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Savannah daily herald. (Savannah, Ga.) 1865-1866, April 22, 1865, Image 1

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SAVANNAH DAILY HERALD. VOL. 1-NO. 83. The Savannah Daily Herald (MORNING AND EVENING} IS PUBLISHED BY a W. MASON «fc CO., At 111 Bay Street, Savannah, Georgia, terms: Per Copy Five Cents. Per Hundred $3 50. Per Year 00. ADVERTISING: Two Dollars per Square of Ten Lines for first in sertion : One Dollar for each subsequent one. Ad vertisements inserted in the morning, will, if desired, appear in the evening without extra charge. JOB PRINTING every style, neatly and promptly done. RISE IN THE RATE OF'INTEREST. NO. 4. It appears to be the policy of modern financiers to procure money for the public service by placing tlreir loans within the reach of a large portion ot the community. The price of shares in the public stocks is put at so low a figure that there are few who are unable to become proprietors in the funds. By this means, although the amounts are separately small, the aggregate becomes considerable. The State becomes debtor to nearly the whole community who have any surplus funds to invest, and all the interest in maintaining the credit of the government. To adopt the phraseology of the aewspapers, this is called popularizing public loans. When Louis Napoleon wished to obtain a loan in 1854, to carry on the war with Rus sia, he issued proposals for a loan in which this principle was incorporated. He shrewd ly concluded that a rate of interest somewhat higher than the market rate, combined with the facility of obtaming shares, from the low subscription price, would bring out the scat tered hoards, many of which in France,from the habits of the people, had remained un productive. This calculation was a correct one. He raised a loan in a few months of sixty millions sterling. The principle, although novel in its appli cation, was familiar to many of the shrewd financiers of France. It was the basis of the Credit Mobilier and other credit Institu tions, which, having taken root in Paris, shot forth in a most prolific manner all over the continent of Europe. Vienna and all the lesser cities of Germany and Italy have had their Credits Mobilier. As the name imports the effect is to form large aggregates of capital from the small and scattered separate sums, in hands wherein they were unproductive, by impart ing to them activity, with the prospect of large dividends. By skilful financial ar rangements the promises of the projectors were realized, and some of the most eminent ot the continental financiers, including Princes and other high Dignitaries, such as the Rothchilds, Perieras* Foulds, became as sociated in those stupendous joint stock un dertakings. In England where associations founded on such hazardous principles had never become popular, joint stock banks and a variety of similar enterprises have received, within a short period, prodigious expansion. Many of them have been highly successful, having made large dividends. The attraction has separately unfruitful of results, became ag- j gregately productive of large gains. While the liability is diffused and the hazards di minished, the prospect is held out of inordi nate gains. It has singularly appeared that this new organization of credit, as it is called by the Edinburg Review, should have been coinci dent with the great demand in England, for loan capital, leading to an elevation in tic vat«> >f interest beyond all parallel. We hi sv, is in whtu manner this demand is a ! natural sequence to the hupnlla. given, tp iff- j dustry aud trade by several co-operating ! causes, nnd particularly by the agency of the gold discoveries within the fast, decade and a j half. There would baa tendency to a fall in the rate from increased supply, but tiie demand was constantly ahead of the supply, and the rate advanced notwithstanding the additional supply. We thus perceive in what manner this de mand is supplied in holding out inducements to subscribe to joint stock companies and in vest in undertakings, by the hope of large profit and the certainty of diminished risk. The inquiry naturally suggests itself, Why should loanable capital, to be employed in foreign enterprise, be almost exclusively sought in England, and not as well in the continental money markets ? The reply ap pears to us to lie on the surface. England above every other country in Europe, is the great reservoir of capital. Her powers of accumulation exceed those of any other country, and this, it appears to us, from two causes. Ist. Her insular situation, protect- ing her from the march of devastating armies, combined with her long period of internal tranquility. 2d. Her skill in those arts that minister to wealth.' Her progress in physical science and in mechanical ingenuity enable her to afford exportable products at prices by which she is able to undersell all other coun tries, having cheaper labor, but a less skill ful division of it and a more limited power of machinery. Her textile fabrics have driven out of their own markets the East India manufacturers, where a day’s labor can be procured for a pint of rice. Within the memory of man the price of cotton goods has fallen 75 per cent, in Eng land, showing the great efficiency of her la bor. The cheapening ot her productions from the combined effect of her physical ad vantages, as seen in her coal and iron, her inventive powers, as exhibited in her im proved machinery; her scientific progress as shown in her manifold applications of steam, enables her to lay the whole world under contribution. The balance of trade is nearly always in her favor with all parts of the world. There is a stream of treasure that, except under very adverse circum stances, such as warlike expenditure and de ficient harvests, seeks London as the great bullion market of the world. It is on this great mart and centre of trade that bills in the most remote parts of the world are drawn-and balances adjnsted. Capital here accumulates with marvellous rapidity, find ing it3 way in loans to the banks of the Ganges or the Sacremento, with a difference in the rate of interest of only two per cent.— Hence it is that the money market of London is the resort of borrowers from every division of the globe, and explains why the demand for loanable capital centres above all other places in the British metropolis. Whether the rise will be permanent or tem porary, is natural and not abnormal—wheth er the rate may not advance to ten per cent. would depend, it appears to us, on the con tinuance of the circumstances which produc ed the rise or-stimulated the demand beyond the supply, such as the general spirit of im provement arising from the discovery of new fields of gold, the still greater enlargement of the boundaries of free trade &c. There is no more reason on theoretical grounds that the future rate of interest should not be ten per cent, per annum, than that it should have re mained for many years at the average rate of Jive per cent. The rate of interest has been as low as one and-a-half,. and two per cent, per aimum in England, from the supply of capital exceeding the demand. There can be no invariable.rate or price for money. The Spiestion, therefore, whether any higher or ower rate of interest will take place, resolv'es itself into the change or. continuance of the circumstances that led to the rise—on the ad vancing, stationary or rctrogade state of so ciety. *** Arrest Bloodshed Immediately. —The decision in the case of all the armies in the South ought to be obtained at once. If Lee’s surrender be accepted as a termination of the struggle by the Confederate Government, not a moment should be allowed to interpose in communicating the fact to all the armies on both sides. Sherman may at any moment dash into deadly collision with Johnston. A bloody struggle is raging in front of the de fences of Mobile. Forrest’s and Echols’ troopsrs are bleeding and drawing blood in mortal affray with Grierson, Stoneman and other horsemen of the Federal army. Kirby Smith, Price and Magruder may be this mo ment engaged hi murderous onslaught upon Northern men beyond the Mississippi. The ts&wastf saastf* ■' mid tu«fce~of estimated in the deity of the sews oi peace hnriSrm moking sia ruin J ered men, will sicken Heavenwith more of the horrors of our utnatural strife before the combatants see the nlessed feet of peace.— To arrest these crimes, and to enable the soul of the country, both North and South, to taste the enjoymett of a sense of repose, in the name of Heaven let not one hour be lost—let not one devilish punctillio interfere to delay the tidings of settlement through out all the wide domain of the deadly strife. [N. Y. Daily News. Yankees. —The New York Herald has the following: —“The Southern people have al ways called Northerners Yankees, but North erners never accept-*! the nanae All the people of the Middle States spurned it, and r ‘*fr rro cLthe seeker for Yankees to the region of down East, commencing with Connecti cut. Connecticut sent him on to Massachu setts, Vermont, or Rhode Island; they to New Hampshire, and New Hampshire to Maine. But the war has changed all that.- We ate all Yankees now, and we accept the ,L * v <ry good one. Will this pass into onr history aj the special designa nil°n?ti peop of the' United Statefin place of the very general designation of American that we now share with a ii t he other peoples of the continent ? If it it will merely have the career of all other nicknames before it,; which, bestowed first in a sneering, jeering sense, eventually became the accepted names of people-or sects. Even the term Christian was at first merely a sneer. Trade op Charleston and Savannah.— At Charleston and Savannah authorized traders will hereafter be permitted, under such restrictions as the post commanders may impose, to receive lrorp inhabitants re siding within our lines such merchandise and agricultural products, except cotton and articles not contraband of war, in exchange tor nesessary supplies of food and clothing. This traffic is, however, to be kept .strictly within the limits of military necessity. SAVANNAH, GA., SATURDAY, APRIL 22, 1865. THE ASSASSINATION OF THE PRESIDENT. BOW XT WAS SONS. FULL PARTICULARS. No Maniac’s Deed, but a Delib erate, Demoniac Murder. Bow the Assassin Provided, in Advance, for Bis Escape. MAJOR RATHBUIf’S STATEMENT ■— MISS LAI BA KEENE’S ACCOUNT. The Post Mortem Examina tion. J. Wilkes Booth, Beyond a Doubt, the Murderer. New York Bates to the 17th. MAJ. RATHBCN’S STATEMENT. The President’s box at Ford’s theatre is a double one, or what ordinarily constitutes two boxes, in the second tier, at the left of the stage. When occupied by the Presiden tial party the separating partition is removed, and the two are thus throwrn into one. This box is entered from a narrow, dark hallway, which in turn is separated from the dress circle by a small door. The examination of the premises discloses thp fact that the assas sin had fully and deliberately prepared and arranged them so/ his diabolical purpose pre vious to the assembling bf the audience. A piece of board one inch thick, six inches wide and about three feet in length served for a bar, one end being placed in an inden tation excavated in the wall for the purpose about four feet from the floor, and the other against the moulding of the door panel a few inches higher than the end in the wall, so that it would be impossible to jar it out of place by knocking on tae door on the out side. The demon haring thus guarded against intrusion by any of the audience, next proceeded to prepare a means of observing the position of the paries inside the box. With a gimlet or small bL he bored a hole in the door panel, which he afterwards reamed out with his knife so as to leave it a little larger than a buckshot or the inside, while it was sufficiently large ori the outside in the dark entry for him to place his eye against it with convenience, and see the position occu pied by the President aid his friends. Both box doo«B Wera„- Pfttforaed in like manner. But there were spring locks on each of these doors, and it was barelj possible that they might be fastened. To yrovide against such an emergency the sere vs which fasten the bolt hasps to the wood had been partially withdrawn, and left so tfcat while they would hold the hasps to the wood they would afford little or no resistance to a firm pressure upon the door from the outside. deliberate preparations for the mtsder. Having thus provided for a sure aid easy entrauce to the box, the next busines was to insure a clear and unobstructed parage to the locality of the victim by such ai arrange ment of the chairs and sotas as w>uld place the other occupants at considerate distance from him. The rocking or eas’ chair occu pied by Mr. Lincoln was found in the front cornel of the box farthest from the stage.— Another, for Mrs. Lincoln, a little remote from the front, while the other chairs and a sofa were all plaeed on the side nearest the stage, leaving the centre of the spicious box clear for the bloody operations or the actor. These preparations were neither conceived by a maddened brain, designed by a fool, nor executed by a drunkard. Ttey bear most unmistakable evidence of gen/us, industry and perseverance to the perfect accomplish ] residence' of r teenth and H streets, wrere «pSWBafcJS? United States Army ffitothSf carriage, mad proceeded to the theatre Siorly after they entered the fatal box, t»e Iresvdent seated himself in the chair designator him by-the assassin. Mrs. Lincoln tpk one near him; Miss Harris the one at *e opposite comer, fronting the audience; pd Major Rathbun seated himself upon thqsofa, a few feet be hind Miss Harris. Therewere no other per- sons in the box, and nopne entered or lei t it until about the time of me assassination.— Charles Forbes, the personal attendant of the President, had been told py Mrs. Lincoln to remain near the box, as hi might be wanted. The President seemed veil, though some what ssuLund spoke vey little. He arose once during the pertbii>-qce, went to the door of the bpx, put on his ?ercoat and then The deed was perpe 4ed during the second scene of the third if of the piece, by some man who must *ve approached stealth fluffed unseimthrc dMhe he saw the ■flash, and d’imte'.hrough the smoke the forth of a man in the tox, not more than six feet from the Presidfht. As the Major •wang towards Mm himeard him shriek some -«prd like “freedom” He then seized him. The assassin shoe); loose from the offlcer'ihgliop, and attbjsaine time made a violent wruat at Ms left breast with the knife which he held in his land. Major Rathbun caught the bldfr bis'left arm near the shoulder, aaclat once gpm ig for him again, but oriy succeeded his clothmg, whiel he;partly tore i«n him as he leaped from the box to die stage. The Major, then cried oh* “Stop itan,’' and, supposing it impossible fra - Mm tc «scape through the crovd below, ruabed hack to the President and to She aid oflßp. 3HAW>In, who, for the firsl tim>ul»fWigif%c» -h»d occurred, was shreking t for help- < The President had not changed except that Ms eyes were closed and his head slightly bent for ward. Major Rathbun saw at a glance that he was mortally wounded. He went to the door of the box for the purpose of procuring medical aid, and to his astonishment found the outer dooi at the end of the dark hall from which the boxes are entered firmly barred on the inside, with a piece of wood wedged across about four feet from the floor; so that those outside who were knocking for admission could not get in. Tearing away the fastenings, and passing in one or two persons who represented themselves as Snr geons, he requested Captain Crawford to pre vent all other persons from entering the box, and begged the audience to disperse. When the Surgeons had concluded their examinations it was decided to remove the body from the theatre, and accordingly the whole party, including Major Rathbun, who had charge of Mis. Lincoln, proceeded to a house opposite. It was now found that the Major was seriously wounded, and becoming quite faint from loss of blood. He was sent home by his Surgeon. THE SAPIDITY OP THE ASSASSIN’S MOVEMENTS. The whole time occupied from the firing of the pistol in the box to the leaping upon the stage was not over thirty seconds. The Presi dent never spoke or unclosed his eyes from this time until his death. The clothing of Major Rathbun and the dress of Miss Harris were bespattered with blood of the Major. The wound of the President did not bleed at all. MISS LAURA KEENE’S STATEMENT. Prominent among those mentioned in con nection with the incidents of the late tragi cal death ol our worthy President, is the name of Laura Keene,the actress. In order to place her right in the history, the fOUowing facts will suffice:— Miss Keene was behind the scenes at the precise time of the shooting, waiting to come on the stage. She was near the place thea trically known as the “tormentor.” She was on the northern 9ide es the theatre, while the President’s box was on the southern side. Miss Keene, s position was near the prompter's desk; but as that official was absent calling some of the actors, she placed herself near the point where she could more readily enter upon her part. She was at the time expecting to see the ingress of Mr. Spear, whose part was at hand, and prepared herself to break his fall as he en tered in a drunken scene: but instead of re ceiving Mr. Spear, Mr. Booth pnshed his way suddenly through the side scene, striking Miss Keene on the hand with his own, in which he held the dagger. She, for a second looked at him and saw it Was another per son from the one she expected, and instan taneously she heard the cry that the Presi dent was shot. The cry 'was spontaneous among the andience, and many of them were making for the stage. She then knew some thing was occurring, as women were scream ing, men hallooing and children crying, as if a fire panic had taken place. Miss Keene went to the front of the stage, and, address ing the bewildered audience, said, “For God’s sake have presence of mind and keep your places, and all will be well.”' Notwithstanding this appeal, the audi ence were boisterous, and while all seemed anxious to detect the perpetrator of the great crime, but one made a real move to the end. Scarcely had the perpetrator of the crime jumped from the President’s box to the stage, before he was followed by Mr. Stewart, one of the auditors. As Mr. Booth crossed the stage, he met and struck at the Carpenter with the dagger he had, and in stantaneously made his exit to the rear of the theatre,where his horse was in readiness, and thence made his escape. Miss Keene, after momentarily arresting the panic and consternation in the audience, heard the cry of Miss Harris, saying, “Miss Keene, bring some water.” Miss Keene, responding to her call, made her way, which was rather cir cuitous, through the dress circle to the Presi dent's box, and got there a few moments alter the occurrence. There she sai«M||Nfc Lincoln in the agony of a devoted tering the most piteous cries. Miss nil. attempted to pacify her, at the samp tips offering the good offices in her poweffyjSjij she was convinced from her observation Mgr human help was in vain. Miss Keene re mm to 'xyf *' AUTOPSY A/rs. vrane, yunis, "oouiwu, apa onthe body of the Prerideafc. The external appearance of the race Wia that of a deep black stain, about both eyes. Otherwise the face was very natural. The wound was on the left side of the head, behind, on aline with and three inches from the left ear. The course of the ball was obliquely for ward, toward the right eye, crossing the brain obliquely a few inches behind the eye, where the ball lodged. In the track of the wound were found frag ments of bone which bad been driven for ward by the ball. the bail was found imbedded in the ante rior lobe offthe west hemisphere of the brain. The orbif plates of both eyes were the seat of commuted fracture, and the orbit* of the eyes were filled with extravasaied blood. The serious injury to the orbit plates was due to the centr e coup, the result of the in tense shock of so l&rgs projectile fired so Cl< Th«f SiU h wasevidently a Deringer, hand-) cast, and from which the neck hud been Cll Ashaving of lead had been removed from the ball in fts passage through the bones ot the skull and was found in the orifice ot the wound. The first fragment of the bone was found two and a half inches within the bram, the second and a larger fragment about four inches from the orifice. The ball lay still further in advance. The wound was half an inch in diameter. The coffin of the President measures in ' in the clear Bix\feet six inches in length, and eighteen inches in breadth at the breast. A strong military guard has been placed around the residences of the several Cabinet officers and around the Executive mansion. additional accounts of the assassination. Several accounts have been given of the PRICE. 5 CENTS circumstances attending the murder of Pres ident Lincoln. The following thrilling and detailed accounts have been obtained from those who were immediately in attendence upon him just before, at the time of the mur der and just after the fatal shot was fired. They may differ in some minor details from some of those hitherto given, but in the main agree with them, and the differences may lie accounted for by the various impressins re ceived in a moment of so much intense ex citement. the surrender of lee. -» SPEECH OF GENERAL BUTLER. General Butler, upon being called out, spoke as follows: - “Fellow Citizens —l am profoundly grate ful, and thank you once and again, that you have called upon me to join you in your con gratulations upon this great triumph of our arms, which conquers and subjugates finally a most heinous rebellion against the Ameri can people. The surrender of Lee and his army puts an end to this traitorous war waged to overthrow the government. Even now, while the heart turns to God for His good Providence, while the soul burns with gladness at the result which, rightly under stood, renews the life of the nation forever, new vital and controlling questions to be settled in the immediate future, arise and mingle perforce with our joy. There are four classes of men in the rebel lious Stales. What shall be done with them ? What shall be done with the men educated in the Military Academy at the public ex pense, sworn to protect our flag, obtaining livelihood, honor and promotion under it. the children of the nation, who, without justification, excuse or palliation even be trayed their country, forfeited their honor, struck down their nag, used the very know ledge obtained at the nation's school to break down the government which nurtured them and the nation which honors them, and have now ceased an unholy strife, which has cost millions of money and hundreds of thousands of Uvea, because they have been beaten, con quered and subdued by the valor of our sol diers, whose comrades they have starved in loathsome prisons ? (Cheers, and cries of “Hang every one of them—hang them—give them the rope.) In the future, the danger to our liberties can come only from the mad ambition of those in the army who may con spire against the life of the nation. Shall we not, by example, teach every officer who deserts his flag that he shall suffer the same penalty for deserting which the government and the law have enforced upon so many of our soldiers for the same'crime ? What shall be done with those whom the people North and South once delighted to honor, who, with the oath of God upon their lips, but treason in their souls, sat in yonder Capitol as law givers, day by day, and plotted how to de stroy their country, even white in the name of the Constitution they claim to sacrifice at the altar of her most cherished liberties? Shall they ever again have the power, or place, or vote to destroy their country ? (Cries of “No, no—never, never.’’) Shall they ever again be allowed to have the loved, and honored, and glorious privilege, now made Bacred by the blood of hero pa triots dead, to save them acts of such men— that of American citizens? (Cries of “No, never—traitors—hang them,”) The next class,- the soldier in the ranks of the rebel lion, misled, deceived by false statements and arguments and prejudices, until their judgments were overcome, conscripted anct driven until their wil’s were overcome into the support of the rebellion, who, even in a bad cause, have illustrated the valor of the American race, are we not ready to say ta them, “Father, father forgive them, they v know not what they do ?” (Cries of "Thar*- it, good—good—that’s the talk."X“* anoth er class,' those of the South wjg^r B . ve ®ver welcomed the flag withE.^ 10 "*? . Sadness, who have never fail ad buion* victory, who have jf* l *f*»h m top cause, who eared for the escaping ftoi] 9tar ™tjQ& and Ullthiulr' hy ihg DOfth &QU tuTCHIRU uH f.wrfit tn liberty and life wm laUiuuvaii their lives in om cause, who went firstto enteriUchmond, the true Union men of the Bouth-r-(Cheer«)'— what shall we say to them ? Shall we not say, “Liberty anil Eaualitv “under the laws for ever ?“ fdides of “Yes,” anil cheers.) Then we are agreed Condign punishment to the mili tarv traitor who deserts his flag for rebellion; ffisiranchfeement and 9afe keeping for the cTvmamWiitg his peijured place to betray Mb country; the right hand of fellowship*# the misguided aud deceived victims n : rebellion, and equal rights for the blaerman under the law. (Cries of “Go on, go omW Let us be thankful to the good, God that while this war has cost so much treasure and I blood, it has so established one power among the nations of the earth that the shedding oi American blood upon American soil may now cease forever, and, in our dealings wan the nations of the earth we can adopt without soar of war the motto of Jackson, Ask nothing but what is right ane submit to nothing wrong.” (Cries of good, good. ) And i> >* ' rn ™ i bve. (Cries, “How about a pardon. I am not your Secretary pi state, nud have no i power to direct your foreign afiaiis. Good bye. (Laughter sad cheers?; J'he AeroiNT.MEirr of Officers of Qot,- "Kiev Jlgoovs. —The authority heretofore given to corbttnßaiiill£. armteiVs.or departments, or to other officer 4 : to appoint officers of colored troops,; has ' tea revoke by the Secretary of War, except for new regiments now in process of organization. Hereafter all appointments and promotions in such organizations will be made directly by the President. The regimental com manders of old organizations are requested to nominate meritorious non-commitsioned officers and soldiers of white regiments for appointment as second lieutenants in the corps, to fill vacancies caused by promotions. Commanders of armies, departments or corps, are authorized to convene examining boards when in their opinion it shall be nec essary to determine the qualifications ot can didates for promotion in the line or appoint - ment of second lieutenants.