mts fitter fttvAititk
WEDNESDAY MORNING, NOV, 14.
The (ioremorN .Uessajre--Federal Relations*
The promises of ihe canvass have been redeemed in
the hour oI victory. The message of Governor John
son, under the head *f Federal Relations , contains a
calm review of the condition of the slavery agitation,
and wh.le it mao.hats no unseemly fears as to the re
ult of the Issues made by tho North, it sustains une
quivocally the determination of the Convention of 1850
to make a final stand upon the 4th resolution of that
body. In this respect, we believe, the Executive of
the State has given expression to the unfaltering pur
pose of the people of Georgia, and that he will be backed
by both branches of the General Assembly. We have
yet to find the man of any party who counsels any fur
ther concessions to the aggressive spirit of abolition
fanaticism. The stag is now at bay and his safety de-
pends upon a right use of his horns. The South has
complied with the law —she has retreated to the wall
and may now use all the ni ans God and nature has
placed in her hands h r the protection of her life, liberty
and prosperity. She has retired within the impregna
ble ramparts of her constitutional and States’ Rights,
and must maintain them at all hazards. This is the
sum and substance of the 4ih Resolution of the Geor
gia Platform. It is not an aggressive parallel, but a
defensive field work, and rather than surrender it to
the enemy the people of Georgia had better be buried
beneath its ruins. This is the common opinion and
purpose of all men of all parties with whom we have
conversed. This is a favorable omen, as uuiou at the
South secures the peace of the Union.
It seems, however, that the last State Convention
failed to provide “the mode and measure of redresp,”
in the event of a violation of either of the four points of
the Georgia Platform. This omission the Governor
proposes to supply by providing “for the calling of a
State Convention in the event of the rejection of Kan
sas ‘beoause of the existence of slavery therein,’ to de*
liberate upon and determine the time and mode of the
resistance contemplated by the 4th resolution of the
Convention of 1850.” So far, good. We respectfully
suggest, however, that the Legislature had better pro
vide in one bill or joint resolution, we aro not particular
b to the mode, for the calling of a State Convention in
the event of a violation of either of the four points of
the Georgia Platform and thereby prevent the neces
sity of any further legislation on the subject. This, it
seems to us, is necessary in order to place the State oT
Georgia in a position of complete defence. If this
course is pursued, when the hour of action comes, if it
ever shall come, she will be prepared to strike a home
thrust before secret treason will have time to distract
her councils or open enemies to turn her flank. The
propriety and policy of this recommendation of the
message is so clear and the reasons advanced in sup
port of it are so conclusive that it would be a waste of
lime to elaborate further argument in defence of the
line of action indicated. Indeed we only fear that the
conciliatory tone of the message upon the subject of
federal Relations may be offensive to some of our true
but over heated Southern Rights men. We would
respectfully suggest to such persons, that suaviter in
viodo is not inconsistent with for tit tr in re. A pol
troon is sure to be a bragadocio. The brave man will
avoid a difficulty as long as it is consistent with his
honor, and only strikes when his reason conforms to
the dictates of his passion. He is like the Poles at War
saw—“still as the bretze but dreadful as the storm.”
The position of Georgia is not one of threat or menace.
She has too much self respect to attempt to bully her
sister States. Her rights are in peril ; she has resolv
ed to maintain them ; duty and interest alike demand
that notice should be given to her confederates, that
she is “serious in her avowed determination to resist”
a violation of the four points of her platform. We care
not how mild the language of the notice, so it is firm
and unmistakable. In this respect the tone of the mes
sage is worthy of all praise.
We hope and believe that the Legislature will stand
by the Governor. Public opinion demands this much
at their hands and will be satisfied with nothing else.—
Governor Johnson went before the people upon this
issue, and his triumphant election sanctions his policy.
Let there be no faltering in the face of the foe. The
eyes of the whole country is upon us. Georgia is, in
the language of the message, “the centre of the column
of her Southern confederates ; they will rally around
and sustain her. If she falters, all is lost.”
The Governor’s Itecommendation as to the
Subject ol Education.
There is a wild notion prevalent in the minds of
many, comparatively, intelligent men, that a true
Democratio liberty consists in leaving the people to
follow their own propensities, unguided and unassisted
save by legal restraints, in evil doing. An enlightened
Democracy should subserve a higher purpose than this.
It should secure the greatest good to the greatest num
ber ; faster morality that crime may be diminished ;
enlighten the intellect that man’s superiority should be
felt over the brute; refine his tastes that he may be
more capable of appreciating the blessings which a
bounteous Creator has surrounded him with. The
Governor has explicitly set forth in his Message the du
ties in this particular which devolve upon the State, and
we do hope that something may be done with reference
to this great subject, that may prove worthy of Geor
gia and commensurate with her needs.
We are well aware that there are some
ists who argue that the State should have nothing to do
with such a subject; that if a man does not choose to
educate his children he should not be taxed to educate
tl'.ose of ethers. That it is unjust. Without going into
an argument to prove the fallacy in a politico-social
sense of this position, we will simply suggest the im
possibility of levying any tax for any enterprise which
may not benefit so.np more than others. The true
philosophy ot legislation is, so to organize the bod)* po
litic, that the direct benefit conferred upon some should
so act in its iudirect bearing as to confer a good upon
Should the Legislature prove itself so recreant to the
dictates of sound policy and an enlightened philanthro
py as to take a stand upon an abstraction, and pass by
the Governor’s recommendation, and turn a deaf ear to
the cry of the thousands thirsting and begging for
knowledge, we shall with great pleasure resume the
subject at greater length, and deal even in abstract argu
meat, to refute, if possible, to their own satisfaction I
the innate, and to us, untenable position of those who
argue in favor of an unbridled licentiousness.
1 lie Bardstown (Ky.) Gazette says that the health of
lion. Lino Boyd is still very bad.
New Jersey.— The returns thus far show Large gains
for the Democrats.
Wisconsin. —The returns that have come to hand I
are favorable to the Democrats. Milwaukie city and
county, it is said, will give Bartow (Democrat,) for
Governor, 3,000 majority over Bushford, Black Repub
Maryland. —The result in the State is doubtful. —
The Know Nothings are generally successful in the
city and county of Baltimore.
New York. —We have enough to be thankful for
that in the war of factions in this State the Black Re
publicans have been defeated. Owing to the division
among the Democrats, the Know Nothings have elect
ed a majority of their candidates.
Massachusetts. —Of course the Democracy have
been defeated in this State. The Know Nothings
have triumphed by large majorities.
New Orleans, Nov. 10.
The American candidate is elected to Congress in
the first disrict of Louisiana. Taylor, (I)ern.,) is chosen
in the second, and Davidson, [Dem.,) is ahead in the
third. Nothing has been heard from the fourth.
Lake. [Dem.,] is elected to Congress from the fourth
district, in Mississippi.
After a caucus of some hours this morning, the An
tics repaired to the Capitol, where the following elections
were made :
For President of the Senate >
B. C Yancey, of Cherokee.
For Speaker of the House of Representatives :
R. W. Walker, of Lauderdale.
For Secretary of the Senate ;
J oseph Phelan, of Talladega.
For Principal Clerk of the House :
Albert Elmore, of Montgomery.
The names of the other officers we were unable to
get before going to press.— Mont gomei y Mail, Novem
ber i 2th.
We have hardly time, as we go to press, to announce
the following elections by the General Assembly : For
Comptroller General, Peterson Thvveatt, of Muscogee,
who received 132 votes; for Surveyor General, J. A.
Green, of Floyd, who received 142 votes; for State
Treasurer, John B. Trippe, of Putnam, (no opposition ;)
for Seoretary of State, E. P. Watkins, of Henry eouu
ty, (no opposition.) All the officers elect are Democrats
and anti-Know Nothings.— Fed. Union , 13<A.
We hear, says the Federal Union, loth, that a most
disastrous Fire occurred in Marietta on Saturday night.
The Hotel and many stores and offices were destroyed.
Thomas FVaneis Meagher, Esq., the exiled Irish Pa
triot, and now a member of the New York bar, is
about to lead to the Hymeneal Altar, Miss Arabella
Townsend. Miss T. is said to be a young lady of extra
ordinary personal atractions, and estimated to be worth
about $250,000. Mr. M. has been a widower some
sixteen or seventeen months.
Norfolk and Portsmouth. —The health of these two
places appears to be permanently established, as the
latest papers make no mention of any sickness. The
Norfolk Argus speaks of a gratifying improvement in
Three Know Nothings, indicted for carrying con
cealed weapons, were tried a few days since in this city,
and found “not guilty.”
An Irishman, tried the same day, for the same of
fence, was found “guilty,” and fined fifty dollars.—
Straws show which way the wind blows.— Louisville
Emigration to Kansas. —The Leavenworth Terri
torial Register chronicles the arrival there of an agent,
representing about five thousand Germans and Irish,
resident in Kentucky, in Louisville and other towns,
who are about to emigrate to Kansas on account of the
Know No hing troubles in Kentucky.
Passmore Williamson, it is reported, has instituted
an action against Judge Kane for false imprisonment.
The ease will be tried in Delaware county, the writ
having been served upon the Judge at t e house of his
brother-in-law in that county.
Mrs. Ritchie. —This accomplish and lady, who, as Mrs.
Mowatt, the actress, and the author of her own biog
raph on the stage, gained applause second to no one
career has been a publio one, has just completed
reading the proof sheets of her new called
“Mimic Life ; or, Before and Behind the Curtain.” It
is said to be a work calculated to excite a profound in
A New State.—A. new State is likely soon to be add
ed to the American constellation. The Legislature of
Michigan has passed an act providing for the formation
of anew State or Territory of Superior. Michigan
gives part and Wisconsin anothet part to form the now
Commonwealth, which is the seat of the great mineral
wealth of the nation. Its mines of copper and iron are
unsurpassed by any in the world, and it is destined to
be one of the most interesting, wealthy and important
portions of the Union.
A Washington correspondent of the New York
Courier makes the following important (if true) an
‘ Important dispatches from London have been re**
eeived. Mr. Buchanan transmits the final answer of
the British Government on the Central American ne
gotiation. Our ultimatum is rejected, and correspon
dence is el ised. Both Governments are released from
the Clayton and Bulwer Treaty, Great Britain retaining
her colonies and protectorate, and we withdrawing from
our anti annexation clause. Assurance, however, of
peaceful views are exchanged.
“Mr. Buchanan is still acting, but expects to leave
for the Uuited States about the 10th of this month.”
Nebraska. —A census of Nebraska territory has
just been completed, showing a total population of
4565. The number of legal voters is 1465. There
are eleven slaves in the territory. The population
would have been much larger if it had not beeu for the
Indian difficulties the past summer, Only two persons,
however, have been killed thus far, and all fears oo the
subject appear to have subsided.
Sevastopol —The north side of Sevastopol has been
elaborately fortified by the genius of Gen. Totlleben,
and placed in a condition to enable it to withstand a
siege far exceeding in vigor and duration that to which
the south side finally succumbed.
Millekuwille, Saturday, Nov. 10.
A few bills were introduced in both Houses, after which
they met in the Hall of Representatives and continued the
election of Solicitors General.
Ocmulgee Circuit. —On the 4th ballot, -Mr. A. Lofton*
of Jasper, was elected Solicitor General.
Southern Circuit. —D. Sheftall,of Talnal, was elected
Solicitor General on the third ballot.
Southwestern Circuit. —John W. Evans, of Deca
catur, was elected Solicitor General on the third ballot.
Western Circuit. —James Thurmond,of Jackson, was
elected Solicitor General on the third ballot.
. The dinner hour having arrived, the Senate returned to
their Chamber and adjourned until 10 o’clock Monday
morning. The House adjourned until 3 o’clock, P. M.
Last night the Democratic and Anti-Know Nothing
pirtymet in convention and nominated candidates for
State House officers.
During the same time the so-called American Party met
intheHailof Representatives, and were addressed by
Cone, of Greene, Wright, of Jefferson, Peebles, ot Clarke,
and Jones, of iVI uscogee. Nothing of interest occurred ex
cept a spat between Peebles and Jones. Some remarks
were made by upon the democracy of
long ago, at which the member from Muscogee took ex
ception, which called an explanation from the member
from Clarke. I allude to this incident to remark that Mr.
Jones, in the course of his speech, avowed the purpose of
co-operating with the National Democracy next year, if
the principles adopted by the Georgia Democratic and anti-
Know Nothing Par*y are incorporated in their National
Platform, and reliable men aro put in nomination for Pres
ident and Vice President. This feeling is quite general
among the politicians of the opposition. Does not good
policy demand that the war upon them should cease? Let
the dead bury their dead.
Among the distinguished visitors at the Capitol are lion.
Wilson Lumpkin and Hon. George R. Gilmer, both of
whom we are happy to find in the enjoyment of a green
old age. It was with peculiar pleasure that we jpaid our
respects to Wilson Lumpkin. He i3 the embodiment of
! all we most reverence in the States Rights men of a bye
gone generation. He is here as the special advocate of
1 the claims of the University of Georgia.
Senators and Representatives :
It is with sentiments of deep emotion, that I enter upon a
second term of the Executive Office ol Georgia. The compli
ment implied in thi-i renewal of public confidence, awakens
my siucere gratitude, and inspires me with increased anxiety
to promote the iuterest and prosperity of the State.
The popular will has been uttered amidst the strife of par
ty conflict. In the honest effort for the ascendancy of their
respective principles, each party has perhaps been betrayed
nto intemperate zeal. Passion and prejudice have been in
ivoked to the aid of argument and eloquence, hut howevtr
excited the popular mind —however intensely wrought upon,
by the hope of expected triumph, ye\ so deeply imbued are
the people with the spirit of our civil institutions, that nev
er for one moment, did any portion of them entertain the
idea of refusing acquiescence, nor resort to any means for su
premacy, that were not employed with the most perfect sub
ordination to the final verdict of the Ballot-box. Thus
peaceably is the administration of the Government awarded
by the popular suffrage, and under our system, the ruler to
day may become a private citizen to-morrow. How delight
ful the contrast, which such a spectacle presents, to the des
potisms of the Old World, in which a change of ltulers is
Revolution, and the sceptre of power is upheld and guarded
by the bristling bayonets of disciplined troops! Now, that
the storm has passed from the bosom of the deep, and the
helmsman has been selected by a majority of the votes, of all
on board—every man to his post and with right good will, be
neath a flowing sheet and a sunny sky, let us maket he for
port of prosperity. ‘
Upon you devolves the pleasant duty of adopting measures
to promote the general welfare, and to advance the State, in all
the elements of greatness and exalted civilization. It will he
my pleasure to co-operate with you, in your patriotic labors.
Let your deliberations be tempered with the spirit of con
ciliation and harmony. Let Local interests be subordinate
to the public good; and, sacrificing every feeling of selfish
ness, let each rival his brother in zeal for its promotion.—
Then the star of Georgia’s glory, careering to its point of cul
mination, will gladden the hearts of her people, by the mild
beams of its silvery lustre.
The deeds that we do, will live after us. Though we act
for the present, yet every act should be a part of a system of
policy, which ooks to the generations that are to succeed us.
A kind Providene has vouch-safed to us the best form of
government, State and Federal, that has ever blessed any pre
ceding age or people. It is so organized that the happiness
of all depends upon the moral and intellectual development
of each; and its stability as a system for the promotion of
popular liberty, is best secured by the freedom of individual
labor, enterprise, and capital, It is a priceless legacy, pur
chased by blood, and bequeathed to us by our noble ances
tors. It is ours to enjoy, and it will not perish in the using
It is ours to preserve and transmit, and growing and strength
ening by Ihe vital spirit which animates it, every suecediug
year will find it more potent for the promotion of human
happiness. Let us understand its true character and ms
sion ; and then conforming our action to the laws of its or
ganization and motion, like the Solar Orb, it will shine to
bless, and our latest posterity shall luxuriate in the fruition
of its glories.
My experience in office upon which 1 am now about to en
ter, for a second term, impresses upon my .mind a most pain
ful sense of its heavy responsibilities. The last General As
sembly met. performed its work, adjourned and left to me the
conduct of the State affairs, as best I could, according to my.
feeble ability. How often have 1 felt the need of counsel!
How often have I longed for some arm to lean upon, when
subjects of embarrassment, involving the public weal, were
to be disposed of, by my own unaided judgment! What a re
lief to have been permitted to devolve the responsibility of
grave questions of Estate upon the wisdom of the Legislature!
I cannot say that 1 have not erred, but I can sAy before God,
and in this presence, that I have tried to do the very best
that I could. The uprightness of my purpose is all that I
can plead in extenuation. And now, standing upon the
threshhold of anew term of service, looking forward to the
recurrence of the same causes of embarrassment, and some
what familiar with the duties of my position, I almost invol
untarily exclaim, “Who is equal to these things?” But 1
may not falter. With a firm tread and an honest heart. I
renew my vows upon the altar ot my beloved State. I will
do all I can for her honor and glory ; if I err, her generous
sons will forgive.
IIERSCHEL T. JOIIXSOX.
U. S. Minister ia Piison , —Advices from Nicaragua
mention that Mr. Wheeler, the U. S. Minister, had
been imprisoned two days by the Government forces.
Accident to the Cusseta, —The Mail Steamer Cus
seta, Capt. S. 11. Ilill, left this city on the evening of
the 29th ult, with the mails for Chnttahooehee. When
about 65 miles from this place, at “Devil’s Head Bend’’
on the morning of the 30th at 3 o’clock, it was discov
ered that the boat was rapidly sinking. Capt. Iliil im
mediately ordered her to be run ashore, where she lay
with her bow in 3 12 and her stern in 7 feet water.
Two large pumps were constructed and attached to the
“Doctor,” which, in connection with the other pumps,
threw full twenty barrels of water per minuie. After
the most untiring exertions of the officers and crew,
the boat was raised at 5 P. M. on the Ist instant, and
arrived hereon the 2nd at half past 12 M., to the as
tonishment as well as gratification of our citizens.
Com. Advertiser , Extra.
HT Niepece, the eo laborer of Daguerre, has, after
years of study ar.d experiment, succeeded in almost per
fecting the art which his associate discovered. “I have
begun,” says he, “with reproducing in the oamera ob
scura, colored engravings, then artificial and natural
flowers, and lastly, dead nature, a doll dressed in stutFs
ot different colors, and always trimmed with gold and
silver lace. I have obtained all the colors, and what is
more extraordinary and curious, the gold and silver are
depicted with their metallic lustre, and rock crystal, por
celain and alabaster, are depieted with tbe lustre natu
ral to tbem.
John ise, the celebrated JEronaut', in a letter to the
New York Tribune, gives it ■as bis opinion that Win
chester, who went up with a balloon from Norwalk Ohio
( n the 2d ult., and has not since been heard from* came
down on Lake Erie and was drowned.
From California and Central America.
New York, Nov. 11.
The steamer Northern Light has arrived. She
brings no gold, though the mail steamer which left San
FraHeisco would bring $2,0(J0,00().
All was quiet at N caragua. Capt. Walker and the
Chamora party had agreed upon teims of peace. Geu
Rivas was chosen president, Walker declining in his
favor. The latter, however, had been appointed Com
mander-in-chief of all the forces of the Republic. The
Deople were pleased with the new state of things. Col
Kinney was at Grej’town, and it was reported that
Walker was disposed to drive him out of the country.
Kansas Filling Up. — Pro-Slavery and Free Soil
Emigrants. —Last Saturday we saw ten wagons, drawn
by well fed, good looking horses, loaded with children,
black and white, and followed by a lot of likely negroes
on foot, wending their way to Kansas. The emigrants
were from Virginia, and seemed to be persons of sub
stance. In the crowd were as many as twenty ne
groes. This is a considerable addition to the pro-slave
Per contra : the boats from the Ohio river are daily
bringing from Ohio, Pennsylvania, Indiana and Illinois,
crowds of emigrants on their way to the Territory, be
sides which, no inconsiderable number of settlers are
arriving from the East by rail, and striking for the
Thus, between the emigration from the free and slave
States, Kansas is rapidly filling up, notwithstanding the
deplorable condition of things that has for so long a time
retarded her progress. The population of the Territo
ry will be nearly doubled by the accession made this fall,
and the Territory will soon be prepared to make a strike
for Statehood. We wish her success. She has been
made a hobby long enough, and it is time that she should
be controlled by prudent and sober citizens, who have
the whole interest of the Territory at heart. — St. Louis
News , Oct. 22.
Civil War in Kansas. —The St. Louis Democrat of
the 3d instant says : —“As we predicted, we find that
the publications copied by us from the extra of the
Cycle, in regard to the secret organization of the Free
State men in Kansas, have aroused the Missouri bor
derers,and they are canvassing the propriety of an appeal
to arms. We have to-day conversed with one or two
gentlemen who have just come from that section of the
State, and they report the public feeling as being of the
most intense and alarming character. One of the gen
tlemen remarked to us, “You may look out for a civil
war in Kansas in Lss than twenty days.’’
Kansas. —Cos 1. Augustus Cargile, formerly of JJutts
county, Ga., now of Kansas, left this city on Thursday
morning last, in company with some 50 or 60 emigrants,
fur that far <tf region. May their fondest hopts and ex
pectations be more than realized. We look forward to
the day when Kansas will be a great State. Now is the
time for persons wishing to emigrate, to do so, it they ex
pect to secure good and comfortab'e homes at a trifling
expense. Ho ! for Kansas ! !—Empire State , Ith.
Slaves in Kansas. —Within a month past there has
been a large accession to the slave population of Kansas.
In this immediate neighborhood severafnew comers have
settled, and in most instances brought several slaves with
them. This is what we like to see ; they cannot be
brought into territories in too large numbers, for our rich
hemp lands will give sufficient employment to the slave
and amply remunerate the owner. Come on with your
slaves—our rich lands inv're settlers from all sections o',
lie South.— Squatter Sovereign ,
The Tables Turned . —There was a time when wo
were indebted to Europe for a portion of our finest ma
chinery, and foreigners regarded American ingenuity as
at its climax in the production of wooden nutmegs and
clothes-pins. Latteily we have astonished them with
our patent reapers and six-shooters,and at last they have
come to acknowledge that our mechanics are entitled to
rank with the best of their own. A further illustration
may now be given. Yesterday a sloop arrived at this
harbor, bringing from the Jersey shore 40 tons of iron
machinery, constructed for use in Scotland, and the
same is now being shipped direct to Glasgow. It is
designed for the manufacture of India rubber goods, a
process in which America is ahead of all the woHd.—
N. Y. Journal of Commerce , 25 th ult.
The Weather and the River. —The long dry spell
has at last terminated in abundant rains. Commencing
on Tuesday last, it has rained more or less every day
since. The Chattahoochee has risen some ten feet or
more, and there is now every reason to expect a perma
nent river. Within Uie last few days the sound of the
steamboat whistle has been frequent, and navigation
has opened in earnest. Business has revived, and eve
rything wears anew and promising aspect.— Spirit of
the South , Yith.
Eenouncing the Xnow Nothing? Abolition Cause.
We have jHst learned of the withdrawal from the Know
Nothing order of several prominent gentlemen of our
Sta'e, aud their determination to expose and denounce the
tendency of tits organizat < n, and to give their support to
the whole Dcmocra ic ticket. These gentlemen h ve
j st returned from the North, as members of the lodges;
they found these lodges the very hotbeds of Abolitionism
and enmity to the South and the Constitution, and they
come home to renounce their connection with such a par
ty, and to go henceforth with the Democracy for the Con
stitution and the Union.
This is the cheering news from every quarter. Know
Nothingism is dead throughout the South and the West,
and Marylanders will not ally themselves with its moulder
ing carcass. — Baltimore Republican , Oct. 21th.
A New Discovery.
An infallible means of keeping babies, from two to ten
i months old, perfectly quiet for hours.—The modus oper
; andi is as follows : As soon as the squaller awakes, set
the child up, propped by pillows if it cannot sit alone, and
smear its fingers with thick molasses ; then put half a
and zen feathers into its hands, and the young one will sit
sind pick the feathers from one hand to the oilier until it
drops asleep. As soou as it awakes, more molasses and
| more feathers ; and, in place of nerve astounding yells,
there will be silence and enjoyment unspeakable !
Democratic Victory in Charleston.
Charleston, Nov. 8.
The Know Nothings are beaten by four hundred and
Baltimore, Nov. 8.
The American majority on the whole ti< ket is
about 500 ; that ot Davis over May 800. It is buieved
that of Harr s t ver Vansaot is 200.
We learn with regre , that a boy about 13 years old,
was run over and mashed to pieces by the cars, on Mon
day last, at Barnesville.'Ga. Killed almost instant y.—
We have been looking out for some time past, to hear of a
dozen or more dying at this plaee by the same means.
It seems to be next to impossible to keep them away from
and off the cars on ihe arrival of each train. Look out
boys, you are in danger. Keep awav from the cars.
g < \Empire State , Ith.
“Moving for a A>? FUaJ.’’-Courting a second
Picture of Sebastopol.
Camp before Sebastopol, >
September 25. 1855. $
Eds. Pic —I spent yesterday in the famous Sebastopol,or
rather in what remains of i', and feel the task of describ
ing all I saw a most difficult one; one knows hardly where
to"conimence, and I presume it will be as perplexing to
know where to leave offi
1 went by the Matnelon Vert and the MalakofT, and en
tered the ruined city by the breach in rear of ihe latter.—
Such a wonderful scene ot desolation was surely never
witnessed before. The enormous numbt-r of shot and
..hell fired on both sides have produced, not only in Sebas
topol but in the vicinity, effects the most awlul and to the
city most disastrous. For miles arid miles the giound is
ploughed and torn ud by shot and shell, which lav about
iu enormous quantities The Mamelon is a good deal cut
tip, w hile the iVlalakolTlooks asifthesoil had been uphea
vad by some violent convulsion, and to the depth of some
twenty or thirty feet. Hundreds of thousands of balls and
fragments of shells lay about, with helmets, shakos, bayo
nets, parts of muskets, scraps of unitorm, &c., hut the
bodies of the slain r have long since been buried in the
trenches, and nothing now marks the place of violence
and death save the nume’ous bloody great coats and Rus
sian stretches which lay around, and the sickening smell
Irom the very shallow’ graves where thousands ot the
Czar’s soldiers are sleeping their last sleep, just below the
surface ot their mother eailit.
From the Malakoif we descended into one ot the sub
urbs of Sebastopol. The buildings immediately in rear ot.
the fortification were knocked into shapeless heaps of
stones, and down to the water’s edge not a house but had
many shell and shot holes through its roof and walls.
In this suburb, which had evidently been inhabited by a
poorer part of the population, parlies of t rench and Eng
lish soldiers were busv plundering. The streets were en
cumbered with heaps of various articles, chiefly made up
ot the most common de:-cription. The Russian batteries
across the bay were only three quarters of a mile distant,
and they could plainly see what was going on. 1 expect
ed every moment they would open fire, the more so as the
allied batteries were sending shells and rockets into the
north side incessantly, and making very fair practice. As
we got further on, near the splendid dock yard which has
cost the Russians so much toil and money, they actually
did send a flight ot shells, which bur.-t over our heads high
in the air; the fragments flew rar beyond us, but without
hurting any one as I could learn. Earlier in the morning
no less than five French soldiers were killed in the town
by tli** bursting of a single shell.
The dock yard and arsenal are very frne estanlc-hments,
the buildings equal to any in the world. There are no
less than six dry docks, the whole cut out of the solid
rock, w’hiclr rises some fifty or sixty feet high all round the
yard. AH the buildings are shattered most fearfully—there
is hardly a square yard without a shot hole. Enormous
numbers of guns were found in the vicinity, with large re
serve magazines of powder. One reason given why the
Russians do not answer the allied fire with more industry
is that they are short of ammunition.
The English camps are now in fine order and very
healthy? water is not very scarce, and is tolerably good,
although it would not do to inquire too. closely where the
supply drains from, as grave yards are numerous. A
small ‘‘smile” trdash of brandy helps it a little —at least I
drink it with more confidence when thus embellished. The
tent in which I live, as the guest of one of the officers, is
placed so as to cover a circular elevation three feet deep,
to which you descend by stone steps. This makes the tent
very roomy, and, to any one accustomed to do without a
bed, quite comfortable. The chief draw back to me, so
far. has been fleas! 1 will back the Crimean flea, which,
like that of paits of Texas and oiher quarters, is found in
the sand, against any other in the known World for weight,
industry and strength. I speak this en cannaissance de
cause, having slain from one hundred and titty to two hun
dred of them already. In size they are a shade less than
the common house fly! To night 1 shall have an iron bed
stead, which will improve matters. So far I have been on
th* ground. .
Three things have surpri ed me here. The first, is the
wide extent of ground over which operations have been
carried on—models, plans and descriptions had not pre
pared me lor the reality; the second is the enormous quan
tity ot shot and shell covering the earth in every direction,
for in returning from Sebastopol, by the ravine called the
Valley of the Shadow of Death, the track is absolutely pa
ved with them—there must be literally millions; and the
third and last thing is, the pel feet indifference to what is
going on since the lall of the town—this would astonish you
could you be set down hereof a sudden.
You will doubtless hear that the Russians are retreating,
for such a repert has been current here; but do not believe
a word ot it GortschakofF has a position ot immense
strength on the Mackenzie plateau and the upper Belbek,
and will not give it up without a struggle. He has still,af
ter all his losses, a force ot 200,000 men in the Crimea, in
nured to the climate and well acquainted with the country.
These are great advantages. So long as the Russians pos
sess the north side of Sebastopol it can be used as a species
of salve to their wounded pride, and if negotiations lor a
peace are soon to be opened, as many think, they can do it
with a better grace while still on the other side of the
bay. Ido not say that Gortschakoffwill not be forced to
evacuate the Crimea before winter fairly sets in, but there
is no sign that at present he is in a hurry about it.
The feeling between the French and English does not
appear to me to be cordial or at least not so much so as
I expected. This seems to be caused by the events of the
Bth in-t. The French, who expected a heavy loss at the
MalakofT, got off with a tiifling list ol casualties, as the
Russians abandoned it. At the Little Redan, w here for
some weeks tlie French said they could go in whenever
they chose, they lost no less than eight thousand men !
The English had their heavy work at the Great Redan,
where they found not only the regular defenders but the
garrison of tire Malakoff. Against this host, and the fright
ful storm of iron which smote th-un from unseen batteries,
they could not contend, more especially as no supports
were sent up, and they fell back. This was not satisfactory
to either party, but the next time they have woik to do I
believe that all will go'right. 1 know of no ill will be
tween authorities, but many English officers complain of
the tone and manner ot French colonels and generals to
wards them. These co onels and generals, although ex
cellent soldiers, are some of them a little rough and oil
! handed in their manner.
Every one speaks well of the Sardinians. After the af
fair of the Tchernaya, they claimed to come to the front
and they shared the losses of the French at the Little Re
I will write you again a3 soon as anything of interest
turns up. Until then au revoir. —iV. O. Picayune.
Melancholy Casualty. —We regret to learn, says the
Savannah Republican , of the tiih, from a Liter received
in this city, that Dr. Hugh O. Nesbit, of Marietta,came
to his deadi a few days since, in a sudden and most dis
tressing manner, lie was travelling on a visit to his
plantation in Early county, and was found lying insensi
ble in the road, his horse standing a short distance off. It
is supposed the horse took fright, ran < IF, and dashed him
ut with such force as to destroy all consciousness. lie
was taken up and conveyed toa neighboring house, where
lie died on the 20lh ultimo —two days after the occur
Dr. X. was a useful and highly esteemed citizen, and
has left an interesting family and a large circle of friends
to lament his sad and untimely death.
Senatorial Election in Effingham. —At the senator
ial election in Effingham, last Monday, Barnett Newton,
the Democratic candidate, was elected over .T. G. Morrell,
by five majority. It will be remembered that at the pre
vious election, it resulted in a tie.
On the fith inst., C<>l. W. A. Harris was elected in the
i county of Worth, to fill the vacancy in the Senate occa
sioned by the death of Major A. J. Siiine. lie received
every vote, having no opposition.
A Serious Loss —The splendid gin edifice of Wade
Hampton, Jr., in Washington county Miss., was recently
destroyed by fire, together with his steam corn and saw
mills, and 180 bal sos cotton. Loss $22,000.
Signs and Tokens. —The Indians regard a thin husk
on corn .us an indication of a mild winter. This being
tiue, the one just approaching will be of the gentle kind,
as the husks are said to be very thin.
IffijT* The London Times of the 23d of October again
announces the recall of Gen. Simpson. Gen. Cod ring ton
is spoken of as his successor. If we are to believe the
Times, a clean sweep is about being made of all the old
fogies in the chief commands in the Crimea.
Caution to Auctioneers. —An auctioneer in Detroit, a
few days ago. while iu the net of knocking down an ar
ticle to a purchaser, let the hammer slip from his hand,
and thus most unexpectedly struck a ladv in the crowd,
knocking her down. lie was arrested and tin and sf>, the
justice not allowing an auctioneer to knock down purchas
ers as well as the thiug they purchase.
t-sf* There is a village in Michigan where the church
bell is rung every day at twelve o’clock, for the people to
take their quinine, as they have the chilis and fe\er all
the year round.