SAVAMAH DAILY HERALD.
VOL. 1-NO. 118.
The Savannah Daily Herald
(MORNING AND EVENING;
W. W. MASON CO.,
At 111 Bat Suht, Savannah, Georgia.
Per Copy , Five Cents.
Per Hundred ....*3 60.
Per Year..; *lO 00,
Two lAlars per Square of Ten Lines for first in
sertion; One Dollar toßJSach subsequent one. Ad
vertisements inserted it Jit- morning, will, if desired,
appear in tire evening \rctnout extra charge.
In every style, neatly and promptly done.
j Yu l'R LH>;K INSURED f
This is an important . question for every man and
important also for every wife and mother us it affects
tljrir future welfare.
SEE TO IT AT ONCE. DO-NOT DELAY.
The “Knickerbocker Life Insurance" of New York
will insure you at the usual rates in any sum I'rcftn SIOO
SIO,OOO. Tiuw also issue the favorite TEN TEAR
NON-FORFEITURE Policies, and will after two years
payment give a full paid up Policy tor Two Tenths the
whole sum, and Three Years Three Tenths, and so
on. Thus a Policy of SIO,OOO. Two Premiums paid
upon it will be entitle*! to a paid up Policy of $2,000.
and live years five-tenths for every additional year.
For further information apply to
A. WILBUR, Agent,
At the office of the Home Insurance Cos.,
ju2T 60 Bay st., Savaunah, Ga.
THE NEW ENGLAND MUTUAL LIFE INSU
RANCE COMPANY, OF BOSTON.
This is one of the oldest and best Companies in
Policies on Lf.es for any amount up to $15,000 are
taken by them.
The Policies of these Companies were not cancelled
during the war until heard from—a fact which shews
their dealing and determination to bejust and honor
able in all cases.' Apply to
ju2T A. WILBUR, Agent.
FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE AGENCY,
MANHATTAN INSURANCE COMPANY;
riKENIX FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY ;
CASH CAPITAL of over FO UR MILLIONS.
Risks taken on all descriptions of Property on rea
sonable terms by A. A. LANE, Agt.
Office in Stoddard’s Range, Bay street, oppo
site Herald office.
(MARINE; INSURANCE COMPANY
OF NEW YORK.
CASH CAPITAL $3,500,000.
The undersigned are prepared to Insure under Open
Policy from the above Company to the extent of SIOO,-
00y in property in any first class Steamer, and from
$50,000 to $75,000 on any flrst class sailing vessel, on
the most favorable New York terms.
For further particulars apply to
CHARLES L. COLBY & CO
Jones Block, comer Bay and Abercorn streets,
jelS ts Savannah, Ga.
/and LASS ! GLAdS !!
D. S. SCIIANCK & SON,
* (Formerly Sciiank & Dow ning,;
Importers and Dealers *
\ COACH, CAiv, and
COLORED AND ORNAMENTAL GLASS,
ROUGH PLACE GLASS '
FOR FLOORS and SKYLIGHTS,
L • 1 From As to I}-; inches thick.
■ old DRroT, *
45 AND 4T CHAMBERS STREET,
. NEW 7 YORK.
GENERAf COMMISSION MERCHANTS. .
Dealers in Sheeting, Shirting, Osnaburgs, Yarns,
Rope, Bagging, M anufactured and Smoking Tobacco,
Particular attentlalfKiyAi to the Purchase, Sale and
Shipment of COTTON. ]*.
RAi.sroN'o GaAinfK Range;—Third Rang*,
MAO|N, GA .
References —Erwin <fc Hardee, Claghorn A- Oun
ningUam, baranimh; L. G Bowers, S. M. Farrar, Cos
lambus; E. 15 Long A- Cos., L. B. Davis, Augusta-; P
P. Pease V. A. Gaskill, Atlanta. ju26.ini
Tne paper above named is published at Hilton Head
S. C., by M. J. McKenna.
It is designed by the Publisher to make an Interest
ing and Instructive Paper, not only for
SICK AND WOUNDED SOLDIERS,
but a WELCOME WEEKLY VISITOR to all residents
of Hilton Head.
It will contain Original LOCAL NEWS, a summary
NORTHERN NEWS, and carefully Selected MIS
CELLANEOUS ITEMS. 'O3-tt
WHOLESALE AMD RETAIL DI ALERS IK
SUTLERS’ AND NAVAL STORES, DRY GOODS,
BOOTS AND SHOES, HATS AND CAPS,
Gkstleven’s Fcrmishinc, Goods, Ac.,
No. 5 Merchants’ Row, * Hilton Head, S. C„
». O. RIDDELL. [jul3-tf] it. j. VC EPOCH.
JdRESH ARRIVAL OF GOODS]
BKEHAN A CONYNGHAM.
Os 170 li, oiuihton Street, »
Receive by every steamer fresh consignments of Goods
from New York, consisting of
BOOTS and SHOES,
Ladies' BALMORALS, Ac,
Gentlemen’s Felt and Straw HATS,
CLOTHING, GROCERIES, WINES,
Dublin and London PORTER,
Golden ALE, in Cases and Barrels;
Also—A choice selection of GARDEN SEEDS,
Which we offer at low prices to the Trade.
r JXS THE CITIZENS OF GEORGIA
The termination of.a sanguinary contest, which for
the past four years has presented au impassable barrier
to all social or commercial intercourse between the
two great sections of our country, having at length
happily cleared away all obstacles to a removal of
those relations which formerly bound us together in a
fraternal union, I take the earliest opportunity afford
ed me by this auspicious event, to greet my Sonthern
friends, and to solicit fr om them a renewal of that ex.
tensive business connection which for a quarter of a
century nas been uninterrupted save by the great pub
lic calamity to which I have adverted.
It is scarcely necessary, on the threshold of a busi
ness re-union, I should repeat the warning so often
given to my friends —to beware of all those spurious
and deleterious compounds which, under the specious
and false titles of Imported Wines, Bra ndies, Holland
Gin, Liquors, &c., have been equally destructive to
the health of our citizens and prejudicial to the interest
of the legitimate Importer.
Many years of my past life have been expended in
an open and candid attempt to gxpose these wholesale
frauds; no time nor expense has been spared to ac
complish this salutary purpose, and to place before
my friends and the public generally; at the lowest
possible market price, and In such quantities as might
suit their convenience, a truly genuine imported arti
Twenty-five years’ business transactions with the
largest and most respectable exporting houses in
France and Great Britain have afforded me unsurpass
ed facilities for supplying our home market with
Wines] Liquors, and Liquers of the best and most ap
proved brands in Europe, in addition to my own dis
tillery in Hollaud for the manufacture of the c
The latter, so long tested and approved by the med
ical Faculties of the United States, West Indies and
South America as an invaluable Therapeutic, a whole
some, pleasant, and perfectly safe beverage in all cli
mates and during all seasons, quickly excited the cu
pidity of the home manufacturers and venders of a
spurious article uuder the same name.
I trust that I have, after much toil and expense, sur
rounded all my importations with safeguards and di
rections which with ordinary circumspection will in
sure their delivery, as I receive them from Europe, to
all my customers.
. I would, however, recommend in all cases where it
is possible, (hat orders be sent.direct to my Depot, 22
Beaver street, New York, or that purchases be made
of my accredited agents.
In addition to a large stock of Wines, Brandies, Ac,,
in wood, I have a considerable supply of old tried for
eign wines, embracing vintages of many past years,
bottled up before the commencement of the war,
which I can especially recommend to all connoisseurs
of these rure luxuries.
In conclusion, I would specially call the early atten
tion of my Southern customers to the advantage to be
derived by transmitting their orders without loss of
time, or calling personally at the Depot, in order to
insure the fulfillment of their favors from the present
large and well selected assortment.
|u23 lm 22 Beaver street, New Y'ork.
jyjTACKY, HOGG A CO.,
GENERAL COMMISSION MERCHANTS,
No. 2 Stoddard’s Block, opposite Custom House,
Having opened a House at the above stand, in con
nection wlta our House in Philadelphia, we offer to
-250 ban-els Bourbon and Rye’Whiskey; Hams
Breakfastßacon and Shoulders. Bagged Beef, Lard
Broom-, Washboards, Lime in hogsheads, Ac,
Consignments to our House in Philadelphia solici
ted. - MACKY, HOGG A Cos,
No. 2 Stoddard's Block, Savannah,' Ga.
ju2o-lm 25 Soutn Water street, Philadelphia,
The Proprietor of the
SAVANNAH CITY FLOUR MILLS,
Begs to announce to his numerous patrons that he has
made a number of improvements in the machinery at
tached to his establishment, and is now prepared to
furnish his customers with a full Supply of the best
GRITS AND MEAL, .
and everything that can be expected from a
FIRST-CLASS MILLING ESTABLISHMENT,
lie pledges hung*! to always sell his Goode and do
25 PER CENT LESS
for the benefit of the citizens, than many of his com
petitors. He is prepared Wheat and Corn at
the customary toll, and in uddition will, as above
stated, always hit' prepared to furnish his friends with
everything in-the old style.
His place of business is at the well-known spot at
the FOOT OF BROUGHTON STREET. jul9-tf
The Regular Annual Meeting of the Stockholders of
the Southern Insurance and Trust Company will De
held at the otilce of the Company, in Savannah, on
Wednesday, 19th July, lbCf,, lor the purpose of elect
ing Directors for the ensuing year, and for the tran
saction ol such other business as may be brought be
fore the meeting.
H. BRIGHAM, President,
, Per J. C. MoNULTY,
ju22 ts Assistant Secretary.
SAVANNAH, GA, MONDAY, JULY 10, 1865.
Statimitr g, fit.
TO MERCHANTS AND SUTLERS.
We offer otjr large and varied Stock of STATION
ERY at the lowest cash prices.
Our stock in the above line is the largest in the De
partment, and all nor goods are of the first; quality,
fresh and direct from Manufacturers.
We solicit the attention of purchasers to ohr goods
BAVILLE & BEACH,
Corner Bryan street and Market square,
tber Cutler’s Bank,
MERCHANTS' ROW, HILTON HEAD, S. C.
gAVILLE A LEACH, .
BOOKSELLERS AND STATIONERS.
HILTON H E A D S. C . ,
CORNER BRYAN STREET AND MARKET SqOARE,
gEA ISLAND HOTEL.
OPEN TO THE PUBLIC,
TUESDAY, JUNE 20tu, ISCY
This new Hotel, situated on the most desirable spot
on the eastern bank of Hilton Head Island, affords a
fine view of the Pier, Bay, Ocean, and surrounding
Islands. The scenery is quite as pleasing and inter
esting, in every respect, as the lamous watering place
of Newport, R. 1., and is altogether as comfortable
and healthful a place to spend the summer months
It has a fine hard smooth Beach, seventeen miles long
affording a more charming drive than the celebrated
Beach at Nahant, Mass., and as fine sea bathing as at
that place or Cape May.
The House has over seventy large, airy rooms, and
verandahs on three sides of all the stories ; the furni
ture is entirely new, and the tables will be furnished
with the best that can be procured here and in the
Northern markets. Every effort will be mode to ren
der the Hotel all that tho most fastidious can desire.
Billiard Rooms aud Sea Bathing houses will soon be
in readiness for guests. ' ju23 ts
JJOTEL FOR SALE,
THE SAXTON HOUSE,
- BEAUFORT, S. C.,
Formerly the property of D% Johnson, is for sale.—
C. W. DENNIS & CO.,
No. 4 Merchants’ Row,
ju2'.t ts Hilton Head, S. C.
pORT ROYAL HOUSE,
HILTON nEAD, S. C.
RIDDELL A HUGO, Proprietors.
£. S. RIDDELL, M. P. BOOM*.
pULASKI HOU 8 eV"~
. SAVANNAH, GA.
BARTELS A RIDDELL, Proprietors.
J. O. BARTELS. K. S. RIDDELL.
J£IRLIN A KIENZLE,
- WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALERS
ALES, WINES AND LAGER BIER.
OUR HOUSE ,
* 105 BAY STREET,
, juill ts
Vs" ILIT AR Y CLOTHING.
HATS AND CAPS,
BOOTS AND SHOES, &c„
II , * , TOP HAM'S,*
NO. 138 CONGRESS STREET.
This Store is well stocked with a superior quality of
foods, which will be sold remarkably 'cheap, as the
'.oprietor wishes to make room lor anew assort
"VTORTH RIVER AGltiCjjjrttAL WORKS.
GRIFFING, BROTHER A CO., Proprietor*
5S A»l> 00 COUBTI.ANII STBEKT.
N Es W ' Y O R K ‘ .
Manufacturers of PjjWK Harrows, Cultivators, Cot
ton Sweeps, Corn|MilWCotton Gins, Ac.
Every implement wanted by the Planter, Also,
dealers in Field and Garden Seeds. Also, Agents lor
Bruce’s Concentrated Manure, Bone, Ac.
Send lor circular. 3m_
COMMISSION AND PRODUCE MERCHANT.
Strict attention given to all Consignments.
Corner Brocouton ani> Jefferson Stbekus.
ju.BO - fm
L B i * AVIS '
GROCER AND COMMISSION MERCHANT,
No. 253 Broad Street,
Consignments solicited. Will give personal atten-'
tion to business entrusteu to him.
Crane A Gray bill, Savannah.
Claghom A Ciinninghani, Savannah.
S. fainter t Son, “
Mr. A Wilbur, Pres. H ome Insurance Company,
Savannah. „ ~
Mr, W. Camming, Cash! er Bank State of Ga.
Mitchell A Smith, Macoi i.
John B. Habersham A 'Co. Macon.
Wright A Alexander, Augusta.
* K. b. Long A Cos.,
C. V. Walker O Cos., ' . 14 jul6-lm
j c. FEATHER, m. e,
OFFICE, NO. IS*J MERCHANTS’ ROW,
HILTON HEAD, S, C.
ju29 • 2 m
THE FOURTH OF JULY CELEBRATION ON THE
BATTLE-FIELD OF GETTYBBIRE.
The Poem off the - Occstsiou by Colonel
Charles G. Halplne.
The following behntiftil poem, delivered at
the Fourth of July Celebration on the battle
field of Gettysburg, by Col. Hal pine, formerly
Adjutaut General of the Department ot the
South, whose compositions, under the mm and,
plume 0.l Miles Ofieily, ate widely known,
we print by special request:—
Thoughts of the Flare aud Time.
As men beneath some load of grief
Or sudden joy will dumbly stand,
* Finding no words to give relief— *
Clear, passion- war in, complete and brief—
To thoughts with which their souls expand,
So here to-day -these trophies nigh
Our lips no fit ting.winds can Ifeaeh;
The iplls around, the graves, the sky—
The silent poem of the eye
Sot-pauses ail the art of speech !
To-day, a nation meets to build
A nation's trophy to the dead,
W ho, living, formed her awoid aud shield
The arms she sadly learned to wield
When other hope of peace had fitd.
And not alone for those who lie
in honored graves before us blent,
Shall our proud column, broad autl high.
Climb upward to the blessing sky,
But be fur all a monument.
An emblem of our grief as well
For others as for there, wc raise;
For ihese beneath our feet who dwell,
Aud all who in tile good cause fell
Ou other fields, in frays,
To all the sell same love we bear
Which here for marbled memory strives.
No soldier for a wreath would cate
Which all true comrades might not share—
Brothers in death as iu their lives!
On Southern hill sides, parched and brown,
tu tangled swamp, ou verdant ridge,
Where pines and broadening oaks look down,
And jasmine weaves its yellow crown,
And trumpet-creepers clothe the hedge;
Along the shores of Endless sand,
Beneath the palms of Southern plains,
Sleep everywhere, hand locked in hand.
To brothers of the gallant bund
Who here poured life through throbbing veins.
Around the closing eyes of all
Tiie same red glories glared aud flew—
The hurraing flags, the bugle call;
The whistle of the angry ball;
The elbow touch of comrades true ;
The skirmish fire—a spattering spray;
The rolimg growl or lire by tile;
The thickening fury of the fray
When opening batteries get in play,
And the lines form o’er many a mile.
The foeman’s yell, our answering cheer,
Red flashes through the gathering smoke,
Swift orders, resonant and clear;
Blithe cries from.comrades tried and dear; .
i The shell scream and the sabre stroke;
The rolling fire from left to right,
From right to left we hear it swell;
The headlong charges, swift and bright;
The thickening tumult of the fight,
And bursting thunders of the shell. Q
Now denser, deadlier grows the strife,
And here we yield, and there we gain;
The air with hurtling missiles rife.
Volley for volley, life for Ute—
*No time to heed the criqs of pain !
Panting as up the bills we charge,
Or down them as we broken roll,
Life never felt so high, so large,
And never e-’er so Wldy a marge
In triumph swept (he kn,dlfi,g soul
New raptpres waken in the breast
Amid this heli of scene and sound;
The barking batteries never, rest,
And broken fool, by horsemen pressed,
Still stubbornly contest their ground,
Fresh waves of battle rolling in
T* take tbe place of Shattered waves ;
Torn lines that grow more bent and thin—
A blinding cloud, a maddening din—
’Twas thus were filled these very graves!
Night falls at length with pitying veil—
A moonlit silence deep aup fresh ;
These upturned laces stained and pale,
Vainly the chill night dews assail—
Far colder. than gh&tjews their flesh!
And flickering lar tn4)oehdbrush aud wood
Go in hand—
“ Seize it you call sOint* rest'and food,
At dawn the fight wilfbe renewed.
Sleep on your arms!" the hushed command.
They talk in whispers as they lie.
in line—these rough aud weary men ;
"Dead or but wouuaed f" then a sigh ;
41 No coffee either f” "GuebS we’li try
To get those two guns back again."
“We fivefiaes to their one ! oho 1"
“That bridge— ’twas hot there as we passed !"
•* The colonel (lead; it can’t be so;
Wounded and badly—that I know;
But he kept saddle to the last,”
44 Be sure to send it if I fall—’’
“Any tobacco? Bill, have you?”
“A brown haired, blue-eyed, laughing doll—"
•‘Good night, boys, and God keep you all!"
“ What! sound asleep? Guess I’ll sleep too.’’
44 Yes, just*about this hour they pray
For Dad—” ' “Stop talking;'’ puss the word!"
And soon as qniet as the clay,
Which thousands will but he next day,
The long-drawn sighs of sleep are heard.
• • • tt II « .«
Oh, men ! to whom this sketch, though rude,
Calls hack some scene of pain aud pride;
Oh, widow ! hugging close your brood,
Oh, wife! with happiness renewed, *
Since he again is at your side;
This trophy that to-day we raise f
Should be a monument for all, w
And on its sides no niggard phrase
Confine a generous nation’s praise
Te those who here have chanced to fall.
But. let us all to-day combine
Still other monuments to raise;
Here for the Dead jve build a shriue ;
And now to those who, crippled, pine,
Let us give hope of happier days !
Let Homes lor these sad wrecks of war
Through all the laud with speed arise;
Tongues cry from every gaping scar,
44 Let not our brother’s tomb debar
t The wounded living from your eyes/’
A noble day,'» deed as good,
A noble scene in which ’tis done,
The Birthday of our Nationhood,
And here again the Nation stood
tm this same day—its life rc-won !
A bloom of banners in the air,
A double c-alAi of sky and soul;
Triumphal chant and nugle blare,
And green fields, spreading bright and fair,
While heavenward our Hosannas roll.
Hosannas for a laud redeemed',
The bayonet sheathed, the cannon dumb;
Passed, as some horror we have dreamed,
The fiery meteors that here streamed,
Threatening within our homes to come!
Again our Imnner floats abroad,
Gone the one stain i hat on it fell—
And, bettered by His chastening rod,
With streaming eyes uplift to God
We say, "He doeth all things well "
PRICE. 5 CENTS
Can Paroled Confederates be Tried
for Treason ? T
POSITION OF THE NEW YORB TRIBUNE ON
It Claims llut tbe Terms of Surrender Pro- ’
tect tbe Capitulators.
[From the New York Ti ibuae, July 3.]
Bkttkh Give It Up.—We receive some let
ters suggesting evasious of tbe spirit ofGea.
Grant s aud the kindred agreements whereby
the Rebel armies were surrendered and par
oled, and insisting that those thus shielded
mas nevertheless be arrested, tried aud pun
ished as traitors! We would simply advise
all who hug any such delusiou to their
Aosonis that our Government manifestly has
kjysiferent theory from theirs—in our view, a
thousand times more upright and just. Had
u bclieved the rebel military lenders subject
ta prosecution tor treason notwithstanding
the terms oj Geu. Grant's agreement, it
would doubtless bave arrested them long
ago. ihe tact that it has not seeu fit to do
so should be accepted as conclusive.
" But,“ says one of these quihblers, “Gen.
Grant had no power to stipulate a universal
amnesty.” Very well; admit it. What he
did was to accept of and agree Jo a surrender
on conditions—conditions , proposed by him
selt. Just look them once mere in the face:
1 his [the surrender] done,•each officer
and man will be allowed to return to their
homes, not to be disturbed by United States
authority, sp loug as .they/observe their pa
role and the laws iu •force where they re
Can there be any doubt as to the proper
force and meaning of these words ? It you
can conceive any, just look at this passage
in Geu. Grants letter to Geu. Lee, just prior
to the surrender aforesaid:
“ The terms upon which peace can be had
are well understood. By tbe South laying
down their arms they will hasten that moat
desirable event, save thousands of human
lives and hundreds of millions of property
not yet destroyed.
‘Sincerely hoping that all our difficulties
may be settled without tbe loas of another
life, I subscribe rayselt, very respectfully,
your obedient servant,
“ U. 8. Grant,
“Lieut. Gen. U. 8. A.” '■
—Can you imagine that our government
will attempt to wriggle out of the plain in
tent and eueet of this language ? If you cau
you only establish your own infamy, not that
of our rulers. Even if they lad no regard
for good faith, they would shrink from expo
sing themselves to ’the execrations of the
—“But did not Geu. Graut expeed his
That cavil comes too late. It was indeed
competent for the Government to disallow
Gen. Grant’s convention with Gen. Lee, as It
did Gen. Sherman’s first arrangement with
Johnston. Rut this right, so far as it existed,
must be exercised (as it was in the Sherman-
Johnston case) on the instant, or not at all.
Having virtually accepted and approved.—
Gen. Grant’s terms ol capitulation, by accept
ing the fruits thereof, our Government was
nevermore at liberty to repudiate that agree
ment, or any part of it. It became its owu
act, in every respect and particular, as fully as
if it had been originally proposed by tbe
President aud agreed ou in a meeting of the- '•
We do not sup|fcse there is any dissent
or demur among intelligent persons to what
we have here stated. We know no journal
of any character that disputes them, though
several may have seemed to do so, while
pandering to ignorance and popular passion.
And we most respectfully counsel the Euro
pean irieuds (not the enemies) of our Nation
al cause not to distress themselves with ap
prehensions of auy wholesale butchery of the
discomfited Rebels under tbe authority of
our Government. There was danger, for a
moment, that the just and general indigna
tion aroused by President Lincoln’s assas
sination would drive his* successor into a
course which would, in calmer hours, be
deeply regretted ;*but the gust of passion has
spent its force, and the peril it evoked has
passed away forever.
The Cotton and Labor Question in|9lpeon
A letter to the Hon. Simeon Draper, Col
lector of the port of New York, from a prom
inent merchant at Macon, Georgia, dated
July 14, says:
/‘The war is over. We have fought you
with all the powers that God and nature gave
u*a. We are beaten, overpowered, and wil
ling to return under the old flag of the Union.
I for one, and 1 believe a very large majority
of' the citizens, are desirous of having our
good old State brought back into the Union,
and civil government restored as speedily as
possible. And there is nothing, in my opin
ion, that will so soon sooth" the irritated
feelings of our people, and heal the wide
breach between the North and the South, as
the restoration of trade and commerce as
speedily as possible.
“1 have just returned from a journey of
some GO miles down one side our river, and
up the other, and was very glad to find that
but lew fields were abandoned on account of
the emancipation of the negroes—compara
tively btt few negroes were absent from their
former owners ; in that case their places
weresupplied by white laborers just relieved
from the army. Avery large number of ne
groes aftfr the emancipation order was pro
mulgated did leave their homes, and having
visited our city, and ‘seen thg elephant,’ have ’
returned, and when allowed to stay have
gone to work. In most cases the former
owners have stipulated with the negroes to
give them either wages of a. portion of tim
“In all my journeys through the thousands
of acres of rich cultivated lands on both sides
of the river 1 saw but very little land in cot
ton culture, but I believe that in another
season it we are let alone, and not tramtneled
w ith government restrictions of master and
servant, letting each adapt itself to the new
order of. things, and regulating itself, and
with wholesome State laws to restrain the
negro to his labor, and the master to pay the •
laborer his dues, in that case, notwithstand
ing the* depressed feeling oi our planters,
we will make nearly hail of oui usual
crop of cotton.” ... i+'j