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CAUSES OF THE OEUSADES.
Croisade is a French word, used to designate
the expeditions undertaken by the Christian, or
Western nations of Europe during the eleventh
and twelfth centuries to recover Palestine from
the Musselmen. The Holy Land was among the
early conquests of the Saracens; the Calif Omar
having taken Jerusalem A. D. 637. Thus all the
places most sacred in the eyes of Christians passed
under the votaries of a new religion.
One cause of the crusades was to wrest Judea
from the hands of its possessors ; to recover Jeru
salem, the place where the son of God was born;
where he had lived, and performed the most as
tonishing miracles. There, too, was Mount
Calvary, where he had suffered death for the sins
of the world. There, too, His holy sepulchre
was preserved, and a visit to it was regarded as
the most meri’orious service which could be paid
to heaven, and it was eagerly frequented by crowds
of pilgrims from every part of Europe.
The first crusade was undertaken simply to vin
dicate the right of Christian pilgrims to visit the
Holy Sepulchre. On the conquest of Palestine
however, the object of the Crusades changed, or at
least enlarged, and the efforts of the subsequent
Crusaders were directed to the rescue of the whole
land from the Saracens.
Perhaps the impulsive influence of religion upon
the barbaric mind, and the institution of chivalry,
the union of martial and superstitious feelings, and
the influence of fanatical enthusiasm, had some
thing to do with these enterprises. Yet no doubt
the true causes were the insulting and savage
cruelty of the Turks, as well as the destruction of
the Church of the Resurrection by the third
Fatimite Calif,and a desire to undertake a pilgrim
age for the purpose of the expulsion of the infidels
from the Holy Land.
Pope Urban heard the project of Peter (th e
Hermit) for expeling the infidels from Palestine;
also complaints of the Greek Emperor, Alexis,
then espoused the projected enterprise, and recom
mended to all Christian princes at the Carnival of
Clermont the duty of zealously engaging in this
holy war. In the spring of 1096 the first army
’ History informs us that there were seven of
theseexpeditions, or crusades, andthat they exten
aed over nealy two hundred years.
To-day is the anniversary of the Mystic Owls,
and their procession through the streets of Atlanta
this evening will consist of representatives from
the first crusade.
A representation of the Mystic Owl Clown and
Owl Knights This organization was established
in 1878, and made its first display on the 24th of
October, 1879. The subject of that display was
Apollo and the Muses, and consisted of eleven
Represents the Abbasides Present
ing the Keys of Jerusalem to
Charlemagne, thus Assuring the
Safety of Christian Visitors
to the City.
The Calif Haroun Al Rashied, is presenting
the keys, while his Saracen followers Mesrour, and
Giafar are kneeling back of him. The Abbas
sides were Cailiffs who had dominion over Judea.
They were descended from Abbao. the brother of
Mohammed, and among their number were many
rulers of renown.
The float is red, green, scarlet and gold. Head
medallions in gold in relief. Floor of three col
ors. The columns and platform are of variegated
marble, ornamented with gold and green relief.
Charlemagne occupies a chair upholstered in
crimson, finished with bronze.
Michael VII, First Advocate of
the Crusaders, who was Emperor
of Byzantia, addressing Pope
Gregory—The Empress of By
zantia is Seated—Page and Ser
vants standing in the rear.
In the year 1095, Michael VII, as a faint hope
of succour, addressed himself to the Pope, de
clared his reverence for the papal authority, and
mplored its exercise for his aid among the princes
of the West
The float represents a room of beautiful flat
work, done in strong contrast colors in flat relief.
Border, silver and gold ornamentations; colors,
red, yellow and blue. The floor, ornamental tile
work ; the room illuminated in silver and gold.
Peter the Hermit, preaching the
Crusades at the Foot of the Cross.
Peter the Hermit, was a native of Aimens, in
Picardy, France. He was a monk, and deeply
imbued with religious enthusiasm. He made a
pilgrimage to the Holy Land, witnessed the cru
elties perpetrated by the Turks. Armed withau
thority from Pope Urban 11, he traversed the
countries of Europe, and with rude but pathetic
eloquence described the injuries he had received
in his pilgrimage to the holy sepulchre. He
quickly .kindled the ..rdourof persons of all ranks;
business was neglected, and the minds of men of
all degrees were most powerfully affected. His
fanatical austerity, his squalid attire, and his ab
stenious habits, all had an effect. His rude elo
quence of speech and gesture, which flowed from
impassioned sincerity, were all in deep unison
with the religious .sentiments of his hearers; the
appeal to arms rousrd, with irresistible strengeh,
that double excitement of devotion and valour
which animated, as with a blended and insepera
ble principle, the Christian chivalry of Europe.
When he first came from oliscurity, and burst
upon the world as the preacher of a religious war,
Peter was described as emaciated by self inflicted
austerities; small in stature; contemptible in ap
pearance, and clad in miserable garments, from
whence he derived his surname as Hermit.
The float is a stack of shelving rocks, sur
mounted by a rustic cross. A richillumination of
gold and silver.
Council of Clermont, in which a
Crusade was definitely resolved
on, and in which the Pope sug
gested that those who went into
the crusade should assume the
Cross on the shoulder.
The general council of Clermont, in France,
met in November, 1095, and French, Germans,
Italians, and others were present. The Pope sug
gested that those who entered on the enterprise
should assume the cross on the shoulder or breast?
This was agreed to, and the clergyman who took
it from the hands of Urban 11, was the Bishop of
Puy. The Count of Toulose was the first tempo
ral prince who assumed the cross. The cross was
originally red, but different colors were subse
quently adopted ’ y different nations. Every per
son, who assumed the cross was knownas a zroir*,
or cross wearer, whence the name of the enterprise.
The float is carved oak, on it a heavy carved
oak chair. Pope Urban stands in front; back of
him are two Bishops-of P.iy, while around are
representations of England, Scotland, Spain, Ger
many, Italy and France.
Assuming the Cross.
The Crusaders wore a cross most commonly on
their shoulders in gold or silk, or cloth, sewed on
their garments. In the first crusade all were red;
in the third, the French alone preserved that color,
while green crosses were adopted by the Flemings,
white by the English. The cross was inscribed
by some zealots on their skin; a hot iron, or in
delible liquor was applied to perpetuate the mark.
The float is a beautiful tent, exterior view in |
crimson and green, with heavy gold fringe, orna- j
mented borders. Canopy blue, with gold tassels :
and trimmings. The interior of the tent of pink I
tapestry, all richly illuminated. Count of Tou
lose, in the center of the float, on one knee, rest- 1
ing on his drawn sword. In front of him is a
Crusader with the banner of the cross; also a
Templar with his drawn sword. In the rear of
the Count of Toulose are three Princes waiting
to assume the cross.
Following the Sixth Float are twelve mounted
Crusader Knights—Godfrey of Bouillon, and his ’
brothers Eustaee and Baldwin; and his cousin, ■
Baldwin ; Hugh of Vermandoie ; Robert of Nor
mandy ; Robert of Flanders ; Slephen of Chatres;
Raymond of Toulosse ; Baemond, and Tancred.
Farewell to the Crusaders.
A Castle with the inmates bidd.ng farewell to
the Crusaders. On the battlements are gathered
the servants who are left in charge of the Castle.
The Castle is of Italian marble and freestone,
its battlements bordered and richly illuminated
with silver. On one side of the Castle is a carved
shield, sword and a red cross.
The First Opposition to the Cm
saders, and Manual, Emperor of
He was accused by his own subjects of giving
intelligence of their plans to the Turkish Sultan,
and of providing them with treacherous guides.
The Castle is heavy dental relief work, illumi
nated with gold and silver, all in gray stone.
Fluted columns, lily work, dental scarlet illumi
Followers of the Koran.
In the centre of the float is a Mussulman on
horse-back, with Mussulman on foot. The float
represents a desert country.
Altar at St. Peter at Antioch, with
In 1098, when the Crusaders were apparently
on the eve of destruction, they were saved by a
revival of the enthusiastic spirit in which the un -
dertaking originated. Peter Baithelemy, a priest
of Marseilles, presented himself before the Council
of Princes, declared how St. Andrew had shown
ATLANTA, GA., OCTOBER 2O 4 1880.
him in a vision, that the steel head of the ve<y 1
lance which had pierced the side of the crucified j
Redeemer might be found buried beneath the high
ahar in the Church of St. Peter at Antioch; that
thesCount of Toulouse was appointed to bear tlje i
sacred weapon against the infidel enemy, r-xltbatj
M mystic presence in the battle wouje "Xi
the hearts of the unbelievers, and insure a com
plete victory to the people of God. Raymond,
and ten select companions, were appointed to
search for the sacred relic. Two days of solemn
preparation were spent by the army in religious
exercises ; and on the third the princes, attended
by the clergy, went in procession to the church.
Until nightfall, workmen dug under the altar
without discovering the promised instrument of
victory. After dark, Barthelemy himself de
scended into the pit, and after a plausible delay,
exclaimed that he had found it. The steel head
of a lance was brought up, and previous incred
ulity was drowned in superstitious enthusiasm.
The altar is of carved Italian marble in relief—
heavy border, blue drapery hung in festoons;
heavy gold fringe; gold candlesticks; ten wax
candles. The altar is surmounted by a cross,
around which a beautiful halo ingeniously re
Godfrey de Bouillon, First Chris
tian King of Jerusalem on
Among all the princely champions of the Cross,
by his prowess and piety, Godfrey was proclaimed
the most deserving to receive the crown of Jeru
salem. In 1099, he was unanimously elected
King of Jerusalem.
His kingdom at first comprised little more than
the mere city of Jerusalem, but was afterwards
extended until it included the whole of Palestine.
He declined the title of King, accepting only that
of ‘‘Defender of the Tomb of Christ.” His elec
tion dated the foundation of the Latin Kingdonj I
of Jerusalem, and the city, wrested as it had beeq
from the hands of Mohammed, was converted ini <3
the capital of a Christian State.
; 1 Early in fiis XtW’L/ w, Jeri^ertr' 1
founded the two famous orders of the Knfgnts
■ Hospitallers of St. John, and the Knights Ttmp-
The float represents a lawn with the plants
and shrubbery that are natural to Jerusalem, and
in the center of it Godfrey de Bouillon on horse-
I back, all richly illuminated.
The Fate of the Mussulman.
The executioner stands by the heading block
with an ax in his hand, while near the block is the
Mussulman’s headless body, and near it the
severed head, with the blood dripping from it.
The float is a heavy block, drapery, hung in
fes’oons, with heavy fringe, while on the border
are the cross bones and skull.
In the procession, and in the rear of each float,
making eleven in all, arc transparences, each one
with an illuminated owl.
Rdph TPpZdo Emerson’s Last Lecture.
Memory is the prime faculty of the mind,
without which the others cannot work. It gives
solidity to knowledge. All facts in the chart
of the mind are property at interest. The past
will not sleep. Memory is acutely and crea
tively alive. It does not lie, cannot be cor
rupted. Memory is the sense of conscience, is
the police of the universe. It is not a pocket
diary, but a living instructor. It is a scrip
ture written day by day from the birth of man.
It is provided with perfect apparatus for its
work. No book is like it, or could be more
perfect. It is called by the schoolmen of the
middle a'<es the evening, as distinguished from
the morning knowledge. People are often re
proached for living in the memory. It plays
a great-part in settling the intellectual rank
of men. Sometimes it has a personality of its
own. It has the bull-dog bite; you have to
cut off the head to loosen the teeth. Defective
memory is not always due to want of genius.
Some men can think one moment as well as
another. If they don’t remember the word,
they can invent one. Sir Isaac Newton could
not remember about his own discoveries, but if
questioned, could give the reasons for them on
the spot. We live later in life by memory.
The minds of most men are nothing but a
pocket diary, but some minds hold science,
others thought, others the history of the world.
■When I talk with a genealogist, I seem to sit
with a corpse. The memory of what has turn
ed out badly is always strong; as Johnson says,
I never forget the man that kicked me last.
In the higher life each man’s memory is in the
line of his action. We like longevity, and we
like a great memory, but what we wish to
keep we must once thoroughly possess. We
forget rapidly what should be forgotten. The
best security of memory is to understand the
subject of thought. Memory is made up of
older memories, and there was nothing exist
ing older than the oldest memories.
The wine crop of California is rapidly in
creasing, and will amount to over 12,000,000
gallons. The raisin crop will be five per cent,
larger than last year.
-i <- <?Xsj£!>
THE MYSTIC OWL BALL.
The following named gentlemen have been
I selected, and will serve as the Committea at
lour ball Wednesday evening next:
k /* z julius L. Brown, Chairman.
Gov. A. H. Colquitt, Henry Hillyer,
Senator Jos. E. Brown, Louis Gholstin,
■-Senator Benj. H. Hill, W. 11. Patterson,
Gen. J no. B. Gordon, J. W. English,
Hbn. Wm. B. Woods, Robt. J. Lowry,
Hon. John Erskine, P. H. Snook,
Hon. George Hillyer.
Grant Wilkins, Chairman,
Gen. Wm. Macßae, I Charles E. Harmon,
Hon. W. L. Calhoun, J. P. Stevens,
Hon.O.P.Fitzsimmons | J. W. Johnson,
Hon. Dan’l S. Printup, B. H. Hill, Jr.,
Benj. F. Wylie, J. F. Burke,
Amos Fox, C. T. Watson,
H. I. Kimball.
By order of the Great White Owl himself.
Screech Owl, Adj’t.
We call attention to the law card of Julius
L. Brown in this issue. We have known Mr.
Brown for years. He is prompt and reliable
lin the discharge of every duty. All business
entrusted to him will be ably attended to, and
will receive prompt attention.
! THE MYBHQ OWL BALL.
! Ladies who have received invitations to at
tend the Owl ball, on Wednesday evening,
October 20th, are expected and earnestly re
quested to comply with the rules, ami to ap
pear in full evening dress. No lady who wears
a bonnet will be permitted under any circum
stances to enter the hall, no matter who her es
cort is, or whether she has an invitation or not.
The Owl ball is not a minstrel performance or
a theatrical entertainment. No tickets are sold
to it. They are given as courtesies to those
who receive them.
Gentlemen, too, are expected to appear in
full dress. Unless gentlemen and ladies com
ply with this rule, we are requested to say,
that they are neither expected nor wanted at
“ BABY MINE.”
The baby carriage made its appearance yes
terday for the season of 1879. It was occupied
by the usual baby, and it was propelled by
the woman who looks into all the store win
dows as she goes along. A reporter who fol
lowed the carriage for an hour found that it
collided with five women, ten men, six curb
blocks, four boxes and a street car, and
every collision only made the woman more
determined than ever to occupy two-thirds of
the sidewalk if it took all summer. She suc
ceeded. They all succeed. A woman push
ing a baby carriage in front of her on the
sidewalk is as dangerous as seven roller-skaters
and four velocipede riders combined. She
can’t kill a full-grown man quite as promptly
as a runaway team, but she can knock his
shins to pieces, tumble him over, upset all his
good resolutions and leave him flint-hearted
and evil-minded. You can’t dodge a baby cab.
Your only safe way is to make a jump from
the curbstone or climb a ladder. They go on
wheels. They are supposed to be a conven
ience which no respectable baby can do with
out. No matter who first got the idqa that
jolting a baby around town, bobbing him over
curbstones and bouncing him over crosswalks
would sweeten his disposition—the idea is cor
rect. Put a man in a vehicle of the same sort
and his back would be broken in an hour, but
babies have no backs. They are simply great
big hunks of sweetness. The only reason why
all the Confederate soldiers in the late war
were not arified with baby carriages was be
cause the factories could not supply them.
They would have ended the war in one year.
The woman with the baby carriage needs no
advise. She knows enough to head the vehi
cle toward every crowd she can see. The
thicker the crowd the more business she has
there. It is her duty to run to all the fires
with it, to select the busiest crosswalks, and to
get in front of all runaway teams, and she per
fectly understands it. If there is any country
on earth where these vehicles are not in use,
it is no country to live in.
The introduction of white grapes, says
a writer in C< dintin'Jltwal World, has
proven a great blow to grape-loving
birds, for I Lave never yet observe 4 oue
that was smart enough to discover that
• white fifiape was uood lor eating.
SUPPORTING THE GUNS.
HOW A FIELD BATTERY COMES INTO ACTION.
Did you ever see a battery take position ?
It hasn’t the thrill of a cavalry charge, nor the
grimness of a line of bayonets moving slowly and
determinedly on, but there is a peculiar excitement
about it that makes old veterans rise in their saddle,
We have been fighting at the edge ot the woods.
Every cartridge box has been emptied once and
more, and a fourth of the brigade has melted away
in dead, and wounded, and missing. Not a cheer
is heard in the whole brigade. We know that we
are being driven foot by foot, and that when we
break back once more the line will go to pieces
and the enemy will pour through the gap.
Here comes help!
Down the crowded hallway gallop l a battery,
withdrawn from some other position tu save ours.
The field fence is scattered while you could count
thirty, and the guns rush for the hills behind us.
Six horses to a piece—three riders to a gun. Over
dry ditches where a farmer would not drive a
wagon, through clumps of bushes, over logs a foot
thick, every horse on the gallop, every rider lash
ing his team and yelling—the sight behind us
makes us forget the foe in front. The guns jump
two ieet high as the heavy wheels strike rock ot
log, but not a horse slackens his pace, not a can
noneer loses his seat Six guns, six caissons,
sixty horses, eighty men race for the brow of the
hill as if he who reached it first would be knighted.
A moment ago the battery was a confused mob.
We look again, and the six guns are in position,
the detached horses hurrying away, the amunition
chests ope;>, and along our line runs the command,
“Give them one more volley and fall back to sup
port the guns !” We have scarcely obeyed when
boom ! boom ! boom ! opens the battery, and jets
of fire jump down and scorch the green trees un
der which we fought and despaired.
The shattered old brigade has a chance to
breathe for the first time in three hours as we form
a line of battle behind the guns and lie down.
What grim, cool fellows these cannoneers are!
Every man is a perfect machine. Bullets plash
dust in their faces, but they do not wince. Bullets
sing over and around them, but they do not dodge.
There g.oes one to the earth, shot through the head
as he spongeo^iSmachinery Jqsesjust
one beat—misses just one cog in the’
then works away again tw. before.
Ewry gun is using short fuse shelf. The
ground shakes and trembles—the roar shuts out
all sounds from a battle line three miles long, and
the shells go shrieking into the sw mp to cut trees
short off—to mow great gaps in the bushes—to
hunt out and shatter and mangle men until their
corpses cannot be recognized as human. You
would think a tornado was howling through the
forest, followed by billows of fire, and yet men
lived through it—aye ! press forward to capture
the battery! We can hear their shouts as they
form for a rush.
Now the shells are changed for grape and can
ister. and the guns are served so fast that all re
ports blend into one mighty roar. The shriek of
a shell is the wickedest sound of war, but nothing
makes the flesh crawl like the demoniac singing,
purring, whistling grapeshot and the serpentlike
hiss of canister. Men’s leg;? and arm* are not
shot through, but torn off. Heads are torn Corn
bodies, and bodies cut in two A round shot or
shell takes two men out of the ranks as it crashes
through. Grape and canister mow a swath and
! pile the dead on top each other.
Through the smoke we see a swarm of men
It is not a battle-line, but a mob of men desperate
enough to bathe their bayonets in the flame of the
gun-. The guns leap from the ground almost as
they are depressed on the f e, and shrieks and
screams and shouts blend into one awful and
steady cry. Twenty men out on the battery are
down, and the firing is interrupted. The foe ac
cept i it as a sign of wavei ing and come i ushing on.
They are not ten feet away when the guns give
them a last shot. That discharge picks living men
off their feet and throws them into the swamp, a
blackened, bloody mass.
Up now, as the enemy are among the guns’
There is a silence of ten seconds, and then the
: Hash and roar of more than three thousand muskets,
I and a rush forward with bayonets. For what?
I Neither on the right nor left nor in front ot us is a
| living'foe! There are corpses around us which
have been struck by three, four and even six bul
lets, and nowhere on this acre of ground is a
wounded man! The wheeb of the guns cannot
move until the blockade of dead is removed. Men
cannot pass from caisson to gun without climbing
over winrows of dead. Every gun and wheel is
smeired with blood—every foot of grass has its
Historians write of the glory of war. Burial
parlies saw murder where historians saw glory.—
| Detroit Free Press
Mr. W. 11. Selden, for many years the popular
proprietor of the II I. Kimball House, in this
city, has sold his interest and will open the
Metropolitan Hotel,” in Washington, D. C.,
where he will be glad to welcome bis many friends
and do all in his power to make their stay at iRe
capital pleasant and comfortable
Hereafter the Metropolitan will be known as
i “Southern Headquarters.” It being directly
across Pennsylvania avenue from the Southern
! Dejxjt, parties will save omnibus fees, as the walk
is less than an ordinary square.
—ls you visit Florida this winter, see that your
tickets read via Atlanta, Ga.