The federal union. (Milledgeville, Ga.) 1830-1861, September 20, 1832, Image 2

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POLii’IFAL. dnswers received by the Richmond Committee of Correspondence on the subject of JYullijication. Augusta, 4th September, 18-32. Gentlemen,—In consequence of my absence Ironi the city during the last six iveeks, I did not receive your communication of the 20th ult. until to-day. In reply to your request “that I will oblige my fellow citizens of Richmond by communicating through von my sentiments in regard to Nullifica tion, 55 I take great pleasure in saying to them, and to you, that lam decidedly opposed to that doc trine. 1 believe it to he neither a peaceable nor- ooastitutional remedy fir the grievances of which we so justly complain: in fact, 1 believe it to be no remedy at all. I view it as litlse and deceptive in theory, St revolutionary in practice. And although 1 am, and always have been, opposed to any and every tariff, for protection, and will use all consti tutional means to put it down; yet the evils arising jiom the present protective system, are not in my opinion, so great, as to authorize or justify the a- d opt ion of Nullification, or any oilier measure, winch will tend to disturb the peace and harmony of this great republic, or endanger the Union o! these States. | I am proud of the title of “Citizen of the United States.”—The great Apostle of the Gentiles found protection under the name of “Roman;” declaring to the Chief Captain that he was “born free.” 1, too, was “born free,” and enjoy honor and protec tion under the “Star spangled banner.” I am un willing to blot out from this glorious standard of my native laud on j single star. Let them ail re main. Their united light sheds a lustre over our country and our liberty, which swells with joy eve ry patriot bosom. Willi sentiments of great respect, I am your most obedient servant, WILLIAM SCI!LEV. .Messrs. Cu.n.ning, lung and Slaughter. Washington, (Wilkes) August C, 1S32. Ger.Hcm n,—The citizens of Richmond having exercised the truly democratic right of calling up on candidates for their suffrages, to declare their sentiments in regard to Nullification, I will express mine bv adopting the words of one of their resolu tions. 1 believe" the doctrine false in theory,” and think, “ that in practice, it would prove most dis astrous-to our country.” Such was my c inclusion after having attentively read and considered the exposition of the \ ice President and all that has been written in favor of Nullification by other gentlemen in Sotub-Carolina, in connection with the Virigia auJ Kentucky resolutions of 1793—the report of Mr. Madison in !893—the writings of Mr. Jefferson and such state papers and decisions.of our Courts, which have any hearing upon the subject. It lias been invaria bly expressed, as it will continue to he, in strong forms, upon all proper occasions, and f will not. now ibrhear from declaring it to be my belief, that ii the patriots and sages who are dead, and whose wri tings have been cited to establish the correctness of the doctrine of nullification, were alive, that they would disclaim, as Mr. Madison has done, that in terpretation of their language, which has been made to aid the introduction into our system of government, of a novel state action, as a redress l">r unconstitutional legislation, which might result either in the dissolution of the Union, or in the dis comfiture of a sovereign state, in its pursuit of con stitutional rights, by unconstifutionai means. I am gentlemen, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JA.tlEb -vl. \v A v NE. A/eesrs. Gumming, King and Slaughter. C wixcsviLLK, September !; 1SJ2. Gentlemen: Your communication dated 20th ult. addressed to me in pursuance of a Resolution adon- V„nl at a meeting of the citizens of Richmond Coun ty, on the 18th of August last, requesting me to ex press to them, through you, my “'sentiments in regard to Nullification,” is now before me. I do not hesitate to comply with the request. I have no desire, neither would it be justifiable in me, to conceal my political opinions. The deep and per vading interest felt throughout the country, in regard to our grievances under tii? protective tariff system, and the firm determination of the people of ibis section of our Union, never, quietly, to submit fo a measure so unequal & so unjust in its opera tions, have induced me to devote to the considera tion of these subjects more than ordinary attention. I have endeavoured to deliberate calmly, dispas sionately and maturely, upon them—that I might ire enabled to determine honestly, and satisfactori ly, for myself", what would he the best and most proper course to he pursued under present exigen cies. That the burdens of the General Govern ment are not equitably apportioned, seems to me 'o admit of no doubt. The present Tariff Law, e mtcmplating the protection of manufactures, is n ot founded in a spirit of constitutional justice, and operates unequally £c oppressively upon the South. Under this slate of things these questions present themselves: What shall be done? To what means shall we resort for the purpose of freeing ourselves from this system of injustice and oppression ? Are our grievances so intolerable, our liberties so much infringed, and that constitution which is the basis of our free system of government, so grossly, so dangerously, and so palpably violated A disregard ed, as to demand a resort to violent and forcible means to obtain redress, that might, and in all probability would, result in a dissolution of this Union ? This last is, to me, a question of very grave and solemn import. It should be maturely considered, and every matter having the least con nexion with it should be deliberately weighed and revolveed in the mind of every free man before he ventures a reply. A misstep once taken, from the pride of opinion, common to men, is seldom retra ced. I would vet forbear a resort to any remedy that might tend to a dissolution of the Union, and a consequent destruction of this government. If I d•> not greatly misapprehend the doctrine of Nulli fication, it will, if enforced, produce this result. I ranuot view it as either a peaceful, or constitution al remedy, and that the enforcement of it “ would prove most disastrous to the country.” I deem it unnecessary, and presume that it is not expected, tor me to give at length the reasons that have op erated in bringing mv mind to this conclusion. At ihe same time that I believe this doctrine danger ous, and that if acted upon, it would prove destruc tive to the Union and the best interests of the coun try, I know, that among its advocates are ranked many, very many, higlnniuded and honorable men, whose attachment to the constitution and the government, is pure and unfeigned. But why need I name its advocates? it is not against them, but their doctrines that I war. I be ieve that a ^tate has as much right, as an individu il, to inves tigate for herself' the constitutionality of a law of CongreS; and to express her opinion accordingly. But I do not believe that a single State has a right, consequent upon her declaration of her unconsti- tutionality of a law passed by Congress, agreeably to the forms of the constitution, forcibly to resist the, execution of, and to refuse obedience to that law. 1 have adopted the view taken of this sub ject, by Mr. Madison, in his report to the Legisla ture ol Virginia, upon the Resolutions passed by t he Geneial Assembly of tiiat State, on the 21si December 1707: That “the declarations in such cases, are expressions of opinion unaccompanied wifh any other effect than what they may produce on opinion by exciting reflection.” “Where can there be the impropriety of communicating the dec laration to other States and inviting their concur rence in a like declaration.” It is thus the minds of the people throughout the Union may be aroused to a kuowldge of a constitutional infraction, aud a sense of their danger; thus a change produced in public opinion, and then by the intervention of the control of the people, and the State Legislatures, ever the gpvjernmnni n| tftc United States, the ob noxious act he repealed, and all is well again.— “The Resolutions of Virginia as viixiicaled in the report on them, will be found entitled to‘an exposi tion, showing a consistency in their parts, and an inconsistency of the whole will the doctrine of Nul lification, (Mr. Madison’s letter dated 1830, to the Ed. N. A. Review.) Whenever the oppressions anJ burdens ol" the people become so vast and one rous that they cannot with a due and proper re gard to their rights and liberties, submit to them, till they can be constitutionally redressed they have a right bevond the cotroul of all constitutions, to redress themselves: or in the language of Mr. Madison, (in the letter before referred to) “in the event of the failure of every constitutional resort and an accumulation of usurpations and abuses, rendering passive obedience and non-resistance a greater evil than resistance and revolution, there can remain hut one resort, the last ol ah, an ap peal from the cancelled obligations of the consti tutional compact to original rights and self-peserv- ation. This is the ultima ratio under all govern ments, whether consolidated, confederated or a compound of both, and it cannot be doubted that a single member of the Union in the extremity sup posed, but in that oniv, would have a right to make the appeal.” I cannot conceive that this extremi ty has yet arrived,consequently I am opposed ton resort to forcible and violent means, or loanv mode of redress “tliSt would endager the Union, the government, and the liberties of the people.” I lear, gentlemen, that I have transgressed the limits it was anticipated I ought, to occupy. 13v saying less I could not have done justice to myself; as I am fully aware I have not to a subject that so deeply agitates the country. Accept, gentlemen, for yourselves, and those citizens whom you represent, the lender of my highest regard and esteem. Verv respectfully, vour fellow-citizen, JAMES C. TERRELL. .Merer*. JVrn. Cummin g, John P. King, d Slaugh ter. Moxaor., (Walton county,) Aug. 19th, 1SJ2. Messrs. Gumming, King and Slaughter, Gentlemen:—Your favor under date 20th inst. as a committee appointed by a Meeting of the Citi zens of Richmond County, lias this moment been received, and I hasten to answer it. The importance of the crisis is such in my opin ion as justifies not only the citizens of Richmond, but of every County in the State, to demand of those who present themselves for public favor a frank and full avowal of their sentiments; it is what vo ters have a right to demand and what candidates have no right to withhold. Thus impressed, I can have no objection to give you, and through you lo my Fellow-citizens of Richmond and every other County, my “ sentiments in regard to Nullifica tion."’ If I understand what its advocates in a neigh boring State and those in our own, mean by the term—it is, that a Stale, in its Sovreign character, has a right to interpose and prevent the execution of a Law of Congress, for instance the Law regu lating the duties on imports, and yet remain a member of the confederacy—and it is urged in sup poit of this, that as one of the original parlies to the contract, no umpire having been chosen, that the State in its Sovereign character has the right to judge of any infraction aud of the mode and measures of redress, ami in the application of this rule, that if Congress should pass any law which any State should believe to be violative of the ori ginal compact, such State lias a right to interpose and prevent iis execution within its Territory'.— Grant this power, and the wheels of the General Government areas securely locked as its worst ene mies could desire. Against every law of a general nature passed by Congress, some one State might interpose its sovereignty and prevent its execution —for it is not material whether the Laivbe uncon stitutional or not, so a State will consider itso;they would have the right ro treat it accordingly, and from Louisiana to New-Hampshire one universal scene of confusion might prevail. Can such a state of things be desired? A Slate in its sovereign character may do what she pleases within her own Territory, provided however, she docs not inter fere with another Sovereignty.—There cannot be two Sovereigns over the same subject, and as the laying of duties on imports is delegated to the Gen eral Government, it is Sovereign tor that purpose, and the State may not exercise her sovereignty to the prejudice of the other. But to be more particular, its advocates have contended that it is a Constitutional and peaceable remedy, there is nothing in the constitution that can be tortured into the giving of such power. As to irs being a peaceable remedy that would depend entirely on the General Government whether or not it would enforce its Laws or attempt it; if she would not attempt to enforce her Laws, then to he sure it would be peaceble. But can any mao, who has an ounce of human sense, believe for one mo ment, that the General Government would fold its arms and permit its revenue laws to be thus pros trated without an effort to enforce them? No man can belivc it. But say its advocates, it is peacea ble on the part of the Slate, and when the law is attempted to he enforced, the General Government is the aggressor, and the State would have the right of resisting three by force. So was the whis key insurrection in Pennsylvania peaceable, until General Washington put lbrth the arm of the Gov ernment to crush it. So is every armed smuggler very peaceable, provided the Government will not attempt to arrest or seize. It is, then, in my opin ion, neither a constitutional nor peaceable remedy. If, then, it be neither Constitutional, or peaceable, how is it to he justified ? In no other way than as a revolutionary measure, and for one, I am lice to confess, I am not prepared to wish my Country plunged into the horrors of a Civil War. It is said by some of the Hot spurs, that Foreign aid would be invited. Are they sure it would be ob tained, and if obtained, would not the Foreign pow er thus aiding, demand and receive some equiva lent, and would not such equivalent in all human probability, be a burden grievous to be borne ? It is a subject of the deepest interest, not only to our own country; but to the civilized world: our insti tutions have been considered a polar star for the march of freedom every where.—Shall we extin guish this light? Shall we by being flattered and wooed fora few months, follow in the wake—rush to the side, or lead the van of those who in their mad career have now reached and arc pausing on the brink of the precipice, and looking to see what we shall do? I hope for better things. I trust that the effervescence will pass off, and thnt those who for reasons best known to themselves have labored to produce this excitement, will be disappointed— that Georgia will be found, as. she always has been, true to Herself, the Constitution and ihc Union. You will readily perceive that my ideas have been thrown together hastily and without system. I have this evening reached home from Court and the mail waits. Should my views meet the appro bation of my Fellow-Citizens, it will be gratifying, otherwise it would be a source of regret, alleviated, however, by the smiles of an approving conscience. Very respectfully, your Fellow-Citizen. * THOS. W. HARRIS. Columbus, 5th September, IS32. Gentlemen.—In consequence of absence from home for the last two weeks, vour cummunication ofthe 20th of last month, in compliance with a du ty imposed by the citizens ol Richmond County, requesting my sentiments upon the subject ofNul- lification, has but this moment been received. I recognise the right ofthe people to interrogate those who solicit their suffrage upon all subjects connected with the public interest, consequently hold myself ready to answer at all times freely and frankly. I am oposed 1*» Nullification, believing it to be, neither a peaceable or constitutional remedy against the evils complained of—but a revolutionary meas ure when reduced to practice. And whatever feelings of hostility I may entertain towards the protective system,-or however unequal in ns oper ations, unjust and oppressive in its consequ-nces 1 may consider it, I am not at this time prepared to join in the support of any measure which must in evitably end in the dissolution of our government.— Nor can I adopt the idea that the system lias lie- come the settled policy ol the country. The pub lic debt is nearly extinguished, a material change will lake place in Congress, under the late census. The system has commenced a retrogression. The present administration is avowedly with us upon this subject. Those circumstances, together with a general knowledge of the great difficulty in en forcing a law contrary to the will of so large a por tion of the country, present to my mind cheering considerations in favor of its speedy repeal. The language of the father of our country upon this subject, would seem to me, appropriate. He says, “ we should cherish a cordial, habitual and immoveable attachment to oar National Union, ac customing ourselves to think and speak of it, as of the palladium of our political safety and prosperity, watching for its preservation with jeaious anxiety, discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it can, in any event, be abandoned, and indignantly frowning upon the first dawning ol every attempt to alienate any portion of our coun try from the rest, or the enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.” With great respect, your obedient and humble servant, JAMES C. WATSON. .Messrs. Camming, King and Slaughter. dlacon, Ga. dtigust 30. Gentlemen.—The Augusta Constitutionalist of the 2Siii inst. having just now been put into my hands, I have read and approved your circular of the 20th. In reply, I have to observe that I am and ever have been opposed to a dissolution of the Union of the North American States, and that I view Nullification, as it is explained in Georgia and South Carolina, as having no place in the Fed eral Constitution, as a fraud attempted to be im posed on the people, and that, should it unfortun ately be brought into practical operation, it cannot iiiil to produce anarchy, rapine and civil war, and the dissolution of the U. States as a confederated bodv. With much esteem, gentlemen, I remain your obedient servant. DANIEL M. STEWART. .Messrs. Camming, King and Slaughter. us in a convention, to be held at Miiledgeviile on the second Monday in November next, as con templated by the above resolutions. Be it further resolved, That the re-election of Andrew Jackson to the Presidency is an event much to he desired, and that we will spare uo constitutional means to effectuate that object. Resolved, That these proceedings be signed by the Chairman and countersigned by the Secretary, and published in all the Gazelles oi Miiledgeviile. Major James Polliill then offered as a substitute to Mr. Sf urges’, the following preamble and reso lutions several counties ol this State for their final ratifica tion or rejection; and that our concurrence in the measute of holding a convention has been the more readily induct'd by the belief, that the reasonable course herein suggested will fie pursued. 3. Resolved, That we approve the time and place designated by oar fellow citizens at Athens liir convention, and that on the first Monday in October next we will elect three dele gates to represent the citizens oi this county there in. 3. Resolve.!, That vrehave r.uditiiinished confidence in SPIRIT OF DISUNION.—In the course of,. • merous transactions with one of your nei«hb you sometimes unintentionally overlook l:is rite - at other times, y ielding to the infirmities of ouIU ture, you are unkind and him; but, < U1 ,i' whole, you render him frequent, and most tssent service. Whenever you wrong him, he op^, you with angry passion; hejaecases you of a to ruin him; lie denounces you as a robber and u rant; by at>exaggerated representation ofvouri justice, and of his grievances, tie induces n an ' your neighbors, who fornieriy confided in y 0; ; ' [communicated.] To Col. William Gumming, J. P. King and du- guslin Slaughter. Gentlemen—Always acknowledging the right of the people to know the sentiments of their pub lic son ants, upon all important matters, connected with their interests, I have already responded to what I believe was their wishes, in the last Federal Union. To this communication, 1 refer you, as a reply to your letter to me of the 20th ultimo, which I have just read. Having discharged I believe, without complaint, the duties of the several im portant appointments, with which I have been honored by the State, for the last twenty five years, and having in my youth, often and freely shed my blood, in the defence of the dearest rights of our common country ; I cannot now believe, that any person who is acquainted with me, can for one moment seriously entertain an opinion, that in the wane of life, I would take any step, not cal culated to cement, instead of severing the Union. From tins view of the subject, I entertain some hopes, that your fears may be somewhat mitigat ed, in regard to the evils which may arise from my supposed association with “ the raw head and bloody bones,” of your letter [•Nullification.'] If I could see in your catariiUm, mUjLV Ji pupo, L»iW, o»J pnirkrtic'regard, for the good of our common country, and oppressed Georgia: I would be among the first io acknowledge and appreciate it; but pardon and believe me gentlemen, when I tell you, that I cannot for my life, divest my mind from the belief, that your strange concoction is intended more to accomplish certain political projects, than to promote Southern rights and Southern interests. DANIEL NEWNAN. McDonough Otii Sept. 1833. PULASKI MEETING. Pursuant lo public notice a large number of the citizens of this county met at the court house, lor the purpose of agreeing upon some course to be pursued in relation to the subject of the great agi tating question now before the public—when it being perceived that there were many more per sons present than could be accommodated with seats, it was agreed to repair to the Baptist Church, when Mr. John Rawls was called to the chair and Maj. D. B. Halsted requested to act as secretary. As soon as the meeting was organised, D. D. Slurges Esq. arose and after explaining the ob ject, ottered ihc following preamble and resolutions, and supported them by some appropriate remarks: Whereas, a number of the free citizens of this State, assembled at Alliens on Wednesday the 1st ult. to take into consideration the grievances under which we labor, from the oppressive and unconsti tutional taxation of the Federal government, and to devise the most efficient and proper means of redress did adopt the following preamble and reso lutions : PREAMBLE AND RESOLUTIONS. Whereas tlie people of Georgia as well in pri mary assemblies of citizens in their respective counties as by their Representatives in the Legis lature thereof, have repeatedly and solemnly de clared the several acts laying duties on imports, (in so far as such acts transcended the purposes of Revenue, and were designed for the protection of manufactures) to be unjust, oppressive, and uncon stitutional; and have solemly announced their de termination not to submit to such unlawful exac tions; and their consequent resolution to resist them, if after a reasonable time they should not be repealed: And whereas, the good people of this State and others, having common interest with them in this matter, have looked to the period of the national debt, as that at which the income raised by taxa tion, should be reduced to the sum required by the wants of the government by duties fairly imposed upon all the imports of the United States—ami have expected from the justice of that Congress which lias just closed its session a repeal of these •bnoxious laws: And whereas, this reasonable expection has been disappointed and the protection of manufactures is now* avowed as a permanent principle of Feder al Legislation: Be it therefore resoleed, That we, as free citi zens of Georgia will not longer submit to this sys tem of legislation whicli is arbitrary, unequal unconstitutional, and therefore unjust That it be recommended to our fellow citizens in the several counties lo elect delegates to a State con vention, to assemble at Miiledgeviile on the second Monday in November next, and to invest them with full powers in behalf of the good people of Georgia to maintain, preserve 8c, defend, the rights and privileges of the free citizens of this State. Resolved, That John McPherson, Berrien, Au gustin S. Clayton, Thomas Glascock. .Joel Craw- lord, Samuel Rockwell, William H. Torrance and William C. Dawson, be a committee of correspon dence to confer with our fellow citizens of other States on all matters connected with our com mon interests. And whereas we, the free citizens of the county of Pulaski in general meeting assembled, having seen and considered the foregoing resolutions, do concur in the same: Be it therefore resolved, That we the citizens of the said county of Pulaski, do cordially concur with our fellow citizcs assembled at Athens, as aforesaid, and do adopt the said resolutions as ex pressive of our feelings and determination on this interesting subject. Resolved, That we will, on the first Monday [n October next, elect two delegates to represent their opinions, on the all-absorbing subject of th tariff system; so unjustly enforced and continued as a tax upon the citizens of these United States; and this meeting having assembled '.or that pur pose, and claiming and exercising our constitution al privilege of the unreserved expression of our opinions in common with other good citizens of our State, do therefore, with a spirit of friendship and affection, with aii connected with us, by the bonds of government and union, and without any party feelings of prejudice or prepossession, to any sections of the people of this great and happy Republic,or of any political party, but peaceably assembled do express our opinions as contained in the following resolutions. Be it therefore resolved, That we will use all constitutional and rightful means in our power to bo freed from the evils of tiie tariff laws now of force, as in the opinion of this meeting, the con stitution does not warrant the construction which has been given it by Congress ; and that we con ceive the tariff law unjust and unequal, operating to tlie exclusive injury of the commercial and ag ricultural interests of the country, for tiie sole bene fit of the manufacturing. Resolved, That we are opposed to Nullification, as being neither a constitutional, nor a peaceable remedy against the Tariff"Law; and «hat we be lieve 1 Fie evils calculated to result from its applica tion wiil be infinitely more oppressive on the South than the existing Tariff". Resolved, That the avowal of’Nullification ope rates to the injury of the election of that distin guished patriot aud friend of Southern rights, Gen. Andrew Jackson, and therefore, as the consequen tial support of Henry Clay, the father and foster mother of his favorite “American System;” and we regret to witness the promulgation (in this Stale) of doctrines calculated only to disturb the repose of the good people of this country, and for ward the views of those opposed to Gen. Jack son’s administration. Resolved, That we recommend to the good peo ple of this county to elect two fit persons to repre sent them at the contemplated Convention t.o be holden in Miiledgeviile, on the second Monday in November next, to cooperate with representatives i from the other counties for the purpose of devising ' some peaceable and constitutional measure to re medy the aforesaid evil; Provided only, that all the counties of the State are fairly represented, and that the actsol said representatives are to be duly ratified by the people of"their counties respectively, otherwise that they protest against the acts of any partial or unauthorised meeting. Resolved, That our confidence in the talents, patriotism and integrity of our distinguished Sen ator and Representative John Forsyth and James M. Wayne, remains unshaken, and regret that un worthy motives have been attributed to their wor thy and patriotic exertions in behalf of Southern interests. Resolved, That these resolutions be signed by the President and Secretary and published, at their diserptinn. After being opposed by argument from Tho’s. S. Sullivan Esq. aided by D. D. Sturges Esq. at some length—and supported bv Col. C. F. Bet- ton, B. W. Bracewell Esq. and Mr. Polhill, Dr. Ii. N. Taylor arose and offered as a substitute in lieu of Imth resolutions, the following: “ Resolved, That this meeting will recommend an election of two delegates, to meet .delegates from the other counties in the State Convention in Miiledgeviile on the second Monday in November next.” The vote of the meeting being taken on Dr. Taylor’s resolution and lost by an overwhelming majority. The question on the adoption of the resolutions offered by Major Polhill was then taken and carried, with but few dissenting voices. JOHN RAWLS, Chairman. D. LJ. Halsted, Sec ry. FROM TIIE MACON TELEGRAPH. CO' The Disuniomsls aie wonderfully cooled down, oflate. They find the thing docs not take, as they anticipated. The people are yet too stub born, ui be led by the nose, blindfolded, into such a business. And those at first so loud, so warm, in the cause of nullification, now begin to sing small. They are in favor of moderate measures. They have no idea of war and bloodshed—their resist ance is ail peaceable—a civil war they have no thought of—a separation ofthe Slates they do not wish for. Their repulse in Twiggs, Jones, Baldwin, Ac. &,c.must have astonished these “Iravellingpreach- ers.” It was a consummation they did not expect. They had anticipated no such obstacle; but that the public credulity would be a smooth sea for them, over which they should triumphantly sail, until they arrived at. their wished fir haven. Happily for the country, the intelligence of the people has saved it from a dreadful chasm, towards which the ambition of unprincipled men was fast hurrying it. A free people are always jealous of their rights —and perhaps too prone to suspect their govern ment of injustice; hence a great show of patriot ism in a popular candidate, who pledges his devo tion to the cause of the people, and harps on their oppressions, may easily create an excitement, and afterwards turn it to his own advantage. But at the same time an intelligent people are always jeal ous of their public men; and are disposed to sift every applicant for office as, through a sieve ofiron belbre they give him their confidence. They are aware how easy it is for a candidate to profess one thing and mean another; and they are aware also, that those who profess the greatest devotion to the people, are most commonly in the end found to be the most selfish, the most corrupt, and the most profligate. FEDERAL UNION. MI LI. EDGE VILLE, SEPT. 20, 1832. FOR PRESIDENT, ANDREW JACKSON CANDIDATES FOR CONGRESS. FOR JACKSON AND THE 1JNIOX. JOHN COFFEE, of Cherokee, THOMAS W. HARRIS, of Walton, GEORGE W. OWENS, of Chatham, WILLIAM SCHLEY, of Richmond, DANIEL M. STEWART, of GIvnn, JAMES C. TERRELL, of Franklin, JAMES C. WATSON, of Muscogee. DANIEL NEWNAN, of Henry, (Kk JOHN MILTON, Esq. of Columbus, we are requested to say, is a candidate for Con gress at the election in October next. BALDWIN MEETING. By request, we give the following condensed view ofthe Preamble and Resolutions, offered by Judge Lamar to the people of Baldwin county.— They were adopted in the manner we now pre sent them, by an overwhelming majority. There has been a good deal of carping at the course pur sued by Judge Lamar. It is sufficient to say, that, his conduct at the meeting has very much elevated him in the estimation of Baldwin county; W iiereas we, citizens ofthe county of Baldwin, regard any interference by the General Govern ment with the pursuits of popular industry, as at once inconsistent with sound principles of national policy and foreign to the purpose for which the gov ernment was instituted: And whereas the existing Tariff laws have been enacted, not as justice and the constitution requir ed, exclusively lor the purposejofraising necessary revenue to pay the debts .and to meet the wants of the Government, but alsolbr the unwarranted pur pose of promoting manufactures by a system of in direct bounties—thereby making all other branches of industry tributary to that which is so unjustly favored: And whereas we in common with our fellow- citi/.ensin every part of the State, hold those laws (so far as they embrace the odious system of pro tection and favoritism to which we have alluded) to be unjust, oppressive and incompatible with the spirit ofthe Constitution: And whereas, although candor prompts us to ad mit, that the present burthens of tiie system will be in some degree mitigated by ihe recent modifica tion of the Tarifflaws, yet neither justice nor seif respect will permit us to accept that modification as a compromise of our indisputable rights: And whereas our fellow-citizens in other parts of iht State, disappointed &. justly indignant at the late refusal of Congress to provide for the abandon ment c.f the protective system at the opportune and anticipated era of national freedom from debt, have determined to hold a State Convention to deliber ate upon the course of conduct which it is meet for the people of Georgia to pursue at this important crisis: And whereas although we, confiding in the vir tue and good sense of the American people, do not despair ofthe ultimate efficacy of the remedial en ergies of our free institutions lo correct the existing vicesol Federal legislation; and are therefor deci dedly opposed to the adoption of any unconstitution al, and at this time any forcible or revolutionary measure of redress—yet we cannot but believe that the voice of»eason and justice, proceeding from a Convention directly representing the sovereign power of the State, and in which wisdom, firmness and moderation, and a sacred regard for the Con stitution and the Union, shall be guiding principles, will acquire a commanding energy of tone which it lias not hitherto possessed, and which can hardly fail to make a deep, a solemn, and we trust a re deeming impression upon the National Legisla ture. 1. Be it therefore resolved, That we, citizens of the county of Baldwin, do acquiesce in the general will that a State Convention shall be held, having for its object the dispassionate consideration of our Tariff grievances, and tiie most eligibe mode of effecting a removal thereof. 2. Resolved, That we deem it expedient and TROUT TICKET. HENRY BRANHAM, of Putnam, AUGUSTIN S. CLAYTON, of Clark, THOMAS F. FOSTER, of Greene, ROGER L. GAMBLE, of Jefferson, GEORGE R. GILMER, of Oglethorpe, CHARLES E. HAYNES, of Hancock, SEABORN JONES, of Muscogee, JAMES M. WAYNE, of Chatham, RICHARD II. WILDE, of Richmond. (£r MIRABEAU B. LAMAR, Esq. we are authorized to say, is a candidate for Congress at the ensuing election. IO” We are requested to announce Samuel Rockwell and Wm. H. Torrance E.sq’rs. as candidates before the people of Baldwin for the Anti-tariff Convention. We hope the friends of the Union will immedi ately form a Union Ticket for the Anti-tariff Con vention. It ought to consist of one from each of the local parties. It is only to announce such a ticket, to ensure its almost unanimous support. We regret that Col. Howard’s note came to hand after our paper was full, and all its matter arrang ed. We will very cheerfully give it place in our next; as we do not design to do injustice either to him or Gen. Newnan.—We arc compelled to ex clude several ai tides already in type. ANTI-TARIFF MEETINGS.—The reports of these meetings are so numerous and extended, that we have space to publish only a small part of them, at present; and must be content with giving *. brief summary. We expect to publish them at full length, hereafter: The meetings in Columbia and Troup adopted the Athens resolutions. The meeting in Upson passed resolutions, for opposing the tariff by all proper means, and appro ving of a convention, whose proceedings should be referred to the people for ratification or rejection. The meetings in Franklin, Habersham, and Liberty, McIntosh and Twiggs, reprobate a pro tective tariff, condemn nullification, and disapprove of a convention. The meetings in Burke and DeKalb, reprobale a protective tariff, condemn nullification, and ap prove of a convention; DeKalb requiring that the proceedings ofthe convention should be referred back to the people. The meeting in Crawford reprobates a protec tive tariff, disapproves of a convention, condemns nullification, and censures the vote of a majority of our representatives in congress, against a reduc- duction of the tariff. The meeting in Wilkes reprobates a protective tariff, disapproves of a convention, condemns nulii fieatiou, and every measure tending to a dissolu tion ofthe Union, and approves ofthe vote of For syth and Wayne, for reducing the tariff. Most ofthe counties express their approbation of the administration of Andre w Jackson. GEORGE W. OWENS Esq. This gentleman has been UNANIMOUSLY elected Mayor of the city of Savannah. This is an honorable testimoni al of the high qualifications of Col. Owens, and of the liberality of sentiment of the citizens of Savan nah, in electing lo their chief magistracy, a gentle man differing from a majority of that community, in party names. In tiie present great crisis, he arid his fellow-citizens who may have heretofore been separated from him on points of minor importance, proper tiiat the result of the deliberations of said are united in a pure, generous, and ardent attach- convention shall be submitted to the people of tiie j ment to the Uniqn. for you; ami declares, that his only design i* , correct your faults, and reclaim you ton course justice. What opinion do you entertain <jH,i s r r ;! 1 ship? Is it not the tendency of bis conduct, ; 0 p, troy the friendly connexions subsisting hetv (U von and your other neighbors, as well as Lin^ • And judging, not by his professions, vrliick deceive, but by the more certain criterion of | actions, do you not believe him to be your or, my? Rely on the same principles of common s. r. and you will duly appreciate ihe character of jiff ny prominent politicians. Whenever the federa 1 government treats us with unkindness, or injusi,* ao language is too harsh and violent to express the;, resentful opposition; they passionately appdy i 0 the most vituperative epithets; they vehement!.!' denounce it, as a robber, and a tyrant;in opTxis!- tioti to our daily observation and experience, tl iev endeavour to make us believe, that it has reduced us to poverty, slavery, and wretchedness: am] tV incessantly urge us, to imitate the nolle exampu- of our gallant forefathers, who rose in arms at th inspiring call ol liberty, and burst the c’nainst, English despotism. Amid all these accusation and invectives, they profess to love the Federa; Union: but their conduct is at variance with tliei- professions. As far as their influence extends, o: their assertions are believed, they infuse into tb minds of the people, a hatred for the federal gov ernment, as their most designing &. dangerousei: ; - mv: and a wish to dissolve their collection with i\ If they shall succeeu in exciting, in the minds e I the people, those sentimens of distrust A hatred which are the natural result of their conduct, they will have laid the fatal magazine, and prepared th train; and it will then require only a spark, an ac cidental spark, lo produce an explosion, that ui; blow this Union to atoms. Let such men pro claim, again and again, their devoted attachmer; to the Union; their actions shew them to he ii. most dangerous enemies. The enlightened and patriotic statesman wi distinguish between the federal government, ard those who abuse its powers. He will endeavour t correct the faults in its administration, without i;.- dieting a fatal wound on the government itself.— He will remember the example of Washington, at..i endeavour to inspire tiie hearts of bis Mow. citi zens with a deeper, holier, more unalterable im for the Union. While the press is free lo main tain and disseminate the principles of iilicrtv; v. hi - the votes of the people are free in the choice ofii. government; while the trial by jury, tiiat shield . the citizen against lawless oppression, is pic,-. - ved inviolate; he will not despair ofthe republic and nothing but insufferable oppression will indue him to subvert the government, by revolution, to destroy it by voluntary disunion. We believe that this sketch exhibits with sun,' exceptions the distinguishing characteristics of tic two parties, which cow divide the state. Tir millifiers and sccedcrs pursue that course, whit I, might be deliberately chosen by a party determine; to destroy the Union: while the unionists, in en deavouring to correct the abuses of the federnlgm- ernment, are careful not to impair those admirable institutions, which were framed by the wisdom o' our patriotic forefathers. JUDGE CLAY TON’S KEl’Lr.—In repiv' tlie enquiry of the committee appointed by tb* Richmond meeting, Judge Clayton has a long address, extending over several columns u:' a newspaper: but we cannot find in it any argu ment of sufficient force; to reconcile our head-"', our hearts to a dissolution ofthe Union. V had marked his reply for publication in the Fednal Union of this week; but find it unexpectedly ex cluded by other matter which cannot properly In- delayed ; on account of its grear length, itspub;'- calion would be the exclusion of many other pie ces, having stronger claims. The most inattentive reader will .observe, that in the various responses given bv different candidate-, to the Richmond committee, those opposed to nib- liention contain plain arguments, which coined- rectlv home lo the simplest understanding: v.l;i - those in favor of nullification, rely on subtil, and far-fetched, and overstrained reasoning, and on ex citing the prejudices and the passions of ihe peo ple Such is the character of Judge Claytons re ply. Following the author and ablest expounder t : the doctrines of nullification, Judge Clayton dedu ces them from trie Virginia resolutions of 1798 drafted by Mr. Jefferson. Because tins enlighten ed statesman, in affirming the inherent and natur al right of the States to oppose all assumptions o: power, by others, within their limits, lias used tb word tmUificalion, those who now employ the saw term to express an absurd, delusive, and danger ous theory, impute to this great man all the !<»I1r and vices which they associate with this word — Fortunately for the reputation of Jefferson, h opinions have been expounded and vindicated 1” one who well understood them ; by his most learn ed and powerful comrade, in his great contest fi* constitutional liberty, in 1798 : by the wise, th virtuous, the patriotic Madison. This learned an ' philosophic statesman informs us, that it was d plan of the friends of liberty, in 1798, neither c appeal to tire sword, noi to abandon the I nioa; I but to produce a peaceful “ co-opcration” among I all the States opposed to the usurpation complain I ed of, and to make a deep and powerful im- I pression on the public sentiment of the country.— I On this peace fid and rational plan, Jefferson an- | 11is republican friends acted; and Lv the potverfb weapon of reason; by the mighty energies ot mind, they achieved a bloodless, and a gioriou- victory over the usurpations of power. Jefferson is to be admired, not more for iris bold ascertion ti the principles of liberty, than for his splendid exam ple of vindicating those principles, and prostrating oppression, without afflicting his country with horrors of anarchy and civil war, or exposing b liberty to the ambition of some successful niiiita; chief, at the head of an obedient army. How A*' lerentisthe conduct ol the politicians of the pr^ sent day, who borrow trie sanction of his name, for a course of measures the reverse c ; those which he pursued ! Tiie nuilifiers depen- not on intellectual and moral power, for overthrow * ing those usurpations of which they comply they maintain, that the country can no longer Hop for relief from Congress ; tiiat in th is cause reasn- has become impotent; that justice has lost he" • fluence; and they utter threats of a resort to Do-- an appeal to arms, or an abandonment of £ Union. Jefferson, contending for constitutional , -- erty, restrained the hands of his countrymen r ‘V blood, and preserved the nohie institutions ol - country, inviolate; while his pretended folloj* operJv advise us to plunge into civil war—to a a , don that Union which, in the judgment of’* ington, is the palladium of our safety, the bul of our liberty. # It is firmly established by the unimpeachable •- timony < f Madrson, thai the principles and - practice of Jefferson stand in direct opposm'’ the nullification of the present day. By J Clavton’s first authority, he is condemned. ^ He next attempts u» find an -•u-ooiiw for n^ cation, in the controversy of Gov. 1 roup . President Adams; and he takes as a text,a . tion advanced on a different occasion, »y * - er—“ whatevern Hlate does, in its sovereign ,