i of Ororgla Wkal Has
In many quarter* complaints have
been made against the station on the
ground that the expenditures were too
neat for the amount of good done.
These complaints are generally based on
the snpiweitioo that the fund tliat sup
ports the station is appropriated by the
state, when, in fact, it is derived from
the t,-eneral government, and it does
not appear to me reasonable that any
part of onr people should wish not to
receive, or permit the fanners to re
ceive. the Wnefit from an appropriation
made by the United States. Aa re
quired liy law, the essential part of the
work of the station has been reproduced
in the reports of this department. That
many of these experiments are valuable
there can 1** uo doubt, if the results
of systematic cnltnre and fertilization
chairman of the board of directors of
the station. The board, which is ap
point**! by your excellency, is made up
of successful farmers from each con
gressional district in the state. The
efforts of these gentlemen have been to
make the station beneficial to every class
of farmers, and to illustrate to our
fanners what can lie done in certain
brandies of agricnltnre. As the head
of the department, my voice in the
affairs of the station is only impera
tive in ease of a disagreement resulting
in a tie lietween the other directors,
but the present policy of conducting the
station has lieen agreed upon after gen
eral consultation among the directors.
The establishment of a dairy and theex-
l*eriments in tobacco I especially advo
cated, a ’’ *■" “*■ iU ‘
other wholesome and nutritious items
among his family supplies. In. almost
every thickly settled neighborhood, one
of the factories might be started on the
co-operative plan, several farmer* com
bining, and one of their number thor
oughly posting himself in all the neces
sary details of the work. At the Ex-
penment station the factory is in daily
operation, and any one wishing instruc
tion will be welcomed and given every
facility for learning the lmsinese. There
is nothing complicated in the process,
and any uau or woman of ordinary in
telligence can, in thirty days, learn
everything necessary for carrying on
the work. To give some idea of the re
quirements I quote from some notes
which were kindly furnished me by
Captain Redding, the director, in re
sponse to some questions which I had
asked. I also give his letter, bearing
directly on this subject:
Experiment. Ga.. Aug. 27. 1892.
Hon. R. T. Nesbitt, Commissioner of
Agriculture, Atlanta, Ga.:
My Deak Siii—In response to yours of
the 23th, I enclose “Notes on Cheese
making in Georgia.** which you may
You may add that the cheese made
the present summer at the station dairy
has lieen in great request, selling readily
at the dairy at 15 cents per pound—the
whole cheese. Wherever it has been
I tested it lias given satisfaction. Mr.
Wing says that the conditions here in
Georgia for cheese making, are more
favorable than in Ohio, where he has
been making cheese all his life. Very
truly, R. J. RedDINo, Director.
NOTES ON CHEESE-MAKING IN GEORGIA.
1. Character and cost of building:
Any cheap outbuilding, or mere shed,
will anslver all purpose* for making
cheese. It is only necessary to be dry
and comfortable for the operator. But
the curing room should lie tight and
close, yet capable of ventilation. A
good 8x10 pantry, or storeroom, such as
may lie found in most well-built farm
houses, would answer.
2. Fixtures, machinery, etc.:
A cheese vat, consisting of a wooden
box lined with tin. with a small fur
nace underneath; a press with one or
more screws similar to a cider-press
> healhty s
rat no worm.
_ prolific, and fur
nish' the finest “marbleized” hams. For
a general stock hog they can hardly be
surpassed. They, too, are inclined to
be carnivorous, and should not he
brought into too intimate relations with
young fowls, lambs and kids. The Es
sex are emphatically lot hog*. They are
•low and uncertain breeders. They ar*
somewhat sluggish, and always Hi.
They are gentle, kind and indisposed to
extensive foraging. They can easily he
made to weigh 150 to 25b pounds when
one year old, a size admirably adapted
to the table wants of a farmer on a small
„ > show the capabili
ties of Georgia outside of our previous
agricultural policy. The line now being
pursued will. I believe, result in great
benefit, and I hope onr fanners will en
deavor to profit iiv the experience of the
fann established for their benefit.
A word in this report as to the way
in which tlio station was established
may not be amiss. The land was do
nated by the jieople of Spanding county,
and the" state has appropriated $15,000,
expended principally for improvements
<»f a permanent character, ns the
government appropriation permits only
a small portion of its annual appropria
tion to lie used for that purpose. The
ten thousand dollars came out of the
fees arising from the inspection of ferti
lizers. mid so was no addition to the
general tax. The station is operated and
maintained by |15,000 annually set aside
by congress for that pnrp<ise.
The change in the law in regard to the
. fees of oil inspectors furnishes a source
of revenue from these inspections. The
object of the law is to prevent the sale
of oil nnd other explosive substances of
so low a grade that life and property
would lie endangered. In addition to
this the department has been able to
secure oil of a better burning finality
where poor oil lias lieen shipi»ed in the
The object and aim of the department
in sending out seed is not as some sup
pose. simply to furnish seed for ordi
nary farm and garden purposes, but to
and a thermo;
for a dairy of
less than $!•>:».
8. The process of cheesemaking is,
briefly, as follows:
The night’s milk is kept in a cool
place until morning, when it is mixed
with the morning's milk and all ponred
into the cheese vat and heated up to a
temperature of eighty-four degrees. A
small quantity of prepared reilnet (ren-
netine) is then added and the milk is
constantly but gently stirred (to prevent
the cream from rising) until it com
mences to thicken. In about forty min
utes the milk will liecoine solid, it cur
dles (you would call it clabber, or sweet
about the size and shape of dice—by
means of the enrd knives, which is done
in a few moments. The heat is then in
creased until the enrds show a tempera-
to cause the pieces of curd to
tract, thereby expelling the whey. The
whey is then drained away, and is used
to feed pigs, young calves, etc., being
The curd is now salted at the rate of
one-half onuco of salt to the pound of
enrd. and the latter is enclosed in a
press cloth and put into the cheese hoop
encourage the r
WAYGROSS HIGH SCHOOL.
THIS SCHOOL WILL. BEGIN ITS EIFTH YEAIi
The Furth Mnday in September.
W. P. LEE
Additions have been made to
the building, which is now ce
il pressed until the whey
pel led, which will be iu abont twenty
minutes. The? cheese is now removed
from the press hoop, the press cloth re-.- . -- „ . , .
moved, nnd the permanent doth “ban- y inspectors. lie glanced at
dage” put on. anil then returned to the
The trades unionist operatives of Lon
don belonging to such guilds of artisans
as the Amalgamated Society of Engi
neers, the Carpenters and Joiners, the
Bricklayers, are the aristocracy of labor,
better off on the whole than the other
workmen of Europe, as well off as the
best of those working in the United
States or Canada, inferior in their social
position among the workmen of the
world only to those of the Australian
colonies. The problems which we can
not solve in London concern the
skilled laborers and the women workers,
for even skilled or half skilled women
are ground down by competition to
There are skilled needle women em
ployed on •‘fancy” apron making paid
2s. Gd. for twelve dozen, able to make
fonr dozen in a day by good work. The
matchbox makers receive 2‘£d. for 144
boxes, they finding the tow and paste
and fuel for the drying that is needed in
damp weather. They work hard for
twelve to fourteen hoars a day, and
their earnings avenge Gs. to 7s. a week.
Sackmaking, tobacco sorting, paper bog
making, book folding, rag sorting are on
the average no better paid, and there
ore in London in these and similar em
ployments and in confectionery factories
vast numbers of women earning but
from 10d. to Is. a day, although they
have to display some skill.—Sir Charles
Dilke in Harper's Weekly.
An Interesting Phenomenon.
An amusing story is told in connectior
with Professor Henry, of the Smithso
nian institution, who died some fourteen
years ago. It is told by a gentleman
who once traveled from Montreal to Bos
ton with the professor. He says that
while they were waiting for a steamer
the professor was talkative and commu
nicative in liis quiet way, and was full
of incidents of travel and adventure.
Soon the steamer appeared in sight,
and while she was approaching ns the
professor sat upon the wharf, looking
dreamily at her. Presently he aroused
himself and said:
‘•I see a peculiar sparkle of the waves
near the side of the steamer, where the
tun shines upon her.” (It was almost
sunset.) “1 wonder what the cause of it
is? 1 have seen phosporesceut light be
fore, but never exactly like this. And
see, there it is also upon the other, the
darker side of the steamer. Well, cer
tainly that is very curious!”
We all looked. ludeetl it did seem
remarkable. First upon the bright side
of the steamer and then upon the dark
side wonlil appear these enrions flashes
of light and disappear almost instantly.
They seemed to come at regular inter
vals, and it was a strange amt beautiful
Our reveries were presently disturbed
by the approach of one of the customs
The building is well furnished throughout. The coTps of teachers have been ad
ded to and strengthened, and the aim has been to get
Tbe Very Best Instructors Regardless of Eipense.
No School in Georgia Holds a Higher Bank for Thorough
ness in the Branches Taught
Waycross is very healthy and board may be obtained at
i of national reputation
Rates of Ttiltioxi Low.
For further information apply to the undersigned.
H. W. REED, Pres. Board of Education,
or J. M. MARSHALL, Sec’y. Board of Education,
Is supplying the public with
♦ Groceries, Hay and Grain,
AND EVERYTHING KEPT IN A FIRST-CLASS GROCERY.
A Fine Line of Tobacco and Cigars.
NEXT DOOR NORTH <
T. E. Lanier's Jewelry Establishment
Quality First-Class. CaU and be
PRICES THE LOWEST.
-w. P. LEE.
» of well, selected seed,
test the” value of different varieties,
direct the attention of the farmers to
other brandies of agricnltnre. so that
whether certain Jfops can lie grown
profitably can lie ascertained, nnd to
introduce seed thnr have lieen tested and
found of superior value.
The reports sent out by the one to
give the farmer* information, not only
on the condition of the crops and the
proepect yield, but also such informa
tion as will lie useful on the farm, the
department endeavors to make these
reports timely and we would be glad
to receive from fanners succiuct reports
of experiments or unusual results ob
tained by certain methods of culti ation.
At any and all times the department
in willing to give any information at its
command, or communicate with the
department nt Washington when neces
sary to ascertain any matter abont
which there may be an inquiry. It is
onr desire to make the department
beneficial to the fanners outside of the
supervisions of inspections, and by every
means at our command to advance
practical agricnltnre. In this work we
ask the co-operation and support of the
farmers of the state.
lUt«r Making In Georgia.
RY HON. R. T. NESBITT. COMMISSIONER
OK AGRICULTURE OP GEORGIA.
From th • Southern Cultivator.
. On a recent visit to Griffin, while at
tending the meeting of the board of
directors of the experiment station, I
was very much interested in examining
into the details of the cheese-making
experiment now being tried there. This
industry has never been thoroughly
tested in Georgia. Indeed, it has Been
supposed heretofore that the difficulties,
climatic and otherwise, here surround
ing successful and profitable cheese-
making. were too numerous to be easily
overcome. But a careful review of
these difficulties, and a somewhat ex
tended study of the farm experiment,
has convinced me that the beginning of
this industry will open another source
of income to out formers, and its bene
fits will be felt, not only in the actual
cash it may bring in, but in the improve
ment of onr stock and lands as well.
The establishment of cheese factories
and creameries in every neighborhood
where they con be supported means a
steady and reliable market for milk,
much of which is now wasted. It also
means more and better stock, and in the
natural sequence of farm economy there
follows more green crops, more and bet
ter home manure, and, crowning ad- Iol “ e , w . „
vantage of all, improved and improving j new avenues of work and fur-
lands mshes fresh sources of income, is a
The arrangements for a cheese factory, I blessing, and we need all the help which
unlike sortie other of the smaller indue- h cmnbtnatinn* mav afford ns.
hoops and pTess. where it is pressed with
the full force of the press screw and a
three-foot lever—the firmer the better.
The cheese usually remains in the
press until next day. or say eighteen
hours, when it is marked with date of
making and placed on a shelf in the cur
ing room to be tnrned over every day
and rubbed with the hand. The curing
room should lie kept at abont the tem
perature of seventy or seventy-five de
grees by opening windows and doors at
night and closing up during the day.
The cheese will be ready for nse in
from three weeks to several months, ns
may be determined by the maker during
the process of making.
4. In the south the months of March,
April, May, Jnne. August, September
and October ore tbe best cheese making
months, but cheese may be made at any
season. Usually cheese is made in
spring, summer nnd fall, and butter in
w _ profitable tc sell
milk than either butter or cheese; but
milk will keep only a few hours, and
cannot be sent long distances. There
fore the milk market is easily glutted.
Butter-making is the better way where
a large number of cows is kept and the
local market not reliable for milk.
Generally cheese-making will be found
more profitable than either when
operating with a good sized herd.
G. In Georgianine and one-half pounds
of milk are required to make one pound
of cured cheese.
7. As before stated tbe curds may be
manipulated a) to make a long keeping
or abort keeping cheese—say from three
to four weeks to six months may inter
vene between making and marketing
according to the will of the maker.
When a cheese becomes ripe, or ready
for eating, and it is desired to hold it for
a better market, it must be kept in a
cool room—if summer time in “cold
At the last meeting of the board of
directors of the Experiment Station, it
was determined that at the state fair to
beheld iu Macon"in the coming Octo
ber. the station cheese factory shall bo
in daily operation. Many persons who
could not otherwise have an opportunity
of witnessing the practical working of
such a factory, can there study every
item of labor, experience, etc. The
field is open to any enterprising person,
and I trust such will take hold and
make it remunerative to themselves and
to the farmers. Every enterprise which
tries, do not require any considerable-
outlay of capital, and while neatness
and core are essential, the conditions
are such that cheese of excellent qual
ity can be successfully made at far less
risk titan -wlu .-e the milk is sent any
distance to market, or where butter is
tbe product. Iu the first case, that is
where the milk is marketed at any dis
tance. there is the danger of souring,
particularly in mid summer. In the
such combinations may afford t
Three Dreed* *f Swlao."
A recent bulletin issued by the Louis
iana Experiment Station gives the fol
lowing results of their experiments, with
three lireds of swine:
There has been more demand for red
Jersevs than for either of the other two.
The Berkshire and Essex seem to be in
about equal favor. The red Jerseys are
great consumers with rapid growth and
full development in flesh and fat food
moouJ. that is, where tbe proluct is to ; ,
be butter, the variations of the cream j consumed. They are hardy, good rust-
os to quality and quantity, owing some- i lew and prolific, raising os high as three
times to weather conditions, or other , Utters per annum. With an abundance
circumstance* equally beyond control. ; of food they are rapid pork makers,
often cause disappointment. In keep- j They ore, however, ommverous, and
tag cow* for cheese-making, the factory t will eat a chicken, lamb or kid, when-
being established, the farmer sells milk j ever permitted. This is a serious ob-
at so much the pound, which is returned j jection to thesmoU farmer and his good
pric. tafixrf; tb»
curiosity and then said,
“Yes,” replied the professor, rousing
himself from his absorbed meditation ot
the phenomenon; “1 wonder what they
“Oh,” said the inspector carelessly,
“them’s hot ashes they're throwin out
of the ash pits.”
The professor was nonplused for a
moment. Then he recovered hi* senses
and said quietly, “Well, well, live and
learn—live and learn!” and laj«sed intc
A Serious Casa.
Uncle Silsvs was a very honest and
pious old colored man who preached on
Sundays nud had a great influence foi
good upon the others in the settlement.
During one of his revival seasons, among
a dozen or so at the mourners’ bench
Was a black boy called Eph, about
twenty year* old and for a long time
unregeuerate. Uncle Silos was greatly
rejoiced to see him come forward, and
at once went to him. Eph was crying.
“Hain’t no use in my comta up,” he
sobbed, “l’se sinned away de dayob
“No, you ain’t, brndder," protested
Uncle Silas. “Yonamde kin whatde
Lawd wants to save. All you got to do
is to gib up sin.”
•Tse dun dun dat, Uncle Silas,”
sobbed Eph. “but dey ain’t uo salvation
“I done stole fou’ chickens las* week.”
confessed the penitent
Dai’s all fuggib, Eph’m."
‘But dem two was you’n, Uncle Silt*.
Dem fat pallets you low’d so much sto*
by, Uucle Silas.”
Wba’ dat?” exclaimed Uncle Silas
Silas,” .obbed Eph.
Uncle Silas beK*me solemn and stern.
“1 reckon, EphTn,” he said slowly,
“you* case needs advisement wid pra’r.
I ain’t sho dat we wan ter be clutterin
up de kingdom of bebben wid chicken
thieves, an you better stay right
moTiers’ bench till de meetta am done,
and we kin dezamine you state obsin
for pert icklers.”—Detroit Free Press.
The hedgehog figures frequently in
sylvan repasts, though he is hardly big
enough to be sent to table as a pigce*“fle
resistance. The primitive manner of
cooking it supersedes tbe most costly re
finements of elaborate batteries de cui
sine. The elephant's foot, or rather the
slice below the pastern, which is a fa
mous dainty in eastern hunting camps,
is treated on precisely similar principles,
which shows that the simplest cookery
of all nations has much in common, like
Shakespeare’s British hedgepig, like
its cousin, the porcupine, is shrouded in
a plastic tenement of clay. Then he is
laid to temporary rest in a bed of smol
dering cinders. When supposed to be
done to a turn, tbe dwarf pig is dug up,
and then the prickly skin is detached
with the splitting of the case of clay.
All the generous juices, with their bou
quet, have been confined and transfused.
—London Saturday Review.
NO NAME FOR IT!
This Gentleman has found the
most extensive and complete es
tablishment of any kink in Way-
cross. A regular
Where they make anything in
wood from a Pine Plank to an
to an Elaborate Sideboard in the
highest style of art.
GOOD SOLID ICE
. Delivered at your door or shipped
\ in any quantity, anywhere.
For Street, Store or Dwelling. We refer to the
Satilla Manufacturing Company,
WHOSE OFFICE AND WORKS ARE IN WEST
Fancy Furniture, Moulding, all kinds of Wood Carving aud
Turning. Two immense dry kilns. Bone Dry Lumber
Dressed and worked. Sto\e wood at your door at $1.00 for
for two-lioTse wagon load. Agent for Fay’s manilla bnilding
GOT STUCK By not going to J. T. PALMER’S Shoe Store.
Brunswick and Western Railway.
In Effect Hay 8th, 1882. Subject to Change Without Notice.
From Brunswick to Albany.
From Albany to Brunswick.
f 3 20
225f 8 36 s 8 11
2 40 f 8 41
...Eleven Mile Turnout...
....- W illacoochee— .
sl2 09 Alapaha-
165 Mile Pout
3 00 Albany...
Don’t fail to
come and see my
shoes aud get
my prices before
I sell Laird,
Schober & Mit-
J. T. PALMER, Owens Block, 3d door from cor.
K. Took, Jb.. Manager. Give me a trial nml 1m> convinced.
R. B. KEENE,
Plumbing, Gas Fitting,
TIN. SHEET IRON ANI) COPPER WORK-
STEAM FITTING A SPECIALTY.
TIN ROOFING AND JOB WORK.
Pumps, Pipe, Steam, Cai*
anil Water Fitting.
Wells Driven at Short Notice, and Every Well
Plant Avenue, Near Canal
W aj’cross, G eorgia.
E. H. CRAWLEY, Sr,
GILLON & HUDSON,
FOUNDERS AND MACHINISTS,
- • WAYGROSS, GEORGIA.
IT AVING added all necessary Machinery to onr shop, we
IT are now prepared to do all kinds of casting, repairing
and general work-on Locomotives.
We also carry in stock Stationary and Saw Mills, Piping,
Belting, Pulleys, Hangers and Brass Cocks of all kinds. We
make a specialty of
SYRUP MILLS AND KETTLES.
ALL WORK GUARANTEED. GIVE US A TRIAL AND BE CONVINCED.
his only cars i* to produce the milk in qualities. They are excellent foragers, nlll _
sufficient Quantities to oar him tar ths and when crossed on the native give. 1 Prtmttwg * Specialty.
CASON & MILLER,
Groceries, Hay, Grain, Flour and Butter are
Court House Square.
Furniture, Stoves, Dry Goods, Notions.
ALSO A COMPLETE LINE OF
SHOES, HATS, CROCKERY AND HARDWARE.
As I desire to give the people the benefit of my cj,«h trade, all Furniture and
Stoves will lie sold low down for cash,
will do well to state that they intend to pay cash,
IX BF. PLEASED TO PRICE QOOTVH AT ANY TIME.
Parties desiring to purchase these good*
as to get the lienefit of Cash
Court House Squai’e.
Western Furniture Co.
BABY ENJOYS SOLID COHTOST m
“PATENT PALACE SLEEPING COACH.”
The “Palace Sleep.
. ig Coach” adjust*
^Furniture, Bedding, Carpets, etc.
ever ready soft, cool
teat, or bed. It
lengthens 1* inches,
a for older children.
Tbe “Palace Sleeping Coach" will quiet the
„ Installment Plan,
amiable; thus shaping iU destiny, temper, char
acter, success, health and haffmesst
o home. »*H home, like thee there is no place,
ill when cheered byjaaby’s happy
And yet in bliss ant
A Patent”l*alace Sl<
Special Prices For Cash.