions and principles, that spring out of the predominance ot the individual or selfish feelings over the selfish. Its objects through its legislative depart ment, arc to prescribe rules of civil con duct, through its judiciary to define them, and through its executive to execute them. It leaves private enterprise where it finds it—untrammeled—but with it it has no concern. There are special occasions when gov ernment may, with propriety, vary these general duties. A great illustration is the case of the AVestern and Atlantic Railroad, lioxv different that case from the one before us. Private enterprise had then, on the one side, brought the waters of the Atlantic to Atlanta; on the other, those of the great father of xvaters to Chattanooga. Between wasa vast country, rich iii its mineral products, and fertile in its soil. It had been just reclaimed from the Indians. State subscription had to supply the deficiency, because there xvas no private enterprise to do it. But here xve have a country poor in soil, and which lias been open to private enterprise lor more than a hundred years. f , Supposing the road"be built, will it pay? i hc \\ , & A. R. R. xvas without a compet itor. \\ hen the Brunswick road reaches Macon it xvill have to compete with the Central and the Maeon k VYirrentou.— The former owns a controlling interest in the Southwestern road, and thereby xvill command tliat source of supply. Both xvill compete xvith the Brunswick, and in a tune xvhen the bulk of the jtroducts of the country xvill be greatly reduced. And it is upon bulk rather than value that railroads must depend for remuneration. But as n precedent, it is ruinous of State credit. If it endorse the bonds ol this road to-day, xvhat bonds may it not endorse to-morrow? Will not the Nexv York capi talists hesitate about the investment, when they learn the State has inaugurated IhL policy / Ihc credit of the State cannot hut be impaired if xve pass this bill. In this time, the first duty xvhich wc oxve to the country should be to preserve the credit of the State untarnished. AYc should pre serve it as a _ priceless jewel. It is the brightest which glitters in it coronet, AV ould that Brunswick, through private enterprise,* could become a largo city. Gladly would I contribute my humble aid to this object. But let it not be done at : the expense of the State. Instead of the i city, let us erect where Brunswick j and where the waters of the Broad Atlaro | tic lave its shores, a noble monument j adorned xvith Corinthian capital, on which shall he inscribed the glorious sentiment: , “To the pure and unsullied credit of Geor gia.” I have given you a hare synopsis, which does not do Air. B. full credit. It xvas ac- j knowledged on all hands to have been one of the most logical speeches that was made j on the bill. No reply was made to it. 1 L. C. Monday, November 19. SENATE. The Senate met and was opened with prayer by Rev. Mr. Yarborough. Mr. O. P. Beall moved to reconsider the action of the Senate on Saturday, in reject ing the bill to modify the act creating County Courts. The motion and the bill was referred to a special com mittee. The Resolution requesting the Governor to lay before the next session of the Gener al Assembly a statement of the amount of land owned by the State, and what pric' the same would bring, was laid upon the table for the present. The bill for the relief of the people of the State was taken upas the special order. Mr. Grisham offered an amendment ex plaming the law as it now stands, to mean that if the fourth of the debt required to be paid by the Ist of January next is not paid, the creditor shall have no right to collect more than the fourth of the debt. The amendment was lost. -Mr. O. P. Beall introduced an amend ment providing that the first section of the act be construed to mean that where the debtor shall fail to pay the first installment, lie shall have no right to collect the re mainder until the time prescribed by law. The amendment was carried. The bill was finally passed by a vole of 29 to 7,_ with provision as follows: Pay ment of one-fourth of the debt is -deferred till January Ist, 1868. The other provi sions are the same as in the old act. The seven who voted against the amend ment arc: Messrs. O. I*. Beall, Grisham, Kenan, Heading, Strozier, McDaniel and Owens. The Senate adjourned till 3 o'clock this afternoon. BOUSE. Monday, Nov. 19. House met. Prayer by the Rev. Mr. Brooks. NEW MATTER. Mr. Russell: To amend charter of the Southern Insurance and Trust Company. Mr. Harrison: To repeal an Act point ing out mode of paying fees of Solicitor General in Eastern Circuit, Ac. Mr. Kirby: To amend 2133d section of Code. Also, for relief of S. Watkins.— Also, for the relief of C. A. Price and A. L. McCarbcr. slr. (I artrcll: To cl lunge time of holding Superior Courts in Blue Ridge Circuit.— Also, to appropriate money to E. L. Citch iieid for attending small pox. Mr. Hill: To amend charter of Atlanta Medical College. _ Also, ter incorporate. Island Manufacturing Company of Bartow county. Mr. .Maddox : To fix Jst of May, 1865, as the date of the abolition of slavery, and to adjust the equities of settlement of con tracts founded on Confederate currency.— Also, to appoint a State Geologist. Mr. Morris: To increase the salaries of the Secretaries of the Executive Depart ment. Ulr. Dart: To amend the charter of Brunswick. Mr. McWhorter: To amend the act de fining Court contracts. Mr. White: To exempt practicing phy sicians from road duty. Mr. McDowell: To point out the mode of summoning juries in certain cages. Mr. Howard: Relative to the charter of Dahlonega. Mr. Mallard: To amend road laws in Mclntosh. Mr. Simms: For relief of J. 11. Rake straw. Mr. Kibbee: To change the line between Wilcox and Pulaski. Mr. French: To incorporate the Grand Lodge Knights of Jericho. Mr. Holiday: To make a feme sole of Mrs. A. C. Crossman. Mr. Shaw: To change the mode of selecting Jurors in criminal causes. Mr, Wilburn : To define the law sitting apart twelve months support to widows and orphans. Mr. Pottle: To amend the Penal Code (defines insurrection to combined resistance to the laws—makes it a high misdemeanor to print or circulate incendiary documents.) Mr. Glenn: To relieve from liability certain consignees. Also: For relief of F. Cox and Harrison Rogers. Mr. French : To exempt manufacturers of cotton from State and county tax. Mr. Humphreys: To dispose of certain court fees in Lincoln county. THIRD READING. To incorporate Columbus steam power manufacturing company. Passed. To pay each maimed soldier the amount an artificial limb would cost, if he cannot make use of the artificial limb. Passed. To explain the laws relative to taxing railroads, foreign insurance agencies and express companies. (The laws to remain same as prior to the year 1863.) Passed. To incorporate Ocmulgee Banking, Building and Loan Association. Passed. To incorporate the Hancock Iron Com pany. Passed. .The Finance Committee introduced -a hill to appropriate money to rcinter Con federate dead at Rcsaca. To legalize certain acts of Inferior Court of Wilcox. Passed. To authorize the Inferior Court of De catur county to issue bonds to build a bridge at Bainbridge, over Flint, River. Passed. To prescribe mode of electing Mayor and Aldermen in Atlanta. Passed. To exempt persons actually engaged in attending grist mills from jury duty. Passed. To prevent obstruction of Oekloenee River in certain counties. Passed. To increase fees of Jailor in DcKalb county. Passed. To compensate jurors in the various courts in Decatur county. Passed. Adjourned. The following table of valuations of Con federate currency as compared with gold in the basis proposed by Mr. Maddox’s bill to be used in adjusting the equities of contracts made during the war. This bill contemplates the carrying out of the 2nd Section of the Repudiation ordihanoe of the late Convention. 1861. 1862. 1863. January, $1.20 $3.00 February, 1.30 3.10 March, ].55 3.60 April, 1.75 5.00 May, 1.90 6.00 June, 1.10 1.95 7.00 July, 1.10 2.00 9.00 August, 1.10 2.20 14.50 September, 1.10 2.50 14.00 October, 1.12 2.50 12.25 November, 1.15 3.00 14.25 Dee. Ito 10, 1.20 3.00 20.50 “ 10 to 20, 1.20 3.00 20.50 “20 to 31, 1.20 3.00 30.50 1864. 1865. January, $20.50 January, $ 62.50 February, 20.50 February, 48.00 March, 20.50 March, 52.50 April, 20.00 Apr Ito 15, 70.00 May, 19.00 “ 15 to 20, 80.00 June, 18.00 “20 to 27, 100.00 July, 18.00 “ 26, 200.00 August, 28.00 “ 27, 300.00 September, 21.00 “ 28, 500.00 October, 20.00 “ 29, 800.00 November, 26.00 “ 30, 1,000.00 Dec. Ito 10, 32.00 May 1, 1,200.00 “ 10 to 20, 41.00 “20 to 31, 51.00 Wendell Phillips as a Journalist, The Memphis Appeal says Wendell Phil lips has gained some notoriety as a public speaker, but his recent debut in journalism shows that he is not as happy with the pen as with the tongue. In fact, his con tributions to the Anti-Slavery Standard are weak-stilted, arid rhethorical. The “ fine frenzy” which fills the ear of an ex cited audience makes very poor reading, except in the form of a speech. Notice the following extract from .Phillips’ last article in the. Standard : Witness Beecher lost in the wave he fondly imagined he could stem. Witness Grant, unable to stir a plaudit on tho Illinois prairies-—lllinois, his own State— from an audience of twenty thousand men, one-half his own soldiers. Witness the New York Times sunk, fifty per cent, in value in six months, by its vain attempt to oppose this dumb but resistless move ment of tins nation. This fact that no name, no laurel, no services weigh a feather if put into the scale against Radi calism, is the most cheering and whole some characteristic of the hour. Now this kind of stuff would be fol lowed by (applause) in a public speeche because it would sound well; but trans ferred to paper to he read one wearies of it after the first paragraph. Here is more of the same sort, hut which, apart from its sophistical character, has a certain valu as showing what the Radicals wiil be after when negro is obtained: Revolutions never go backward. It is equally true that Radicalism travels west ward. Personal Liberty bills, Women’s rights bills, and ail such legislation, star ted from Ne w Ragland and have ‘‘swung round the circle.” This last Yankee notion \\ ill soon begin its travels, and complete them when North ami South know no race before the.law. Then, when, a million oj black men aid in .shaping our national policy, their race will feel the effect the world over. They will never leave their brethren m Cuba under the yoke. They will throw a /shield over the .struggling nationality of Jlayti and lift Brazil into harmony with the nineteenth century. Here is a pleasant national programme. After we admit the negroes to our legisla tive halls and family circles, then we must turn to and fight the battles of the negroes in other lands. There a/e some innocent souls who suppose that if the negro has suffrage and equal rights before the law that would be the end of him as a subject to fight about, but it is evident that while there is a nigger on God's footstool, it is Wendell Phillip’s intention to make a fuss a bout him. And as he leads the Radicals they will second his efforts. Capt. Geo. Fuller’s Louisville Theatre goes up in a way to make it a Fuller house than ever,