WISDOM—J r STIC K—.A I ODfCli ATIOX.
$3, PEH QUARTER
ALBANY, GEORGIA. AUGUST 13. 1867.
jr* for Hjgiil advert Ue-
[|h( lines or 1*98..# 3 00
nloa from Guar-
[)'„ 0 00
i will be required in
r Ad*lniitr»torn, Executors or
iky law to be bold on the
iimA month, between tlio hours of
•■'dU threw in tlie afternoon, at
Mtmtj in which the proper-
fthtie tales must be given
„.f personal property must be
5, through a public garette ten
^creditors of an estate must
A be made to the Court
if All hand must be publish-
i thirty days—for dls-
n, monthlyalx months—
Lfrm oWdianshin forty days.
IktyMlMure of Mortgages must be
Tt gninths—for establishing
tea of three mouths—for
_.JUtors or Administrators,
riven by the deceased, the
>en & Go.
4 ► .
D. H. POPE,
ATTORNEY AT 1AW,
W ILL give prompt attention to-any busings;
entrusted him, In 411 the Courts of Dougherty i
and surrounding counties.. . - .
«lne., for the |... j. WRIOIlT. |„ l*. It. WAUlt^
WRIGHT & WARREN,
ai.banv.ua. ' -
W ILL pradice in the MKeml Unitrl* nf I awnwl
Equity irrtni* State ai»4 the riirnit fVnrts
nf the United Sutea for the Rtaieof Clforpla.
Also atieniion given to COMMISSION in DANK-
Albany, Nov. 18,18G5. *. ^7
■ PETITIONS in Itankrupicy uud’er late Act of U.
Jr Congress CAN NOT IlK PILED until the gene-
iral orders of the Judges of the. Supreme Court
(under section 10) prescribe the form of the petition
orders, etc,, etc
'When the Circuit nn.l district Court of the United
States cun properly hear these cases, we shall
gladly represent our clients before, them. Cases
can be determined in vacallou or ternr.
HINES et llomiS,
Albany, Oa., April 2. 1807. «Htf . • ■
Drs. Jennings & DeWitt
AVK associated themselves in the pr.iclico of
'PICK—L’p stairs over llilsman \ .It iil's Drug
B0T l>r. DeWitt will give apeolal attention to
Albany, July 2d, 1807.. 7Mf ^
OFFICE—Lehman's Corner. Opposite Livery Stable.
RF.SIDKSCh At X, /*. Mt/NSOlfS.
Fehl2-blNin / ALBANV.UA.
Drs. Cromwell &
/~VFFEU-their professional services to the citizens
fl of Albany and vicinity. Ofllcb on Broad St.
February 24. IfitRi
H \\ r , FEARS, i Th ® Arrow Tie% Iron Bands
Provision Dealer & Grocer, BALING COTTON I
M V arrangements nre complete for sale and de
CORN BACON AND HAY.
in store and to arrive,
2«i,00O lbs. Smoucd line.nt.
» > 2«MW0 lb? Bulk Salt Side.*,
b.ouu bushels Corn.
fift.ftftO lb* Northern and Eastern Hay.
•**D bids A B 0 Sugar.
2<H) bids Superfine Family flour.
uO keg-* Nalls.
IlH* Sacks Liverpool Salt.
Having an AGENT We-t constantly biliiug, .no
one has the advantage. IMnntcrs wanting produce
CMptM'inlly COHN, should hand iu lltelr oi’tle»>
wllli Ilie C’AMI, in lime. The corn will he
Iranslered on arrival, saving dray age, which wtl
al* ays he •* cent a in bushel less i him ptices ftuiu
Store. Titia ia saved to purchascis. 3UU bushels
Is a ear load.
. .1 W. FEARS.
January 20tIt, 1S67. fi-
AS ISxfllANVP AUAINHT
I’nrquulhol iVir Simplicity anil
J Rapidity of Adjustment!
(SiiriM.sstil by None forSlrcngth anti A4ap-
' (ability lo »(f ihr tbc* of t'«mtre«!
The Favorite & Most Comfortable
Albany to New York!
. Fare Through lo Nrw York—sik#
rpilF, following new, fuel, and firal-elnanSTEAM-
J SHIPS sail from Savannah to New York every
TneMlny, Tlim-vilny ttiidNimirtlny.
Murray's Line. Atlantic C. M. S.. Empire Line.
8. Co's Line, i
S*H TUtlSlJA VH. SmlTilUUSI) 1 VS Snil S VT'D'VS.
AIIKY ne.v nmnnfactured in Livcipool. of the
br«t English Iron, under the personal super
vision of the Inventor, formerly a resident of New*
it Menus, l.n.
The VltUOW TIE is preferred by Sbipmnalers j
; nii-i Compreasuien. ns it is worked with ! to 1 itieh '
»Vii!;. while all TIE** require 3 lo Inehes, |
I which, in running through a cargo, involves a lira- j
vy li»-s to the Shipmaster.
USE THE .VUUUW TIE wwd HANDS, and SAVE
MONEY IN Fill’It HIT and INSURANGE!
Ai tangeaients have boon made to *r<*ui'e an nm-
idti.sitpi ly of the Arrow Tin and Bauds for the
mining Season. The Iron will be better than the
best bi retnfore n«rd.
JAN. A. HALL,
Agent Middle and Southwest Georgia.
AADRDW LOW A, CO,
(lenernl Agents, Savaunali, Ga.
The undersigned is prepared lo ftirni*h the All*
IttlW TIE to ilmTRADE
Foruardliif7 anti Transportation Added.
RUST & JOHNSTON,
H .W,- Ur* -
—,— tad th« trade ia luvl-
"WMieffl'Octtfe Boaewood Pi-
ikUK V^'am* apjlpurity of tOne, ere
J»ojJriti*r$o offered in ihia Merkel.
i, Pedal, Iron Frame, Overstrung
rfrfeTtldiiedtefnetrfng made under
of Mr. J. II. GROVES-
1 ,he W&FgF***-
iMnim.lllil from Ik. but
ViVrk'. ‘ f jAjtwo at the
lye eucceauvp years, the
. BPOtn^Uiof which can be
.^e. make a
Forts, and by tnauufaclnr-
Mly cash syatem, are enabled
1 at a price which will pre-
Drs. Callaway & Pope,
March 30th, 1807-[80-ly\ l _ _ "
DUS. SIMS k MeltllLLAN
H AVE aasooloteil Ihemaelvaa together in the
practioe of medicine, and hereby tender their
nervires to life eltIrens of Albany and vleinity.
OFFICE—At the Drug Store of Gilbert & Uro.
on Washington street. May 2d, 1807 (4 4H],
IfifU, W. A. LOVE,
ALBANY, GA. .
Ofliee (until further notice) ht hi** Reeldene^
nearly opposite the residence of Captain lohn A.
dT.i,-. M«y«tii.iw si-irj
DOUBUSS HDt|SI i
One Square West of Court ifouse,
HtftgcH Inn (bi. Ilnnw erorj for
Thomasville, Bainbridge, and
Florida. . 1 . ii
Siippli.il with tli. UPST the Miiirkot aff.
MmoU 21-26 , .t(
llermnti Living-.Sin S\i.v \i»oi>
Dearhoin, Cotn’r..ston, Maker,Corn.*Nlckcr-mii,Com •
VlBun, tleneral Dames.- Sin JacI.vI’o, |
Muckley, Cnm’r. 1 Morton, Cotn'r. i Atkins, ConiV. !
THeae .Steamships nre all of large carrying eapu \
city, well adapted to,this Route, and nre fined up
with eapeeial regard to the comfort of l'asacngers.
Slate rooms large and airy ; the Steward's depart
ment- supplied with the best the Nef York and Sa-
h markets afford. The Through Freight Ta-
Hear the Insurance Agents:
Savannah, Ga., May 7th, 1807.
The roe ml fires In this city hawing proved to our
entire satisfaction, by a thorough test, the superi
ority of IRON LANDS for Idling puvposos, we
MroWly recommend them to ihe^iac of the l'lnnt-
ers oftieorgia nsnn efliclent agent in restrletlng
loss by !)r«; and we agree to discriminate, when
pvactienble,. in favor nf Button thus secured.
A. WII.IHtR,General Im-uranoe Aa< nl.
t'llAKLES UttliKN &. SON, Agents Liverpool,
l.oudqu-niul Globe Ins. Co.
CIIARLkH-L. COLBY St CO , Ar'is Hun At-
Inmie .M. Ina. Co-* N. Y.
K. It. FOOTMAN, Insurance Agents.
WOODBK!DOE BROTHERS, iuiurunce Ab’i>*.
J. T. THOMAS, lnHiianee Agents.
J. MeNL'LTY,Sivretnry nontberu lnvurnnco
JAMES T. STEWART. Ag.i.i London and
I^in.MHter Insurance Compiiny.
LANE A WEST, Insurance Agents.
04*all tin* rumisommts ot the miml, •
From liigi* dim'll to finhiuR,
Thongs not iiiit> that you »wi f»n*l
S<* u rv <‘hoa|«a« SvUliinR,’
A v**t v t'noMju division, too.
It \vo lmt rightly utu> D,
An*) not, fi«» we nri*Q|it to Ho,
JVrveri il ami abuse il.
I \vi**li— n rotnntnn wish, IttHectl—
Aly |)tirse u us somethin# falter;
That I iiiipflit rhiM i* the t hilH of need,
Awl not my priHeto Hatter;
That I might make oppression reel
As o'ohi cnti only make, (
Awl break the tyrant** rod ot steel
As gohlran ohlyhreak it.
I wish—that svn p\ k,* and )nvn,
And every linman passion
That has its origin iiliove,
Would come awl keep in lasliion ;
That scorn awl jealousy awl hale,
And every luiso emotion,
Were hnriell fifty fathoms deep
Beneath the waves ofoeenn.
t wish-that friends wotv.nlways true,
And motives always pure;
1 wish the pood wero not. so few,
I wish the hail wore fewer,
I w ish that nelsons ne’er forgot
To heed tfu ir pious tenehinp;
I wish that practising was not
So different from preaching.
I w ish—that modest worth might l»o
Appraised with truth and candor;
I wish that innocents were free
From treachery niul slander;
I wish that men their vows would mind,
'Flint women never were rovers;
1 wish that wives were always kind,
. And husbands always lovers.
1 wish—in line—that joy and mirth,
And every good ideal,
May oomc crewhilc thm’out the earth
To lie a glorious real;
Till God shall every creature bless
And bone be lost in happiness,
And wishing be possessing.
Scene in flmrch—The Yonng Ulan Who
Desired to be Wed. m
Imving bc#n much reduoed. Freighters ami Pns-
engers will find this th« QUICKEST, SAFEST,
nd MOST ECONOMICAL ROUTE to New York.
Murray’s Line—Hunter & Gammel. Agents.
Atlantic C. M. 8. 8. Co’s Line—Wilder k Fnllnr-
Itie—M. H. Hardee, Agent.
GEO. A. McCLESKKY,
General Traveling Agent’
M.u oa, U\., May lUlli, 1807.
The recent-lire al the Wnrehouso of Mr. R. T.
Chupman, In this city, imving fully demnnsiraled
the advantage of IRON BANDS for baling purposes,
as a security against loss by fire, wp, Hip undersigu-
ed Insurance Agents at Macon, Ga.. take plensurp
in endorsing the action of the Agents at Savannah,
E. G RAN NIBS, Agent <«*r -.-mat |iu,
J W. BURKE. Insurance Agent.
K J. JOHNSON cU. CO..iusutauvtt Agunts.
.1. MONROE OUOKN, btsitraju-.* Agent.
.1 M. liOARDAIAN, lo-siratfee Agent.
•INO. IJ. C’OBU, lik-uniui-o Agent.
May «8th, 1887.
The Mew Cemtrailnland flail Koufe J
•Inn, Bill, [Wl]
W. P. HAVENS H. M. BtlOWNjl
HAVENS & BROWN, i
L Wholesale and Retail Dealers in
Main tin il slauitiird Mli-iuliiii-,
No. 91 (bfrry St. MACON, 0A.
Qlj)pilAry 1 ' llji
I^B^SE or i» wl,'. Vi'vy 9M ^ !lf
AlkMl Book ..A
A Now Sensation
iBOYS AID GIRLS!
Tne tm U’St innovation in the usage and
enstiilurf the Kstablished Chureli qfScot-
landav ho eelebration of niarrinp} publicly
in dint b before *lm oongrcgation, iustend
of prbs toly al. the residence of the parties,
the former, it is alleged, being in a conform
ity with the directory or public worships,
and the ancient practice of the l’rcsbvte-
•ian Church. Apropos of this innovation,
Tic following incident may be related. It
vrobably occurred in the ancient times re
ferred to, but the date is i ot material. The
afternoon service bad ended, and the con
gregation were arranging themselves for the
benediction, when, to the manifest interest
of tlie worshipers, the good parson descend
ed from tin* pulpit to the dosk below, and
said in a calm clear voice t
their own complexion who work hnrcL 1
hope that the eoloied people generally will
endeavor to cultivate the good opinion ofall
i without regard afcto whether they nre white
| or black. There fare, others beside black
men in New Orleans who steal. Look at
tlie First National Rank and the Rank of
Commerce defaulters. Why are not the
owners of defaulting hanks* who rob by
, hundreds of thousands put in the look up
j with chicken thieves V I shall preach on Sun-
I day in the Second Rahtisl Church (colored)
land invite the editor of tlie National Bank
* and Jacob Barker to eomonnd hf’ar me.”
I.rtri a Trair.
• At no time in the history of the South
| wns a absence of a knowledge of the me
ichauie arts more severly felt than within the
| last, seven years. People nre beginning
; however, to have their ‘‘oyos opened” to tin*
’dignity aud importance of labor, and the
great, value of the mechanic to the body po
litic. The Richmond F.xamiucr, in com
menting on the question, says : “There is a
growing tendency among short sighted pu*
n uts ami guardians to put theirboys iu ofti-
e s, under a false impression that such oc
cupation is more genteel than the learning
of a trade* This is a most mischievous no
tion, and mm that is likely to entail upon
their children troubles and sorrows and
heart-burnings during all the rest of their
liven. All business is subject to fluctua
tions, which t he wisdom of men and of gov
ernments Inis thus far been unable to con
trol, and when a common ini or financial
depression occurs, those who nre tlio first to
suffer, and among the most helpless victims,
are book-keepers, clerks, copyists, and office
attendants of evory kind. At such time
tlio workman in a number of mechanical
trades can find employment on his own ac
“The Hhot'tnnkor can make shoes or mend
them ; tho iminter and glazier, the carpen
ter, the belllmnger, t he locksmith, tho plumb
er and gas fitter, and many others that will
occur to tho reader, can search for, and find
odd jobs, that will give them at least the
moans of living. The skilled man, with
tools at his command, is in most respects
master of the situation. Rut the clerk, the
book-keepers, the office attendant nro help
less. They must wait malty and many a
weary day, ttutil tho season or the year of
depression are over, before they can find
thntcmp* - - -•
.ploy incut for their pens which they
havo unfortunately mndo thoir sole means ot
livelihood. All this is another ot tho la
mentable results of having learned no trade
in boyhood. Thu subject is, indeed, ono so
wideiu its.ramifications, and so profoundly
important in its consequences, that it is time
it had engaged moro thorough and more syi-
tcmntic attention on the part of the people
who aro so deeply interested.”
Relation’ of tiik Skxk.k.—It may be
laid down as a general rule that amusements
which separate the sexes are dangerous.—
I would not press the truth too narrowly
and literally ; but undoubtedly ifeas a gener
al truth that w here women seek tlieiramuse-
meats in one way by tbemsclvs, and meg
BETWEEN THE SOUTH AND THE NORTH,
■ .. n rs - s
Aud W« "
■ ■ A ll.-T^- .... =.
HE Ch.rlotte «di1 Snnth C»rolln», a»A North
Carotin. K»ilro«iU. vl» Aogu.ln. CoInmbU,
loll, .nd G rooty boro l%Hidnnondi,rjft wnfM-
Ho',Ion'. To oronro oprtd, wifetjr »nd oomforl
First-CInM I-nssenger Cnr*. Slnrpin. C«r« on
Nltht Trtlni, nnd fir.l-cl«»» Dining RhIooto^
ibTpl. lime given lo pnuenger* to g^t, i»f)r,|ii
A 4lirnled, htnUhJ
m. - —“Tlehrt, mdCheeke o»n non he li«d i» the
sas-4t^-“~7sssa3s; 1 ii«
W^^.lyT,.- ; -jis-n
L. E. WHLCII k CO.
1100K8 sre liiwd o» Ret, lor vrnnl of money. Bui
tlio boys miff gu N uniat- inm* hvinclbiny to read, ami
thev ought lolidVo fresh suppltcs or resiling evrry
week. Noir. lliore sn* plotity ofmomtltly papers for
llirni; Lqt tilth: old UionJ-^aml. who does not ro-
riiBmber him niul his “Children’s flublp" in wnr
Fiinps—t It sir nHI frlswd.'J. Vi l BURKE, proposes to
Handsomest Weekly Paper!
fits l.’Uasuix VrliUiUK HousojauLbrunroiit. To do
jjili he must h n v c 11U N D tt EDS Or SullSGIt I BE U8!
And ho appeals m tlio young follta to help him—
fie wstiUKt know how ntsuy-lrill vote for the p»-
pci’.hy.AgraojnisioAako B- Lot them send iu their
Manhood: How Lost, liow Restored,
Jiyf published, a new ritllftm nf
Dr.CnlverwflFs Colei*ruled Ko-
(fJtm ri/w (Wlthont jncdiefnt*y
of HprxsATORniii*ll ftF EdmlnHHVanfcnass,
IrivdUmturv Heminal Lomu, lMPariwvTr
MKl* P»iysl«»l lacSfwUy, lrapedimenis
* t «WoCd»swir«ioili Eennesv, nnd
pjr self- adnlgcnee «r svxiusl .extrav- t
•Friea Jo » sealed tnvelope, only <» ocuts» f ,
author in yWa**dmirnblo os«uy
oloarlrwwnoowrmtes. from a-TOTy jmt*’
fuHrietlce. itu. *e»lMnrtn»wm»|«eu«. otMlf
nlMl»«ro«yhn mdi»llye»redwU i.mi the Un.iRi-r-
u,e of inleruii n-rdicme or III. o|ipiloaU0i .of.
knin:—pointing -wt » mod. of onr. ol once «im-
long lisle of linim-s I tint lie nm/ «ee how «V e ,01 *
siori-l., Aiiff rrifi'fiiiv ft wni -tit-mu', him in commen
cing il. NorWniind Hie moboy jnrt now. If he
Sn'lf.iwe-dd U1 If,lit. ho wilt begin tbe piiblion.
lion, mill coll t..! tlie omnejr i for ,lion ho Kill liolil
lli.il 111 jfbu.lmrtt.ojpdforil by.ocudiug up-flieir
nui,ilk, Will Im.imder oblianliomi lo eubRcrilte for
'ihMepeV. ' Wllo>nv« “Hnri-oli for n Weekly I-apcr
for I lib Bny. emi nii-fc f nnd wlmt buy oh girt util
soonchl-nend in tlio to«nMt lb-l of enluerlhem 1
-Wo elmil, inilio Ur.l nuinbei, begin ihe publlov
tion of q, J r-
Saqual to the Young Mai’ooners."
Kenlly nil llic hbye nnd girloi In iho United Suiee
hero rend ibe . Young Murom.in" oml been rtoliglu-
ed Willi in; nnd Mr. Gould In* newireo ue, Him Ihe
new etovy will lift once, pH M gpq-l «e llic old
one: "I'd who ooilW wiinMnj.kMng h,tier; ...
IhirkoV Wcbltirlor ijoye nnll girts wI1nit>h«nd-
eome llnrrto of blgld pegTe, eplenflWrj<nMtrnl*di
and oURnhllv printed with MW type on ihe while
iinpcr,:in«k«ng:in ll^lyonr » hnMiiif.Uwniuoie pf
over ♦VP.BhiHr. wi'l' 8*8® -nd.r.
*■* ’ - -,1-Knas-
- ....... • ^ ^ ......... ... J J . — f n, eee iu ,llt.l|
“T^ogo winliing lo 1.6 tffiitcil ill tlio holy teck tlioirnin nnotlior way l>y thomiwlvca,
J.otkIk nf rnati-imnny, will now please coino **— ' ’
Still no one stirred. Tlio aiienoo lieeamo
almost audible mid a painful sense of awk
wardness uinoiig those present wan felt,
when a young gentleman wlm occupied a
vacant seat in the iiroad asile during tho
service, slowly arose nnd ileliliernt.ly walk
ed to tlio loot'of the altar, lie was good
looking and well dressed, but iio tonialo ac
companied his tfavcls. When lie arrived
within a respectful distnneo of tlie clergy
men lie paused, nnd with a reverend DOW
stepped to ono side of tlie nsilo, but neither
said any tiling, nor socnioil nt nil disconcert
ed nl the idea of being married alone.
.Tlie clergyman Indued anxiouMy ni-onnd
for the bride, wlio, lie supposed, was yet lo
arrive, and nt length remarked to tlio young
gentleman in mi undertone:
“Tlie Indy, sir, is n dilatory.” -
“Had von not belter defer ihe ceremo
“I think not,” •
“Do you suppose she will beberc soon?”
“Mesip,” wild tha young gentleman, “how
should I know llic lady’s mfivcOimttl?"
A fow moments were suQbrcd.lo olapso in
tills uncertain state of expectpiipy, when the
clergyman renewed his interrogatories.
“Did the indy prohiisc to attend lit tho
present hour,'sir?” • -
“Why, the Indv, to ho sure, that you are
waiting here for.”
“I ilia hot hear any tiling aboiu it,” was
tlie unsatisfactory rosironflT * t
“Then, sir, may I ask why you nro here,
and for what purpose do. you thus triflo in
thp'snnctiiary oftiieAI^st -Higli?” said, the
thcro is botli wavs n tendency to degonora-
tioirnnd templntioii. God meant that man
and woman should livo together, work to
gether, nnd in all tlio functions of life—civil,
social, religions artistic, nnd intellectual—
eo-operato with each other j nnd Iheir mutu
al relations aro harmonising and balancing,
and nowhere else more tlinu in tile seeking
mid prosecution ofamiinoinents. I believe
tlifit hoys and girls should go to school to-
[ether. Astlioy sit together in the house-
mid, so l think they Bliould sit togethor in
our temples of luurniiig. (Jollogos should
not be for all men or for all women, but tlio
same buildings uml tho same professors
should lie provided for both in common.—
And ns it is in everything else, so il should
he in nmusomenln. There is mnch greater
liability to temptation mid immorality
where amusements is sought in tlio isolation
or separation of flic sexes.
Therefore alt exhihttons of pictures -and
r ' u * w " ; " r r:r.d V1M ..
-'unM. _ y, . rltre cranes..
Address the ptthlishov. “ „ ' ' Ten oojiiee...,
WEU.-EHOWH HOUSJI ha.-Iietn
nl .nd rennhmd. ssd ie now ono of th.
somewhat enraged clerical.
“I eanie, sir, simply because you
all tliosii wishing to lie united ill
bonds of matrimony to step; forwdrd
, .. .... happeufd.to eateruin »ueh u wish.. Xj\p>
ftlifgto .li'bsci-lpiipni..! - $ L* (VIper annum, very sorry to have uiiaundgrstfxftl. yUp. sir,
.««» wlA ymi.a tery^ Jay. %
rwn • ■■"■i*
L. E. L H. K. WttOH- ”
-6*.- r _
«rtoit»d «an^4^ojW'0r5«V»»kB. m Ok
tows to,the Nnw/lrtwo* OnBifcteiHUwBi
stntiios ; nil provisions for public recr
nil InstitutionH for public amusement-,
be such as to enable -the people lo
roups and Inmilies.
1 1 no iiot think nfnuscmentB enn ho good
ronernlly in n community in which a mnn
s ashamed to take ids whole family to them,
if Hie re is anything you would not like your >
wife and children fo participate to with you
the presumption istliat it is wrong: and if
there is any thing you would like them to
| lartlcipate in with yon, tlio nresnmprion ia
bat it is right. And this might he made a
rule of judgment lor more wider than it
ndw is,:—Ik W. lfecchcr. y ,
A DespehiteYtug fUi.
A dispatch from Chicago tells the follow-..
ihg;: , ..... j
A young fellow came here from Louisiana
iwith ten thousand dollars, recently, td'hMr-
ry a girl to whom ho bad long been engog-
lie lost bis nllat n gambling tahieiAnd
jcd to drown himself in tlie river, but was
rescued. He then went to a bptel, ordered
two bottles of wine, laid .his revolver on thii
table, ifnd wroth a note to a Trttiid stating
I'ullns Farters ts-IQ
Msf'.’ l I si
i ilfai^sf wsliltf. ih a all lag a i
m% rathemael vest linn to Maar
’the stn-ets and h-tee, nnd steal from ms
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