Savannah Georgian. (Savannah, Ga.) 1824-1829, October 25, 1825, Image 1

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I ^MNICAtCB'*N Ml | isRORT 0-N CREEK INDIAN AFFAIRS. Comqf aletterfa**** Excellency, Otorga JU, Troup, to JWpA Valtcnca Bevan Ley. EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, I Mu.lihosvii.le, (Jeo. 8ept.4»t,|lf25. { 8r*-Apposnt»d. by Ibo LwfitUture to aatrobtheArctovn*** tb*,Stole.'WR-fi-— «| tralbM it* History, you titty in tkfsrre* be ibin to furnish the public with usOful doco menttrj eviffeno*, connected, with the present unhappy difference* wtoch *ub*i«t between the U. Stafcvtb* State of Georgia, nod the Indians: making known to yon the object for ni.ieh they ire sought—their relevancy or materiality *& depend on your own judgment and dinordien, only asking thafa- vnr of . yen to make Ike absttaeta from snetl documentary evMeneexs little elaborate, end tu give them in a* condensed a fofoi.a* puesi- tie, accompanied-by any remark* .of yoor own which may be deemed appdsileauduse- fuL Very respectfully, , ; _ G. M. TROUP. J. y. B*v«r, Eei).7 - \ , REPORT OF MR. BEy.AN. Savannah October^. 1825. Incompliance will' your Excellency ft re- quest. I bate the honor of transmitting to you ail abstract of auch documentary evidence a* it within my reach, touching “:the unhappy difference* which sublist between the United State*, the State of Georgia, and the Indent; B always taking it fur granted, that you allude particularly (o the treaty concluded by Camp bell and Merriwethcr. Rut, previously to lb doing, it may be as well to premise some thing with respect to their unity as n people, and to their character a* a nation. The Muscogee* or Creeks came from the west, originallyMl leant, so 1 was informed by Uolly M’lutosb and other, friendly Cliiefa, in the course of n couiui'cnoe which I held with them during the last-summer; audio.. Col. Hawkins says, in hia manuscripts now spread before me. They have a tradition a- nmug them, that there are in the fork of Red River, two mounds of earth;- that, at this plaee, the Cowrtuhs, the Cussetuhs, and the Chtchaiaws found ihdmaelves; that being dis tressed by war* with lied people, they passed the Mississippi; and, directing (heir course tuatwardly, they crossed (he fails ofTaliapno- ih above Tookauhalcho; sndmedo their first settlement at Cowetuh, which is jult beloiv the falls, of Chaltaheche .—and afterwards, spread out from thence, to (lie Flint, (tie (Jhi- mulgee. the Oconee, and (he Savauuab, down to the sea-coast. The CuSF.Tl'ns cnine with the Cowetuh* from the regions beyond-the Mississippi and willed upon the ea- tern bank nf the Chaltaheche, as the latter did upon the western t—the Hilcheleea end the Uchees were afterwards admitted among llieiii:—these four and their descendetits compose what wae formerly call,,) the JVllion of tile Lower Crtskt / or aro those Muaeogens, who inhabit a part of the present State of Georgia—Tito Tookaiibatchee* have a tradition, that they sprung out of the ground. But, the Cow*. Tuna and the Cuuetuhi maintain, that they were not iu the country, when they thein- iclvcsfirst came into it; and say, that tliesr acquaintance with the Alabama Indians was farmed at a Ball-play, near a pond, and about miiMsay between the Chatlahoche and (lie TaApoosarivers; when aud where, they a- tn&d to become friends.—The Simeuole ciiuntry, is a Muscogee colony i 'flic mine im\ioru, tint they are wild people; are so cal led. because they left their old homes, and niaileirregular settlements in their now coun try ; where they were invited by the plenty of game, the mildness of the climate, the richness of the soil ,& ihetibundance of provender- They have been considered In he entirely indepen dent of the Creeks, however; and even M’- Gillivray did not assume any authority over them, though Bowles did.—To conclude then, upon this head:—the Upper Creeke inhabit 37 town* or townships; the principal of which is TookaUbMcliethe L'irtr Creeke have Id, the head of which is CuwKTun; and there are 7 in the Seminole country, liaviug considered them ae e people, I now (tfoeeed to consider them in their politi cal relations .•—and I must premise, (but tin! nature of the organized government among these Indiana, ie misunderstood ; the com mon idea, attaching-itself to the consolidat ed form, whereas in ihet and in truth, it is of the Federal or-* Aggregate kind. They had neither national polity nor law, until these were introduced by Colonel H uckint ,- diubtless, for the purpose of facilitating his awn plans of civilization, among them.— This assertion is not only warranted by hie manuscripts in my posaesaion;—lint also, by the declsrationa of Affair, who lived 40 yen ray mong the Southern Indiana, -during the period intervening between the Arat set tlement of tliie State and the commence ment ofthe Revolutionary War; and who m dedicating hie book to Lachlan M’Qilltv- tsy and John Galpbin, appealed to teatimo- many, whose correctnesswe all recognize. Before the time of Colonel/Hqshkins, the Towna were held to hi independent, the ®“e of the other, In apolitical point of newand, Governor Walton haa left the J-soertion upon record, that the Upper hntekz never laid claim tn the right nfjiunt- ’JX.I'PJ" *he grounds of the Lower Cresifcs, S™ * h ®“* the year 17(13 iwheni,- the cole- Mated Chieftain M*Gilivray began to ao- * 01 !! 0 ascendancy among them. I* sepport of this, I often And in the old con- fenee*. mention made of the people be- •ngmg to the Thrte Ritert, and to those ■the Four Riven; as if their only ties r ° those of necessity and neighborhood, . Motnpting them to assist each other In war. ‘'me. of peace tomfirgls tn the ball- . ®et, from the manner in which they ta-* J?Pilated by their White oVer- d ‘ ,Un «tien is in InttW times,, be* . ”1 padually moremdmor* nominal- on the otter, t proceed tn the ’next place, to give yon n gtneral idea of their po !it<f ! » t,A* apqottnt Riven, by Colonel Mzwkina,—To uae an expression of hbr dwn,—** the Towns separately, have a government and cuitomq, which they, de rive from i high source”; and, in the con trol ofthese, tueir foreign fc domestic cop eerpe appepr to bp directed, by theae,, whom they iuHtfiferaritly ca|l Ckiifi. In bavil af- fltira, the prihjeipil isthemifra,of the Creeks, called by the white people King ; iftmilit* 1 ry matter*, the Great Warrior or Thet'ia- nuggee THIucco is supreme: hut tf below both, are regular and pnit. micoo superhiteada all public «nit jd> " - ifqprecdsiha,, sail pnbhp; their talks; less thcc* Town, and id return deii,vpt« It# nil it always bhoseu from some one family; as for instance, the micch of Tookaubatche belongs to the Eagle tribe :—and, after lie is ofausen, and placed on bis Seat, he remains for life :-T-ii succeeded, on hia death by one of hie nephews; or if unlit tor' the office, by the npzt of kin ; the descent being always in the Female line.—He isaseisted byeoun sailors or Beloved men, who are coiiipoeed of two classes t—the one comprising the miceugte, there being several peraotis in ev ery town called iniccei from some custom boW ho Innger known; as in the instance again Of Tookaubatche, there is one called the lepocogee micco, frmn the ancient name of the piece the other class consists of warriors, raised to the rank nf Chiefs,, from time to time; by roason of their several, merits) they are those, who have been con spicuous as War-leaders, and who although at different grades have become estimable through a long courseorpublic service; and they are in fact, the micco’s principal conn- seilurain many points of view, they ap pear to have resembled the Executive coun cil of onr State, in furmer times.—The per sonage next in consequence to the micco, is their TurtunnuggeeThlucco ; who is selec ted by the council he has a atrange ex tent of power, ho'lese than that of determin ing upon war i and thie exclusive right of ten causes great embarrassment:— aud, should be persist, he aeta up the war-whoop, which is repeated by all those disposed to follow him; and. In this way, they ,are, some- times'for one or two nights, marching off; —for, (Colonel Hawkins exprpasly says) it it eelilnm that a Teen it manitmiu, and Ike -Nation never is; nay, within the memo ry of the oldest (nan among them, it ia not recollected, that more than one-half of the nation have ever taken the way-talk, at the same time. 3. So much for the iadividpal relations of Jhe towns. When Colonel Hawkins asoemed the agency, he carried info eAcct. the plan, which had beep attempted without success by M'Gillivray. In pursuance of his recom mendation. (ho various Chiefs issemhlod to gether at Tookaubatche, on the ‘J7tb of No vember, 1799 ; when and where, they adopt ed the three following regulations, as the main principles of their fundamental law or Conetituiionperhaps, it will he best to give it iu the exact words of its author. “Tlio Creeks never had *lill (his year (1799)n national government and law. Ev " ery thing of a general tendency, was left to the earo and management of the public ••ogenls; who heretofore used temporary •• expedients only; and amongst the most powerful and persuasive, was the pressure ef Fenr from without, end Presents. The Agent for Indian Affaire convened the Na tional Council, and niado a report on the “state of the nation to them; accompanied ‘ with his opinion of the plan indispensably ‘ necessary to carry the laws of the nation “ intq.effect. The .Council after mature de- “ liberation, determined that the safety of the “ nation was at stake; that having a Arm re- “ liance on the justice of the President of the “ United States, and the friendly attention of “his Agent for Indian Affairs, they would “ adopt his plan. ' 1st—To class the towns, “and appoint a Warriurover each class; do- “ nominated the Warrior of the Nation,, to “ superintend the execution of the law. 2d. “To declare ns lilw, that when apian is pun- “ ishod by the law of the nation, and dies, “ that it is the law that killed him; it is the “ nation who killed him .- and that mi mau urr “ family is to be held accountable for this “act of the nation. 3d. That all mischief- >• makers and thieves of any country of white -‘ people, shall be under the government of “the Agent for Indian Affairs; and that ho “ inay introduce the troops of site United Slates “ to any part of thy Creek Country, to pun- “ isli such persons; and, that when he calls “in the troops of the United States, he is to “call for such number of Warriors, es he “ may deem proper, to accompany them, to “be under pay:—that in apprehending or “ punishing any white person, if Indians should “ interpose, the Red Warrior* are to order “ them to desist; and it they refuse, the agent “ may order them, to fire, at the same time or- “dering the troops of the United States to “ make common cause.”—37 Cot, Jlawkint 1 J*SS. 4 According to this mode, (the friendly Indians informed me) the Creeks continued to manage matters, until the breaking out of (he late ear. Whenerer there was any occasion for t convention of the lower towns, particularly, Tuetunnuggee flipoit, or the LiUte Prince (probably ao called from his di minutive sum,hut literally the Far-Off-fPar- rior) as their oldest or most oohspicuous chief presided; and in conference, acted aa tneir mouth, tongue, or speakerTuelunnuggee Tkiuced(tbe proper and not the official name df.lhis Indian) or, the Big Warrior, stood, in the same relation to the Upper Creeks, Af ter the war, these tiyo chiefs surrendered up to Tgetmtinggee Huiket, or the White Warrior (for so M’jntosh was denominated) the exclu sive control of allforeign business; and among the Creek*, hi was familiarly called tbair Se cretary of Wen—e terin, which by the bye, shews that be.wa* little lets than a Dictator among them; as that Department at Wash ington City, ia particularly charged with their interacts; end exareises habitually little late than absolute power over every natioaof In- e* diene within the United States, -ladeed, R enoestprs. Tli# Xrbple es' • ^ ljr,uted ’•*?* “• ev«rhad ht|yt the-ashon, except he A thimghthe foeeref Wa cerdingly, whaoever dm natM.tea opjmMy-aiattav offtmUofits gtoadzl interests', oouneil 4r*PM,;Matti ehet as heretofore t probably , pfoidniRy to Fort MitoheU, to which, the A- ge|>ey was rmtored, ahout this Una. Since the period 'of their organization by Colonel (Inwkino, thn nntionel oooocil Iwlva passed a number of laws; end, at the instance of Ge neral David,Brydie Mltcholl. they were em- hodkd as a.'oede by M’/ntoeh, in the year 1817 ; dho,caused allold'Custems end ordi- i(dieo«M*d t ; aud thee revived or wired c otherst , together, with such c ifromthwe to time sinew, weed •fo to writing, and such only, are >y the Indians as of any futoe or ef- . The whole comprise* about fifty or sixtv regulations ; which look, Ifowdver, rv tlier ((wards matters of criminal jorispradanae and the-perihelion of a aystoin of police, than to any oflier object of municipal -law. There were, however, two eaMordinary anamnlies in this system of goveiyrflot, which: it wmiltl hews well that you should distinctly understand. For instance, among (lie Upper- Creeks, the town of HoilMeieaule (so culled from Hoilhle war, and ienule to share out or djyide) bad formerly the right to declare war; which declaration was first seat to Tookau- batcha, and thence throughout the nation. And again, the Cowetuh Towns have alone the right to sell the lands ; a privilege, which yon will perceive is must distinctly recognised in the conference between the Guo-merchant and Mr. Little; and of which you will find an abstract below. * ’ * * * * * Haring now concluded my preliminary ob> serrations, I will next take up the main sub ject of vnur Excellency^ communication— and, perhaps, your views would be better met by my submitting the remaining documentary evidence to you. in a chronological order, or rather according to the several eras which dis tinguish the history of Georgia.—[See Dock- monte marked from A, to J. ineiuriw.) I. Then, as to the Colonist era.—(Then Oglethorpe landed upon Yamabrew BluV, in thie year 1733. he foupd the present site of this oily, nod its immediate vicioity, occupied by a scanty tribe of Indiana under a micco called Tiimo Chaci; who made the while peo ple welcome, rendered them every kind of fice, and permitted them to build the town of Savanoah. Meanwhile, the founder of this colony anx-' ions to conciliate all the heigjiboriug savages, entered into article! of friendthip and com merce with them; and this singular record is in the (pro; of a letter missive from the Trus tee* to the dhieft Tbp first nrticle-cootain*; a permission, for Traders togo into the Lower Creek-Nation, which Sppears tn have been the only consideration given for the land. The 3rd and 4tb run in the words following:— [V] “ Thirdly—The trustees, when they find the hearts of you the saiahead-men and yiyir people are not good to the people they shall, send among you, or that you’or your people do not mind this paper, they wiU withdraw the English trade from the (own ao offending. And that you 4nd yoiir |ienpla -may hive this chain of friendthip in your mind* and flaed to your hearts, they have made fast their seal to this treaty. Mto Fourthly—We, the head tiMVf the Co weta and Cuseta towns, in behalf of nil the lower Creek nation,-being firmly persuade^, that lie who lives in heaven ami is the occasion of all good things, has moved the liearls of the trustees to send their beloved men among us- for the good of our wives and children, and to instruct us and them in what is strait, ini therefore declare that we are glad that their people are come here; aod though this land belongs to ns, (the lower Creeks) yet we, that we may be instructed by them, do consont and agree, that t.hey shall make use 'qf and possess all those lands, which our nation hath not ocoasinn to use: and we make over Unto them, their successors and assigns, ail such lands and territories as we shall nave no occa sion to use; provided always, that they upon- use of ourselves, and the people of our nation, such lands as shall be agreed upon between their beloved men. and the head men of our nation, and that those lands shall remain to us forever.” In the year 1739, and just before his expe dition to 8t. Augustine, Oglethurpe went to Cowetuh ; and there held his first format treaty with the Muscogee*, as the following document (with some unimportant omissions of names) will shew :—the friendly chiefs told me, that Cowetub was at that time situated upon the Ocmulgae, near its conAuence with the Paok-co-UubocAhet, or Big Sandy Creek, being fhasame whereon the Indian Springs and M’Intosh’s reserve are situated; but they must be mistaken, for this tradition is altoge ther at variance with the information afforded by Colonel Hawkins- * B. “ Proceeding! of the aeeembied eelatee of alt the lower Creek nation, on Saturday, the eleventh day of Augutl, one tlwueani leven hundred and thirty-nine. “ By powers from his most saerrd majcslj George the second, by the grace of God, kif of Groat Britain. France and Ireland, b Genera) James Oglethorpe being appointed commissioner, was present in behalf of his majesty, and upenod the assembly bya speech. There was also present at the said assembly of estates, Micco or chief king of the Coweta fowo. Cbickeley ; Nenia Micco, of the mid town, Malatche Micco,son of Bnm, late ees- perorof the Creek nation, and the chiefs -warriors of the Coweta town, nndsthe Saranm If W. Ijtoa (feet head, vis-r Validity ofiMalattl “ Tthstthn and 4a . ..... ^..toftlwhain. bbiiMW ^ TTM'qaeattoasvi and.lands from the river .misslntwr oa tkitbehalfef tie Crown, wheth InUm nver St. John's, and all the t» Mr*. Bosomworth could sell the lends f . Aomreres-Tbat the hhda ware Mrs. Bo •etowovtfabi thnrahe Might cultivate them, MS thM%er dotolMlraM phased with them. ' The question was then pot, whit mast bh- odsno of the grant they bad given to Fxm GrahaniiEsq. f •' ' AneWorLs-Tbaf tliey looked upon. It (Vqrtli nothing, es the toads were before giVeb lib j between the ir fit. JohnV, end *11 the •aid rivets; sad froei th* $ tattWgil islands., river S(. John’s to the bay of Appal within wliieh-la the Anpalacbe Gld-todda; aqd from the said bay of Appalache to thomoiia-t tains, -doth by ancient right belnbg- to the Creek natkm, w(io have maintained passe*, •ion of the said right against all opposera, bl war, hnd cMtkhow the hasps dT bonexoCthal enemies, S|L» tor tbenvin defence oflbw'sri ‘ - Bhfe - 'nek ik ^ taction of the kings and qdeeirS’ of Eftglahd. and have gone to war by commissions-fodm. the governors, appointed by the said kings end queans of England; artdfhatthe Spaniards nor no other nation, have a right to any ofthe said hinds, tod that they will not suffer them or any other persons (excepting the trustees for etteMiiUng the colony of Georgia in Ame rica) to settle upon the said lands. And they do acknowledge the grant they hare already made to-the trustees, establishing thecolony of Georgia in Amerioa, of the lands upon 8a- vanoah river, es far as the riser Ogeebae, and all the lands along the sea coast, as far as the riser St. John’s, and as high at the tide fiows, and nil the islands as for as the uid river, particularly the islands of Frederica (meaning St. Simon’s) Cumberland and Amelia, to which they bare given the names ofhis ma jesty, king George’s family, out of gratitude to him. But they declare that tliey did and dore.-.'-re to tlie Creek nation, the land from Pipe-maker’s Bluff to Snranoah, aod the isl ands of St. Catharine’s, Osabaw and Sapelo. -And they further declare, that ill tho said lands are held by the Creek uation as tenants in common. -v “ The said commissioner doth declare that the English shall not enlarge or lake any other land, except those granted as above by the Creek oatioa to the trustees, and doth promise and covenant that be will punish any person thatehall intrude upon the lands whioh the corporation hath roaerred as above.” It may be proper to remark, that thie treaty teat pubtieked fret at Cowetuh, and after- ward* at Cuiietuh. II. This brings ns to'the seconJ era; when Georgia was placed as a Province under Roy al control. A few years before the sun der of the charter by the Trustees, 'a cle ■nan named Busbrnworth married an woman of the Tookaubatche town, wj acted as interpreter to Oglethorpe; and through liar means, lie obtained from Matot- mdn.of (As Cowetuh*) ay root of the islands of Hussoope, or Ilussaha, Cowley- gee or.St. Catherines, and Sappola; which were cxpre-sly reserred by the Indiana in the treaty al Cowetuh, in |739. The colonial .government thinking that tlie conveyance was fraudulent, and a precedeut altogether dangerous, despatched a special agent into the nation, with instructions to obtaiu the signa tures of tlie chiefs of every town ; and, they all signed the grant to the Trustees, with the exception of Malatehi ahd the other chiefs be longing to Cowetuh; in consequence of which everything fell to the grodnd, nor was a)l finnAu«j|ged until the accession of Mr.' Ellis tnw^Hvernineot. The following paper, drawn D^tog the time of his predecessor, Will exlMPMi whole question in its proper point of view; and it will be perceived that although the Indians were unceasingly pres sed (ogive answers favorable to the interests of the Crown, yet (hey a* invariably recognized tlie Co'wetuhs to be in fact the owners in ffia-simple of the whole Muscogee country, and especially of that appropriated by the lower Creeks as (heir hunting gronuds. [f] .ibetract if proceeding*, at a conference, held at Angutta, in the colony of Georgia, on, Monday, the ISthdayof December, 1735, between William Little, Eiq. a Commit- tinner on behalf of hie Excellency John Reynoldt, E*q. Captain General, and Go vernor in Chief, of hit MyettyU colony of setllingevery new town shall set out for the ( 4- r Qtergia, anfrVice Admiral of the name, *'«<* “f -ismsIsm ii«» i* nF ^‘iuid the Head-Men and Deputiet. of the Upper aod Lower Creek notions if lndiant- Tim Gun-Merchant, Speaker on behalf of the Indians, declared, that he had teen Gen. Oglethorpe, who had entered into treaties with the Coweta Town, as being the most contiguous to the white people, without con sulting them, (the Upper Creeks) because they lived very remote from the white peo ples’ settlements : but, notwithstanding they were not consulted, in regard to such treaties, yet they agreed to every grant uf lands made by them, because, tliey looked on the Cuwe- tuh Towns as die head and most ancient; and for then; to pretend to countermand cr in validate any granta of lands, made by them to their friends, would beading like children. Upon the conveyances said to be made to Patrick Graham, Esq. on behalf of tbt Trus tees. being-produced, aud the like question asked—if they allowed the validity of that deed—the Gun-Merchant replied :— “ That they did sign thn said deed; bnt Tore assent sras given, he called all the Heed and Wanton together, and made the enqi^^Lif any of them knew eny _ about t-VPd Islands therein mention- ) that they ell declared, they knew nothing about them, or thst they were possessed, or elsimad, by any body; and,, as they were down oo the sea coast, where none of them had been, and could not go bnt in canoes, when perhaps they might be drowned* he did consent to give them, as being of oo vatae tn them, a matter immaterial, and what they left and Mice.; 0 :W chief men and warriors of .the said town, &c. UC» &Ce “ The jaM estates befog solemnly held in fu|l convention, by general JaraeaOglethorpe, oo befall of tlm truataes x>f the one part, and the kipga, obieb, and warriors fiforeazid, on the other part, according to tho forma, reli- gion aod customs, transmitted down by their •—““ •*«.- —declared bj >0, that 1 *■ The next evetrfto which I propose to call or attention, tar, thb Cott|res« which wae Id at Augusta, in 1783, between the four |outhem Governor*, knd (he five natioh* of ithern Indiana; that ia to aay, Fauquier 'irginia, Dobb* ofMorth-Carolina, Boone r outh-CanlM, and Wright of Georgia, letd toward* the totter, end of that year, 4 the place abovemen.tio.rjd, n conforeuee with' the Creeke, the Cheiokees, the Chic- aaahe, the CKactaa, and thn Catawba*.— When the runner returned ftom the coun try-of the Lower Creeks however, (whither lie had been aent to deaire their attendance) he brought an objection ffroia them, and the follnwing were assigned aa tbe reasons:— “ We have heard, that the Governor of Charlestown intends to hay onr lands from ua, aa for far a* Ogechie, and aa high up aa Brood River; ana, the Governor of Savan nah intends to buy from ua, aa far as the fork ofthe Alttamaha:; and the Governor of North-Carolina intend* io buy aa for as the Okoniee.” In reply, their Excellencies aay to theni:—“ We have been informed of the evil newe you have hoard, that the Go tremors-intended to pnaeeaa your lands.— We lake this opportunity to assure you in the King’s name, that you have been misled bv ignorant people, who do not know the Great King’s intention, which has been communicated to u>, his officers» and that no such .intention ia harbored in the breast of any 'of us. The Great King’s design, in ordertngftiHtia Governors to Set in concert as one man. And in Inviting all the nations borderingnn these colonies, to hear hia Talk, was directly contrary to what you have heard; for, we tkaU there declare, that your ‘ will not be taken from you ; and thie ia done before you all,, and not in secret, no nation of Indians may be ignorant hie gracious intentions, and of hi* fatherly care of the red ee well as white ” Accord ingly. tliey complied with the invitation; tnd| after the Congress, had been already opened, “ the Upper Creek* having.* de sire to consult tho Lower Creeks,” request qd that the conference might be poetponed fur two Jays; which delay, (says the Jour nal of the Governors) however extraordina ry, as they were only to' hear, they were notwithstanding gratified in. And yet, af ter all, it ended iu a treaty ; by which, the settlement* of the white people were exten ded beyond the former contracted limits ; above Auguste, as far aa Little River ; and South of Darien, as for ea the Alntamaha. In their letter to Lord Egrhmoot, the Gov- arbors say, that—“ The Creeks had been represented to be very ill-disposed; the murders they had committed, were frequent, and even subsequent to the receipt of your Lorifehip’s letter; and even since the hold ing ofthe Congress, though smply supplied with provision, they have been accus ed of wantonly killing the people's cattle, yet thoir talks have been more friendly than we expected, end their voluntary offer of an augmentation of boundary to Georgia, up on the King's forgiveness of all past injuries being signified to them, supposing their pro fessions sincere, and the Chiefs of conse quence enough to act for the whole nation, which they declare they do, ia certainly as strong a proof as they cah at present give nf their good-will. It will he necesssary, however, to mention to yont Lordship, that we have been privately cautioned, by the leader of the Chicasahs, against confiding in the Creek professions ; he Bays, he knows them, that nothing done here will be confirmed by the abaenUupders, in compar ison of whom the present Chiefs are incon siderable :—the Cherobees, in their intelli gence, have gone still farthor; but, as they seem on tho point of a war with the Creeke their testimony ia tn be suspected.”—It was probably tn this Treaty, that the Little Prince alluded ; when he told Col. Camp bell, not very long since, that one of them concluded at Augusta, was not valid ; be cause, it had not the signature of a Cows- vuh Chief, attached to It But, tliia was by no meant, the most sor- prising circumstance attending tlie transac tion. Warrants were no sooner located up on these very lands, thus acquired, than a portion of it was claimed by the heirs of S!r Who. Barker; tbroagh e conveyance from the Ionia proprietors of Carolina, made before Georgia was settled, or an Indian till.- extin guished!—and, upon argument before,-the King io oouneil, after solemn reference to the Board of Trade, these claims were •ustein- ed! I 3. The next Treaty was also held at Au gusta, io 1773 :—It contains a provision fov tbe payment of debts owing to the several In- dian traders; and I* remarkable for having been the first diet mentions the foot of toy mooied consideration being given for their timOffiee.] At a further conference, on Wednesday, I7ib December, 4755, the Head-Men ware a- gain nailed together, to make a more explicit dec la ration of- their meaning, in regard to Mrs. Bosomsr Orth’s title. The Gun-Merchant, speaker oo behalf the Indianilt'decUrod. that in regard to Ml iworth’s land’s (ipeatifog tbe Istood* of .Ithartoet, Sapftfo and Usftbn) aod " tiodftftiftn Pipe Makes* Creak to III.—We now approach the fire of tlie Rfi- volution. At this period. Lothian M'Gilli vray finding himself compelled to lake sides, adberefi to the royal cause; and io tbe course Of time, bond himself the prominent British Agent among the Southern' Indians; with his •on Alexander, as bis deputy. ' His situation, long acquaintance, and address enabled him to scours their interest, end to direct theiral- OHwl undivided force against tb* whig portion of Georgia. On this socouat, Ml the family jfessftatinna within this state, were cuofisaaled; «od an addUinnal neariofiof tool w*a demand ftom th* Creeks, by way of ao^Mthm tbair ravages:—i* wax grafted by enetber t re*' , as 'ihiixf eon-' .. • #f th. Friend. u OmOm. ft, . . _ v Se mawTtfofiftd' tftthq ' #****< V ,r - Hift'. ingratitude which te wt* treated by thee* hotted to, protect fore :: who re- ■named m the nation end partook (if thfi general axteeaty, annoyed hifo (Very tof oh concerning tbe pan tlm other had tA- ‘ ken in tUa tfeaty; ** will appear from (he following mamorandoni ofthe Kingto prOno- ants and compiainta. •’Tim Undfho aart) wms gtreowteby him, aod thn i«ndsn£& wHbfom. aa far,asthe main stream of (he Ocome river, they eould only gkee wa i own right, soft UmJaght y.-y&fZl&o Jtorer <tor »prewBM> -I InitL^^. _ White people being contented wftfi that wy great tract ofcoontry&m and kt*->*o- 9 1 ” h * d »«re«l to give thbinrf h* pas Berry to nud the/ hod been ra«rkintf. Iind m far ee lha waters of thp OctrolgefoiSvor.; Tiifi hill between thore two ritrere i* wry high; yet the white people bad ehmbed ov*r to; and. ho cannot tefi whore they srouldatop, Hft tkinfca it »ory hard that they should ia obltged to gltrb up ao gnat e traetof coun try, because mime of their nation had Iheelt drawn inte n srartbatae farts ho canid hear, Waaone that had ustnrbed aH ntttonft, even that simple puceable people csilafi ih* Dutch. Yet, be had given to the Oconee. & was willing to establish itruf.far aa be could in peace ; but, - the land was net lit t nor was it for him to *ay to a man Of any Town, wbo had nor ceded hia righto to' that pound, you shall not cut a cane on that . land, to dry your meat, or, you shall not kin a deer on that ground. The great master of breath made the ground for all, great «a well aa small — and, it was bard for him aud ‘ hie friends, who hadalwaya hold their facca toward Virginia, in thd darkoet arid worat of dayv, te hear the hlamd of giving away ao great a part of their ground. Whet he would wish ia a remedy for thfit, is. that a few preaente should Ife provided, and all the Towno toaiteA^tn a Talk ; anil the gift of that gmundijHffbft confirmed by all the Town* to|to|k 'nation j and then, be would not beaf^Se bletue that after the Beloved umf cotyre -opt sod 1 settle* all matters re^ctihg tbs' Lands with every Town, then aome nr hie head men will come down, and go with some white beloved moo* mod make i line' clean froth the head ofthe Oennee to the piece where the Cherokee* have given ap.*-»The fol lowing is an accnont given of this eitraor- dinary man, in 1799, by Col. Hawkii a — “There Indiana (the Taleaon) were very friendly to the United States, dartre the KeVbluttnOary w*r | MtMk m WfSr'WW- bnithle micro of tlie half-way home, (intpro-*' perlv called the Talesee King) oonlff not be prevailtidon by any offer- from the Agents of Great Britain, to take pert with them. -On the retiirn of peace, and the establishment of friendly arrangements between the Indiana and Citiaena of tbe United 8tates. this chief felt himself neglected by Mr. Seugrovft (then, the Superintendent); which lie resenting, ho robbed and ininlted that gentleman, compel- led him to leave hia house near Tookaubatche, and fly into a swamp. He has since then,. aa from a spirit of contradiction, formed • par ty, in opposition to the will of the nation; which has given much trouble and difficulty to the chiefs of the land hill, he W bid a solemn warning, from the national Council, tn respect the laws of the nation ; or. he should meet the punishment ordained by the law. This ipirit of party or opposition prevailed not only here, but more or lots in every town in the nation, The plnioest proposition for xmelioriting their condition is immediately opposed : and, thie oppotilim continurt, ae long at there it a hope to obtain fhesents, the in fallible mode heretofore in utt to gain a point."—(Hawkins’ mss.—) IV—I am arrived now, at llift fourth era in the history of Georgia; or that period which intervened between the acknowledgement ef our independence as a sovereign State, and our adoption of the present Federal Consli tution .-—and it ia now, perhaps, that the real interest of this communication may be said to commence. 1 In the year 1785. another treats was concluded al G itphintom, by Gen. Twiggs and the elder General Clerk, whereby the* boundary line was extended tn the fobs of the Ocmulgee and Oconee riven. But, the article, as well worthy of oh-ervalion, as any Other, ie the first; which provide*for the in-' corporation ofthe Creeks,among a*, and which accordingly look away from llift “ Confede-' ral Govebnment,” (as it was then called) all pretension as to jarisdietion over them t— it is in the words' following,—“ The taid In- “ diani for thtmafoet, and all the tribee “ and town* within their reipeetive nation*, “ within Uu limit» of the State of’ Georgia, have been and now nre m tnher* of the tame, tincc thbihia and data of the ConitUiUion of the iiiiaawtteqf Georgia." 9. The following year, another was conclu ded near the mentb ef Shoulder-bone Creek, a branch of the Gcooee river: it war however but a mere confirmation of that inade at Gyl- phinton; to enforce all the proririoas ofWhiclL the Miccoh of Cowetuh and Cufsrtuh were demanded end delivered up as hostages, Di> ring tbe conference, tb* following Interroga tories were propounded to and the answers,, given by the two Linguists employed by tb* Coauniaaiooefi.' ;tD.j ' Copy of Deposition# taken before the Board of Commiseioners, 90th October,17««. The following questions were put to Mr. John Galphin by the Commtaaionera— aod , hie answer* thereto Question 1st- How far do yen think any treaty made with, the Commissioners, fcy ' the Indiana now present, Will be binding on the Nation! A bower. I think they mayanvwer fur all, the town* except the Tpckabatchca and , Hickory groumto. -fM'-- CJ. 2d. Whet number Ie you tfeink thoer’, two towns contain f ”v. A. The Tuckahatches about twohnfidred