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NEW ECHOTA, THURSDAY MARCH 6, 1828.
EDITED BY ELIAS BDUDINOTT.
PRINTED WEEKLY BY
* FOR THE CHEROKEE NATION.
At $2 50 if paid in advance, $8 in six
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To subscribers who can read onlv the
Cherokee .lingua** the price will jto£8,0Q
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Every subscription will be considered as
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Advertisements will be inserted at seven
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tion, and thirty-seven and & half cents for
enoh continuance; longer ones in propor
JCP All letters addressed to the Editor,
post paid, will receive due attention,
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LAKE OF ARDENT SPIRIT^.
Mr. Editors—In recently turning over
the pages of a Magazine printed in the year
1813, my attention was attracted by a cal
culation of the amount of ardent spirits con
sumed in the United States in the year
1810. This amount is stated at 83,365,-
539 gallons. The estimate appears to
j have been made on well established 1
i grounds. After making his statement the
V-Tvi iter adds the following mathematical cal
The quantity which the year 1828 will con
sume would doubtless fill a lake much lar
ger stilL W *
-Notv 33,365,529 gallons* is 248,932
hogsheads, (at more than 134 gallons
' the hogshead,) which supposing one
team to carry two hogsheads, would
jpad 124,466 waggons. These, al
lowing only three rods J or each team,
yvould read) more than 1,166 miles, or
nearly the whole length of the U nit ed
States, from north to south! The num
ber of hogsheads necessary to contain
itlie liquor, must, upon a moderate
1 computation, cost 600,000 dollars, and
would, if placed so as to touch each
other, reach more than 178 miles, ex
ceeding by; 48, the .whole length of
^Massachusetts Proper, on the north
ern line- Or, to present the subject
jin another light, the quantity of ardent
(distilled spirits, which is annually
drunk in the United States, is sufficient
to fill a canal 4#, miles long, 10 feet
tvicle, and 2 feefcgleep; affording con
venient navigatiori^Tor boats of several
;ohs burthen! Thfe same quantity if
I rought together, would fortn a pqnd
lore than 68 rods Img, 40 rods broad,
nd six feet deep, hiring an area of
7 acres,- >
flow TO READ JpRIPTURE
Nik simple and unprejudiced study
>f the Bible is the death of religious
travagance* Many bead it under a
i ticular bias of mind. They read
looks, written by others, under the
pme views. Their preaching & con-
[ersation run in the Same channel. If
ey could awaken themselves from
is state, and come to read the whole
buld start as
t the humble,
eligion of the
a agreater or
es had been
ripture for every,
uld find the?'
m a dream
jter of the
A man may find much amusement
the Bible—variety of prudential
|\struction-abundance of sublimity and
iSctry! but, if he Stops there, he stops
fiort of its great end; for, thetestimo-
v of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.
The grand secret in tho study o ! '
|e Scriptures, is, to discover Jesus
lyrist therein, the war, the truth, and
CONSTITUTION OF THE CHERO
Formed by a Convention of Delegates from
the several Districts, at New Eclwta, Ju
Sec. 1. Whereas the ministers of the
"Gospel are, by their profession, dedicated
to the service of God—and the care of
Souls, and ought not to be diverted from the
great duty of their function, therefore, no
minister of the Gospel, or public preacher,
of any religious persuasion, whilst he con
tinues in the exercises of his pastoral func
tions, shall be eligible to the office of
Principal Chief, or a Seat in either house
of the General Council.
Sec. 2* No person vvftb denies the be
ing of a God,.or a future state of rewards &
punishments, shall hold any office in the ci
vil department of this Nation.
Sec. 3. The free exercise of religious
worship, and serving God without distinc
tion, shall forever be allowed within this
Notion: Provided, That this liberty of con
science shall not be so construed as to ex
cuse acts of licentiousness or justify prac
tices inconsistent with the peace or safe
ty of this Nation.
Sec. 4. Whenever the General Coun
cil shall determine the expediency of ap
pointing delegrteS, or other public Agents,
for the purpose of transacting business with
the Government of the United States; the
Principal Chief shall have power to recom
mend, ana by the advice and consent of the
Committee, shall appoint and commission
such delegates or Public Agents according
ly, and, on all matters of interest touching
the rights of the citizens of this Nation,
which may require the attention of the U-
nited States Government, the Principal
Chief shall keep up a friendly correspon
dence with that Government, through the
medium of its proper officers.
Sec. 5. All commissions shall be in the
name and by the authority of the Cherokee
Nation, and be sealed with the Seal of the
Nation, and be signed by the Principal
The Principal Chief shall make use of
his private seal until a National seal shall
Sec. 6. A sheriff shall be elected in
each District by the qualified electors
thereof, who shall hold his office for the
term of two years, unless sooner removed.
Should a vacancy occur subsequent to an
election, it shall be filled by the Principal
Chief as in other cases, and the person so
appointed shall continue in office until the
next General election, when such vacancy
shall be filled by the qualified electors, and
the Sheriff then elected shall continue in
office for two years.
Sec. 7. There shall be a Marshall ap
pointed by a joint vote of both houses of the
General Council for the term of four
years, whose compensation and duties shall
be regulated by law, & whose jurisdiction
shall extend over the Cherokee Nation.
See. 8. No person shall for the same of
fence be twice put in jeopardy of life, or
limb, nor shall any persons property be taken
or applied to pubic use without his consent;
Provided, That nothing in this clause shall
be so construed as to impair the right and
power of the.JGeneral Council td. lay and
collect Taxes. All courts shall be open,
and every person for an injury done him in
his property person or reputation, shall
have remedy by due course of law.
Sec. 9. The right of trial by jury shall
Sec. 10. Religion morality and knowl
edge being necessary to good Government,
the preservation of liberty, and the happi-
nes of mankind, Schools and the means of
education shall forever be encouraged in
Sec. 11. The appointment of all offi
cers, not otherwise directed by this Consti
tution, shall be vested in the legislature.
Sec. 12. All taws in force in this Na-
tiou, at the passing of this Constitution,
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shall so continue until altered or repealed
by the legislature, except where they are
temporary, in which case they shall expiie
at the times respectively limited for their
duration; if not continued by act of the legis
Sec. 13. The General Council may at
any time propose such amendments to this
Constitution as two thirds of each house
shall deem expedient; and the Principal
Chief shall issue a proclamation, directing-
all the civil officers of the several Districts
to promulgate the same as extensivey as
possible within their respective Districts,
at least nine months previous to the next
General election; and if at the first session
of the General Council after such General
election, two thirds of each house shall,
by yeas and nays, ratify such proposed a-
mendments, they shall be valid to all in
tents and purposes, as parts of this Consti
tution; Provided, That such proposed a-
mer.dments shall be read on t hree several
days, in each house, as well when the same
are proposed^ as when they are finally rat
Done ia Convention at New Ef hota. this
twenty-sixth day of July, in the year of our
Lord one thousand eignt huudred and twen
ty seven; In testimony whereof, we have
each of us, hereunto subscribed our names.
Delegates of Chickamauga District.
JNO. ROSS, President of Convention,
JOHN BALDRIDGE, his x mark.
Delegates of Chattooga District.
Delegates of Coosaualec Districts
JOHN } ARTIN,
KELLCHULEE, his x mark.
Delf4fnt.es tj .ftmr.hao JS-lotrict.
THOMAS F OREMAN,
IIAIR CONRAD, his x mark,
L elegates of IlickoryLislrict.
Delegates of Etoufah District.
THOS. PETITT, his xmark,
JOHN BEAMElt, his x mark-,
Delegates of 'J aqvoc District.
OOCLENOTA, his x mark.
WM. BOLING, his x mark,
Delegates of Jlquchcc District..
SITUWAKEE, his x mark.
RICHARD WALLER, his x mark.
A. M’COY, Secretary of Convention.
B4oE.I ADoEyi.ZO- a©0&,(T>oEA MtfT
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Of a joint Committee in the Legisla
ture of Georgia, on the Cherokee Lands.
From this gloomy.and almost hope
less prospect, we turn our attention to
the second branch of our enquiry, and
trust that we shall be able to estab
lish in the State of Georgia a good, le
gal. and perfect title to the lands in
question, and that we ave the right,
by any means in our petver to possess
ourselves of them.
In the examination of this important
and interesting question, we ate ne
cessarily carried back to the earliest
history of this country. When the
continent of America was first discov
er!, it was possessed and owned by va
rious tribes of Savages; and the discov
ers asserted successfully the right of
occupying such parts as each dis
covered, and thereby established
their supreme command over it, as
serting their claim both to domain and
to empire. By domain we mean that,
by ‘‘virtue of which a naiton may use
the country for the supply of its neces
sities; may dispose of it as it thinks
proper, and derive from it any advan
tage it is capable df yielding.” And
by “empire,” we mean the “fight of
sovereign command by which, the na
tion directs and regulates at its., plea
sure, every thing that passes in the
country.” Precisely in this way, and
no other, did Spain, France, Eng
land, Holland and Portugal obtain
sovereignty over the portions of this
cc'inlry discovered by each. It may
,e contended with much plausibility,
that there is in these claims more of
force than of justice; but they are
claims which have been recognised
and admitted by the whole civilized
world, and it is unquestionably true
that nnder such ciiVmmstauces force
becomes right. This kind of title is
not only good and valid agreeable to
the laws of Nations, but is perfectly
consistent with justice. The. earth
was certainly made for the. behefit;
comfort and subsistence of inaii, and
should be so used as to accommodate
the greatest possible number of hu
man beings. It was therefore per-,
fectly in accordance with the design
of nature, that the densely populated
countries of-Europe; should possess!
themselves of the immense forests iii
America, which were used only ad
hunting grounds, and employ them iii,
promoting the comforts and providing
for the subsistence of their overflow^
iag population. Acting ho doubt up
on these principles, Great Britain oc
cupied and colonized the proviucb, of
Georgia, the limits of which ahieriop
to the revolutionary war, were defin-»
ed, and made to extend from the At
lantic coast to the Mississippi, aad,
from the 31st tb the 35th degrees of
nprth latitude. The whole b'f this ter
ritory was made to form a provincial
government, thus exercising the high
est and most unequivocal act of sove
reignty. In this exercise, both of do*
main and empire on the part of Gvea^
| Britain, certain jiortiona of Uwiio^