ENIGMA No. 71.
I am composed of 16 letters :
My 2, 11, 8. 4,3, 10, 12, 5,2, is an
Island in the Pacific Ocean.
My 1,2, 13, 3, 10, 8, is a town in
My 4,2, 3,6, is a river m Europe.
My 9, 10, 12, 4, 11, 12, is a town
in an island in the Mediterranean.
My 8,2, 15, 9,10, 11, 12, is a town
in South America.
My 4, 11, 2,1, is a town in Ireland.
My 12,14, 8,8, 10, is a town in Eu
My whole is one of the most cele
brated Catholic Clergymen in America.
Answer next week.
Columbus, Ga., 1808.'
I am composed of 22 letters :
My 1,17, 15, 8, 22, is what .he was.
My 3, 21, 22, 6,9, is the name of a
My 8, 10, 1,8, 18, 5,8, is the name
of a city.
My 16, 12, 8, is a Chinese plant.
My 1,2, 21,15, is a flower.
My 10, 14, 17, 4,5, is the name ot a
My 13, 20, 7,12, is a number.
My 11, 17,19, is au implement used
My 3,8, 14, 21, is a degree of nobility.
My 2,7, 13, is a temporary lodging.
My whole was the name of one of dear
old Georgia’s adopted sons, and in whose
defence he willingly laid dowm his life.
Answer next week.
Sharon, Ga ., 1868.
ENIGMA —No. 73.
I am composed of 17 letters.
My 10, 11, 1,14, 8, 17, is the name
given to a club to which Addison and
My 2,5, 4,7, 16, 15, 12, is a town m
Virginia and surname of a Southern
My 3, is a vowel.
My 4,8, 9, 13, is one of the Heathen
My 7,5, 9, 11, 6, is a city iu Europe.
My whole was known as the “Roman”
of Fort Warren in the winter of 1861
and 1862. Rebel '
Answer next week.
Dear Banner : I send you, below, a
icurosity, which, perhaps, you have not,
.seen. Take the names of Lincoln and
Hamlin thus :
4 5 6 | 4 5j,G 7
LIN| C O L N
roii * 3
H A M I L IN
Cut off the three first letters and the
names repeat themselves.
Yours, truly, H
Answers by Correspondents. -N. E.
8., Augusta, Ga., to Nos. 66, 07,aud 68;
U. A. P., Augusta, Ga., to Nos. 65, 66,
67, and 68 ; U. A. P. also sends us the
following very pretty answer to oui
Poetical Charade in No. 30 :
Answer to Charade.
Away from mortal keu,
Deep in the forest glen,
Far from the haunts of men —
The slightest noise that’s heard,
The lowest note of a bird,
The softest whisper or word.
The Ladies —how dare I tell V
Tradition proves so well—
They seldom, if ever, excel
And when we break Lifes’ bond,
And leave the loved and fond,
We pass from earth—but all beyond
U. A. P.
Augusta, Ga., Oct. 13th, ISGB.
u. A. P. is one of our most valued con
tributors to this Department, and has al
ways a welcome to a place in the Banner.
Jack A. Napes, Charleston, S. C., to Nos.
65, 66,67, and 68; to the last the fol
lowing poetical answer:
Oh ! degenerate age ! Must our great hero
Be associated with the tyrant Nero!
Must thou, too, share our bitter wrongs,
And class thy sword with a Negro’s Tongs.
Pity the benefit of some Ash and Ginger,
Could not be given this devil singer,
And ho be taught his War to bring on
Other than the name of good old Washington.
Jack A. Napes.
D. C., Mobile, Ala., to Enigma No. 68.
Answers to Last Week’s Enigmas,
Etc.— To Poetical Charade —Mus.ic.
To Enigma No. 68—Cardinal Woolsey
—Carlow—Do wen —Clare —Nile—Red
—W ren—London—Decay—Y ard.
To Enigma No. 69—Gen. John 11.
To Enigma No. 70. — “A Cornelia,
who might well be proud of her jewels”—
[Prepared for the Banner of the South by Uncle Buddy.]
Condensation, or Compression. —By
compression, is meant the act of bringing
parts nearer together, as a sponge is
compressed by being squeezed in the
hand. The reduction of matter into a
smaller compass by an external or me
chanical force, is called compression.
The reduction of matter into a smaller
compass, by some internal action, (as by
the escape of caloric, is called condensa
Heat can be evolved from common
air merely by compression. If a piece of
tinder be placed at the bottom of a glass
tube, and the air in the tube compressed
by a piston, the tinder will oatchfire. In
a commou syringe, or squirt, the rod
(which holds the sucker, as it is forced up
and down,) is called the piston. The
tinder will catch fire, because the aiv is
compressed; and, its latent heat being
liberated, sets fire to the tinder at the
bottom of the tube.
When an air-gun is discharged in the
dark, the discharge is accompanied by a
slight flash, because the air is very rapidly
condensed, and its latent heat developed
in a flash of light. If a glass lens be
fixed on the copper ball, where the air of
the gun is condensed, a flash of light may
be distinctly discerned at the stroke of the
The hole made by a shot, or cannon
ball, in a wall of timber, looks as if it
were burnt, because the shot, or cannon
ball, was so heated by the discharge, as
actually to scorch the material into which
it penetrated. Shot and cannon-balls
are heated by being discharged from a
gun, or cannon, because the air is so
rapidly condensed when the discharge is
made, that sufficient latent heat is de
veloped to make the shot or balls hot.
NON-METALLIC ELEM K NTS.
By uon-metaliic elements, is meant
those elementary bodies which do not
belong to the class of metals. Elementa
ry bodies tire those which have never
been decomposed ; that is, do not appear
to be composed of any compound, but are
pure substances in themselves. ’ At
present, there are reckoned fifteen non
metallic elementary substances, and forty
seven which belong to the class of
Oxygen and Oxides. — The difference
between oxygen and oxide is that oxygen
is a gas, and an oxide is a compound
formed by the union of oxygen with other
Oxygen. —Oxygen is a gaseous body,
which is found largely diffused through
out all Nature, being an important ele
ment of air and water, rocks, earth, and
minerals, Ac. The name gas is given to
any fluid, capable of existing in an aeri
form state, under ordinary atmospheric
pressure and temperature. Oxygen was
discovered, in 1776, by Scheele, in
Sweden, and Dr. Priestly, in England,
independent of each other. They de
scribed it under different names. The
name oxygen was given to it by La
voisier, and is derived from two Greek
words — oxus, an acid, and gennao, I
produce. This name was given to it,
because it was then thought to be the sole
acidifying principle. Modern discoveries
have rectified this error, by proving the
existence of acids, in the composition of
which there is no oxygen.
Oxygen is never found in a liquid or
solid state ; when pure, it. is known ouly
in the gaseous state ; all efforts to reduce
it to a liquid or solid condition, by cold or
pressure have completely failed. When
pure, it is colorless, tasteless, and inodor
ous. Its use in the atmosphere is that
it sustains animal life and supports com
bustion, Oxygen gas forms one-fifth of
the bulk of our atmosphere.
\Ye feel braced and light-hearted on a
fine Spring or frosty morning. Ist. Be
cause there is more oxygen in the air on
a fine Spring or frosty morning than
there is on a wet day; and, 2d. Because
a brisk and frosty air has a tendency to
brace the nervous system.
Oxygen is necessary to the growth of
plants ; for, in the process of germina
tion, oxygen is consumed. Ihe larger
the quantity of oxygen that surrounds a
germinating seed, the quicker will be its
growth. By saying that the oxygen of
th o a i r “supports combustion,” wc mean
that the oxygen of the air makes fuel
burn. It does this, by decomposing the
heat into hydrogen and carbon; and,
these elements, combining with the
• lAHliffi ©I ftIS 1010ft®.
oxygen of the air, produoe combustion,
and sustain animal and vegetable life.
By saying that oxygen “sustains life, is
meant that, if a person oould. not inhale
oxygen, he would die. The good that
the inspiration of oxygen does, is this :
Ist. It gives vitality to the blood ; and,
2d, it is the cause of animal heat. When
ever oxygen combines very rapidly with
other elementary bodies, light and heat
Oxides. —Oxides are the compounds
formed by the union of oxygen and other
bodies, thus bearing the general name of
Rust is the oxidation of iron in moist
air. Iron rusts, because water is decom
posed when it comes in contact with the
surface of iron ; and the oxygen of the
water, combining with iron, produces an
oxide, which is generally called rust.
Water is composed of oxygen. and
hydrogen, in the following proportions :
8 pounds of oxygen and 1 pound of hydro
gen =9 pounds of water.
Air rusts iron, because the oxygen of
the air combines with the surface of the
metal, and produces oxide of iron, which
is generally called “rust.”
An oxide of iron, copper, etc., is oxygen
in combination with iron, copper, etc.
Iron undergoes no change in dry air.
Hot iron will scale and peal off, when
struck with a hammer, because the
oxygen of the air very readily unites with
the surface of the hot iron, and forms a
metallic oxide, (or rust,) which scales
off when struck with a hammer.
Stoves and fire-irons becomes rusty in
rooms which are not occupied, because
the air is damp ; and moist air oxidizes
iron and steel. To oxidize is “to rust.”
It is more difficult to keep stoves and
fire-irons bright in Autumn and Winter,
because, in those seasons, the air contains
more moisture : and, because the capacity
of the air for holding water is constantly
on the decrease, after the Sumrnbr is
over ; in consequence of which, vapor is
deposited on everything with which the
air comes in contact.
Greasing iron prevents its becoming
rusty, because grease prevents- the
humidity of the air from coming in con
tact with the surface of the iron. Paint
ing iron will also prevent it from rusting,
because paint prevents the moist air from
coming in contact with the iron.
A Quaker’s Letter to His Watch
maker. — I herewith send thee my pocket
clock, which standeth in need of thy
friendly correction. The last time he
was at thy friendly school, he was in no
way reformed, nor in the least benefitted
thereby; for I perceive by the index of
his mind that he is a liar, and the truth is
not in him; that his pulse is sometimes
slow, which betokeneth not an even tem
per; at other times, it waxeth sluggish,
notwithstanding, 1 frequently urged him;
when he should bo on his duty, as thou
knoweth his usual hand denoteth, I find
him slumbering, or, as the vanity of
human reason phrases it, I catch him nap
ping. Examine him, therefore, and
prove him, I beseech thee, thoroughly,
that thou mayest, being well acquainted
with his inward frame and disposition,
draw him from the error of his way, and
show him the path wherein he should go.
It grieves me to think, aud when I pon
der therein, I am verily of the opinion
that his body is foul, and the whole mass
is corrupted. Oleanse him, therefore,
with thy charming physic, from all pollu
tion, that ho may vibrato, and circulate
according to the truth. I will place him
for a few days under thy care, and pay
his board as thou requirest. I entreat
thee, friend John, to demean thyself on
this occasion with judgment, according
to the gift which is in thee, and prove
t.hy’sclf a workman; and when thou iay
est thy correcting hand upon him, let it
be without passion, lest thou shouldst drive
him to destruction. Do thou regulate
his motion, for a time to come, by the
motion of light that ruleth the day; and
when thou findeth him converted % from
the error of his ways, and more conform
able to the above mentioned rules, then
do thou send him home with a just bill
of charges drawn out in the spirit of
moderation, and it shall be sent to thee
in the root of all evil.
Very Singular Advertisement.—
The following singular advertisement ap
peared in one of the London papers: A
lady of retiring habits, whose husband is
dead, wishes to dispose of a small, but
muscular female child, six mouths old; a
Captain of a Ship, or au elderly gentle
man going abroad, would be handsomely
negotiated with. The child is fair, and
lof an engaging disposition, and has been
well christened in a Protestant Church.
Satisfactory reasons will be given by the
mother, having no further use for it. By
A little boy two years and a half old,
was one day asked:
“ Whose child arc you?”
‘ “ I'm God’s child,” said he.
Home Duties. —Only let a woman be
sure she is precious to her husband not
useful, not convenient simply, but lovely
and beloved ; let her bo recipient of his
polite and hearty attentions; let her feel
that her care and love are noticed, are
appreciated, and returned; let her opinion
be asked, her approval sought, and her
judgment respected, in matters of which
she is cognizant; in short, let her only be
loved, honored, and cherished in fulfill
ment of the marriage vow—and she will
be to her husband, children, and society,
a well-spring of pleasure. She will bear
pain, and toil, and anxiety ; for her hus
band’s love is to her a tower and a for
tress. Shielded and sheltered therein,
adversity will have lost its sting. She
may suffer, but sympathy will dull the
edge of sorrow. A house w r ith love in it
—and by love, I mean love expressed in
words, and looks, and deeds (for I have
not one spark of faith in love that never
crops out —is to a house without love as a
person to a machine ; one is life, and the
other is mechanism. The unloved woman
may have bread just as light, a house
just as tidy, as the other; but the latter
has a spring of beauty about her, a joy
ousness, au aggressive, penetrating, per
vading brightness, to which the former is
a stranger. The deep happiness in her
heart shines out in her face. She
gleams over it. It is fair, and graceful,
and warm, and welcoming with her
presence ; she is full of devices, and plots,
and sweet surprises, for her husband and
family. She has never done with the
romance and poetry of life. She herself
is a lyric poem, setting herself to all
pure and gracious melodies. Humble
household ways and duties have for her el
golden significance The prize makes
her calling high, and the end sanctifies
the means. “ Love is Heaven, and
Heaven is love.”— The Mother's Journal.
Queer Fish. —The Tribune's Alaska
correspondent gives an account of a fish,
that is put to queer uses :
“ I must not omit the existence, and
peculiarities of another fish—one not
mentioned in the “books”—which is
found in great numbers in the coast
rivers, from the Nass to the Stickeen.
It appears annually about the first week
in May, and Mr. Ausley, the pilot of the
John L. Stephens, says that on some days
he has known it difficult to row a boat
across the mouth of the Nass River, on
account of the dense mass of these fish in
the water. Sometimes an adverse tide
or heavy wind lodges tons of them upon
tin? shore. The Indians know of their
arrival the flight of the birds north
ward. They seldom continue over
fifteen days, and during this time, the
natives from Fort Simpson, and all the
adjacent regions hasten to “the. feast of
fat tilings.” This fish is si?c to eight
inches long, in form resembles the smelt,
has a shining, and almost transparent
appearance, and of all the finny tribes is
the most fat. Its fat has not the oily,
rancid taste of other fish, but has the
sweet taste of fresh lard. The Indians
store great quantities of it, and if well
cared for, it remains sweet for months.
When they are dried, the Indians often
turn them to a novel and practical ac
count —burn them in place of candles.
They give a clear, brilliant light, and
are not liable to be blown out by the wind.
Mr. Mansou, the Superintendent at Fort
Simpson, says that the tail should be
lighted instead of the head, and that each
fish will last about fifteen minutes. In
a dark night, the men who took natives
for their guides, used to reckon a mile of
travel for every five fish burned.”
“ What noise is that ? ” said Mrs Part
ington to Ike, as that hopeful was looking
through the window at a crowd collected
one evening, in front of hismother’e hum
ble dwelling “They are giving three
cheers to the new married folks across
the way,” was the answer. “Only three
cheers! ” said the widpw, as her mind
darted back to the opening of her own
married life; “only three cheers! It
seetns to me they make a great fuss
about such a little thing. Why, sake’s
alive, I had half a dozen when I was
married to your father, Isaac, and he
bought six more at auction, when we
went to house-keeping: I don’t see how
they can get along with only three; but
it is always well to begin in a small way.”
Ike gave a most unfilial snicker, but the
widow was too deeply absorbed in the
memory of other days, to heed the un
gracious act of her only son.
Fred. Douglas said at the Equal Rights
Convention, that the only luxury he en
joyed was a whole seat in a car. Even
that he did not have now. The other
night he was riding, muffled up in his
blanket, when somebody asked him for
half his seat. He stuck out his hand,
and replied : “ I’m a Nigger.” “I don’t
care who you are. I want a seat,” was
TO and gtimot.
It is said that as the twig is bent, tin
tree’s inclined. Some of the youn
ladies about town will grow queerly, if
the Grecian style prevails very long.
Women have the advantage of men
each moves in her own circle. To ascer
tain the point, consult the hoop skirt
An enterprising quack has contrived to
extract from sausages, a powerful tonic
which he soys contains the whole strength
of the original bark. He calls it “Sul
phate of canine.”
When you see a young man and wo
man walking down the street, leaning
against each other like a pair of badly
matched oxen, it is a pretty good sign
that they are bent on consolidation.
“lam Ifraid you have settled melan
choly,” said a Landlady to a cadaverous
lodger. “No, madam,” he replied, ‘tuv
melancholy won’t settle; like your coffee,
it has too much grounds.”
It is said that a man who had accus
tomed himself to seize a pen whenever
his wife was putting on her shawl and
bonnet for a walk, found, before he sus
pected such a result, that he had written
a tolerable book.
I once knew a little girl, not quite so
old, who, if any one asked what she was
“ I’m papa’s ’ittle daughter— mamma’s
’ittle daughter, too—Dod’s ’ittle dirl—
aud Desus’s ’ittle lain’.”
Slender party (who is not very com
“ These ’busses ought to charge by
Stout party (sharply:) “Ah, if they
did, they would never stop to pick you
A witness in Court who had been cau
tioned to give a precise answer to ever;
question, and not to talk about what he
might think the question meant, was in
terrogated as follows:
“You drive a wagon ? ”
“ No, sir, I do not.”
“ Why,, man, did you not tell my learn
ed friend so this moment ? ”
“ No, sir.”
“ I put it to you, sir, on your oath, do
you not drive a wagon ? ”
“ No, sir.”
“What is your occupation, then?”
“ I drive a horse, sir! ”
“ I have come for my umbrella,” sa;
a lender of one of these articles, on
rainy day, to his friend. “Can’t h!j
that,” exclaimed the borrower. Don :
you see that I am going out with it ?'
“Well, yes,” replied the lender, aston
ished at such outrageous impudence, “yes
but—but—but, what am I to do :
“Do,” replied the other, as he threw .
the top, and walked off, “do as I did—
Among the most popular songs in Lon
don, and according to advertisements in
the Time they arc “rapturously en
cored,” “vociferously applauded,” an
“re-demanded three times nightly,” a;
compositions with the following title?
“Colee Eelee-Oh; - ’ “Pip-Pipsy-Wips
We;” “Muffin, Tea, and Crumpet.
“She gives me Lumbago;” “The bells „
a ringing for Sarah;” “Couldn’t he!;
Screaming;” and “The Beautiful Pin
During the war of 1814, between Gn •
Britain, and the United States, a reside’.:
of Philadelphia, who took great inten:-
in its progress, was in the habit of visitin
the stage office every day, in search *
news. One day he was at hand when
the mail from New York arrived, nn.
called out to the driver : “Whereabout
Gen. Wilkinson now ? ” “He is in sic
qvo, v answered one of the passeng
putting his head out of the windov.
“How far is that from Quebec 1 " v.
the next question.
She did not smoke, she did not driuk
Beer, porter, ale, or ram;
But, oh! she had ouo serious fault—
That lovely girl chewed gum !
Her mouth was busy all the time,
And never did she come
To Church, or any public place,
Without her chewing gum!
The force of habit’s strong in death;
And. when her time shall come,
Her epitaph expect to see—
“ She died of ehwwiug gum.”
At Dieppe, in France, the fl>lk\
notice has been issued by the p<
“The bathing police are requested, v
a lady is in danger of drowning, to -
her by the dress, and not by the
which, oftentimes remains in the g' l '
Newfoundland dogs will govern ti.
THE PAID BILL.
Oh, fling not that receipt away,
Given by one who trusted thee.
Mistakes will happen every day,
However honest folks may b< ,
And sad it is, love, twice to po •
So cast not that receipt away.
Ali, yes; if e’er in future hour.-’
When we, this bill have ah *■ ’ ■■■' "
They send it in again—ye P°' Vl ' : ; ; ,
And swear that we have pan -
How sweet to know, on such a <-y.
We’ve never cast receipts awaj •